Next Article in Journal
Maritime Public Health Cross Border Cooperation: Principality of Monaco and Italian Liguria Health Port Authority Best Practices
Previous Article in Journal
Prevention of Legionella Infections in Shipboard Medical Facilities: A Proposal to Include the Use POU Filters in the Preventive Plan
Font Type:
Arial Georgia Verdana
Font Size:
Aa Aa Aa
Line Spacing:
Column Width:

Monitoring for Native and Invasive Mosquitoes at the Limassol Port in Cyprus †

Laboratory of Vector Ecology and Applied Entomology, Joint Services Health Unit, British Forces Cyprus, RAF Akrotiri, BFPO 57 Akrotiri, Cyprus
Climate and Atmosphere Research Excellence Centre (CARE-C), The Cyprus Institute, 20 Konstantinou Kavafi Street, Aglantzia, 2121 Nicosia, Cyprus
Department of Parasitology, Entomology and Tropical Diseases, National School of Public Health, 11521 Athens, Greece
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Presented at the Public Health Congress on Maritime Transport and Ports 2022: sailing to the post-COVID-19 era, Athens, Greece, 21–22 October 2022.
Med. Sci. Forum 2022, 13(1), 21;
Published: 7 December 2022

1. Introduction

Throughout human history, human mobility between ports has been responsible for the transcontinental spread of vector-borne diseases such as the bubonic plague and vectors such as fleas, sandflies, and mosquitoes being transported even to small oceanic islands. In May 2005, the fifty-eighth World Health Assembly adopted the new International Health Regulations (IHR), which came into force in July 2007. One of the areas stressed in the IHR is building capacity for vector surveillance and control at points of entry and up to (at least) a 400 m perimeter around them. Joint Services Health Unit (JSHU), British Forces, Cyprus is responsible for monitoring and controlling the mosquito species in the UK Sovereign Base Areas in Cyprus (SBAs) and due to the close proximity of the SBAs to Limassol also monitors the Limassol port for mosquitoes. Limassol port is the main port for the island of Cyprus. The types of vessels regularly docking at Limassol port are container ships (29%), general cargo (10%), passenger ships (7%), pleasure crafts (5%), and offshore supply ships (5%). The maximum length of the vessels recorded to having entered this port is 363 m. The maximum draught is 13.7 m. The maximum deadweight is 85786 t.

2. Material and Methods

The port of Limassol, Cyprus was surveyed over seven years (2015 to date) for immature and adult mosquitoes using a variety of mosquito survey tools such as larval dipping, EVS CO2 traps, Mosquito Magnet Traps, BG sentinel trap with BG lure, and oviposition traps.

3. Results

This work described the monitoring efforts at the port of Limassol. A range of artificial and natural breeding habitats including marshes and saltmarshes are present in close proximity to the port. Twelve species of mosquito were found to be associated with the Limassol port, namely Aedes detritus, Aedes caspius, Aedes mariae, Aedes cretinus, Anopheles claviger, Anopheles saharovi, Anophele algeriensis, Culex perexiguus, Culex pipiens, Culex hortensis, Culiseta annulata and Culiseta loniareolata; all the mosquito species were native and common to Cyprus.

4. Discussion

Despite considerable sampling effort over seven years, to date, no invasive imported mosquitoes were found. We should not, however, become complacent regarding the potential for importation of invasive mosquitoes in the future. This work provides baseline information on mosquito populations at the Limassol port and provides information on the integrated vector management scheme run by the Joint Services Health Unit, British Forces Cyprus at the Akrotiri peninsula and wider Limassol port area.

Author Contributions

A.F.M.: Conseptualization, Methodology and Analaysis. K.A.: validation, methodology, Manuscript preparation, field study, experimentation, analysis of results, writing up manuscript. K.S.: funding, writing the manuscript. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.


Joint Services Health Unit, Internal funds.

Institutional Review Board Statement

This research did not require ethical approval.

Informed Consent Statement

Not applicable.

Data Availability Statement

Not applicable.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.
Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Share and Cite

MDPI and ACS Style

Martinou, A.F.; Athanasiou, K.; Shawcross, K. Monitoring for Native and Invasive Mosquitoes at the Limassol Port in Cyprus. Med. Sci. Forum 2022, 13, 21.

AMA Style

Martinou AF, Athanasiou K, Shawcross K. Monitoring for Native and Invasive Mosquitoes at the Limassol Port in Cyprus. Medical Sciences Forum. 2022; 13(1):21.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Martinou, Angeliki F., Katerina Athanasiou, and Kevin Shawcross. 2022. "Monitoring for Native and Invasive Mosquitoes at the Limassol Port in Cyprus" Medical Sciences Forum 13, no. 1: 21.

Article Metrics

Back to TopTop