ESPAUR Report 2021 to 2022 Chapter 5: NHS England Improvement and Assurance Schemes †
2. Primary Care—Reducing Avoidable Antibiotic Prescribing
2.1. The NHS System Oversight Framework
2.2. The NHS System Oversight Framework Metrics and Targets for 2021–2022
2.3. Performance against the NHS System Oversight Framework for 2021–2022
3. Community Pharmacy—The NHS Pharmacy Quality Scheme
3.1. The Pharmacy Quality Scheme
3.2. The Pharmacy Quality Scheme Metrics and Targets for 2021–2022
3.3. Performance agains the Pharmacy Quality Scheme for 2021–2022
4. Secondary Care—Reducing Avoidable Antibiotic Prescribing in NHS Trust Providers of Acute Care
4.1. The NHS Standard Contract
4.2. The NHS Standard Contract Metrics and Targets for 2021–2022
4.3. Performance against the NHS Standard Contract for 2021–2022
5. Secondary Care—Commissioning for Quality and Innovation (CQUIN)
6. NHS England Plans from 2022 to 2023
6.1. FutureNHS AMR Programme Workspace
6.2. NHS Oversight Framework from 2022 to 2023
6.3. NHS Standard Contrct from 2022 to 2023
6.4. NHS Commissioning for Quality and Innovation (CQUIN) Framework from 2022 to 2023
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
- UK Health Security Agency. English Surveillance Programme for Antimicrobial Utilisation and Resistance (ESPAUR) Report 2021 to 2022. UK Health Security Agency: London, November 2022. Available online: https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/english-surveillance-programme-antimicrobial-utilisation-and-resistance-espaur-report (accessed on 27 March 2023).
- NHS System Oversight Framework 2021/22. Available online: https://www.england.nhs.uk/publication/system-oversight-framework-2021-22/ (accessed on 27 March 2023).
- UK 5-Year Action Plan for Antimicrobial Resistance 2019 to 2024; Department of Health and Social Care: London, UK, 2019.
- Lloyd, D.C.; Harris, C.M.; Roberts, D.J. Specific therapeutic group age-sex related prescribing units (STAR-PUs): Weightings for analysing general practices’ prescribing in England. BMJ 1995, 311, 991–994. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Pharmacy Quality Scheme. Available online: https://www.england.nhs.uk/primary-care/pharmacy/pharmacy-quality-payments-scheme/ (accessed on 27 March 2023).
- TARGET Antibiotic Checklist. Version 2. Available online: https://elearning.rcgp.org.uk/pluginfile.php/172227/mod_book/chapter/447/antibiotic-checklist-v2.pdf (accessed on 27 March 2023).
- 2021/22 NHS Standard Contract. Available online: https://www.england.nhs.uk/nhs-standard-contract/previous-nhs-standard-contracts/21-22/ (accessed on 27 March 2023).
- FutureNHS Website. Available online: https://future.nhs.uk/ (accessed on 27 March 2023).
- NHS Oversight Framework 2022/23. Available online: https://www.england.nhs.uk/nhs-oversight-framework/ (accessed on 27 March 2023).
- 2022/23 NHS Standard Contract. Available online: https://www.england.nhs.uk/nhs-standard-contract/ (accessed on 27 March 2023).
- Budd, E.; Cramp, E.; Sharland, M.; Hand, K.; Howard, P.; Wilson, P.; Wilcox, M.; Muller-Pebody, B.; Hopkins, S. Adaptation of the WHO Essential Medicines List for national antibiotic stewardship policy in England: Being AWaRe. J. Antimicrob. Chemother. 2019, 74, 3384–3389. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- 2022/23 CQUIN. Available online: https://www.england.nhs.uk/nhs-standard-contract/cquin/2022-23-cquin/ (accessed on 27 March 2023).
|Code||AMR Metric Description||Target 1|
|SO44a||Antimicrobial resistance: total prescribing of antibiotics in primary care|
The number of antibiotic (antibacterial) items prescribed in primary care, divided by the item-based Specific Therapeutic Group Age-Sex Related Prescribing Unit (STAR-PU) per annum.
|At or less than 0.871 items per STAR-PU|
|SO44b||Antimicrobial resistance: proportion of broad-spectrum antibiotic prescribing in primary care|
The number of broad-spectrum antibiotic (antibacterial) items from co-amoxiclav, cephalosporin class, and fluoroquinolone class drugs as a percentage of the total number of antibacterial items prescribed in primary care.
|At or less than 10%|
|Contract Year||Target Reduction in Antibiotic Consumption from Calendar Year 2018 Baseline||Number of Trusts that Met Requirement||Antibiotic Consumption Value at Year End|
|2019–2020||1% reduction in total DDD 1 per 1000 admissions (cf. 2018)||43/145 (30%)||4612 DDD per 1000 admissions|
|2020–2021||Suspended due to COVID-19 pandemic||N/A||N/A|
|2021–2022||2% reduction in total DDD per 1000 admissions (cf. 2018)||69/138 (50%)||4465 DDD per 1000 admissions|
|2022–2023||4.5% reduction in DDD per 1000 admissions for antibiotics from the WHO “Watch” and “Reserve” categories (cf. 2018)||Current||Current|
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Hand, K.; Ashiru-Oredope, D.; Beech, E.; Bou-Antoun, S.; Damant, G.; Fleming, N.; Hayes, C.; Howard, P.; Jamieson, C.; McLeod, M.; Parekh, S.; Ramdut, P.; Squire, H.; Whitney, L.; Featherstone, J. ESPAUR Report 2021 to 2022 Chapter 5: NHS England Improvement and Assurance Schemes. Med. Sci. Forum 2022, 15, 16. https://doi.org/10.3390/msf2022015016
Hand K, Ashiru-Oredope D, Beech E, Bou-Antoun S, Damant G, Fleming N, Hayes C, Howard P, Jamieson C, McLeod M, Parekh S, Ramdut P, Squire H, Whitney L, Featherstone J. ESPAUR Report 2021 to 2022 Chapter 5: NHS England Improvement and Assurance Schemes. Medical Sciences Forum. 2022; 15(1):16. https://doi.org/10.3390/msf2022015016Chicago/Turabian Style
Hand, Kieran, Diane Ashiru-Oredope, Elizabeth Beech, Sabine Bou-Antoun, Gillian Damant, Naomi Fleming, Catherine Hayes, Philip Howard, Conor Jamieson, Monsey McLeod, Sejal Parekh, Preety Ramdut, Hanna Squire, Laura Whitney, and Jeff Featherstone. 2022. "ESPAUR Report 2021 to 2022 Chapter 5: NHS England Improvement and Assurance Schemes" Medical Sciences Forum 15, no. 1: 16. https://doi.org/10.3390/msf2022015016