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AppliedChem, Volume 2, Issue 1 (March 2022) – 2 articles

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18 pages, 3464 KiB  
Article
Application of a Universal Calibration Method for True Molar Mass Determination of Fluoro-Derivatized Technical Lignins by Size-Exclusion Chromatography
AppliedChem 2022, 2(1), 30-47; https://doi.org/10.3390/appliedchem2010002 - 03 Mar 2022
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Abstract
The determination of the true molar mass distribution (MMD) of lignin is highly important to understand the physicochemical characteristics for lignin-based value-added applications. It is imperative to develop a universal method to quantify accurate MMD of lignin using size exclusion chromatography (SEC), as [...] Read more.
The determination of the true molar mass distribution (MMD) of lignin is highly important to understand the physicochemical characteristics for lignin-based value-added applications. It is imperative to develop a universal method to quantify accurate MMD of lignin using size exclusion chromatography (SEC), as the conventional method with polymer standards provides irregular MMD results. This work aims to evaluate the MMD of five lignin samples (Protobind 1000, Organosolv, Indulin, Pine Kraft and Eucalyptus Kraft) in THF. Different derivatization methods (acetylation, fluorobenzylation and fluorobenzoylation) were performed. FTIR and 19F NMR analyses were used to follow derivatization. The MMDs of derivatized and underivatized lignins were determined by the conventional method and compared with the universal calibration method developed using intrinsic viscosity. The 19F NMR spectra provided the information to quantify the degree of substitution of lignin hydroxyl groups, to calculate the true molar mass of the derivatives of lignin monomers. The obtained MMDs values for all the derivatized lignin by universal calibration were found to be three to five times higher than that of the conventional calibration. The polydispersity values obtained with the acetylation method were higher than the fluoro-derivatives. The results demonstrated that fluoro-derivatization is an appropriate method to apply to higher molar mass technical lignins and lacks solubility and aggregation issues. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in AppliedChem)
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29 pages, 922 KiB  
Review
Comprehensive Review of the Components in Cat’s Claw (Uncaria tomentosa) and Their Antibacterial Activity
AppliedChem 2022, 2(1), 1-29; https://doi.org/10.3390/appliedchem2010001 - 22 Feb 2022
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Abstract
Cat’s claw (Uncaria tomentosa (Willd. ex Schults) DC.), a plant that is exceptionally rich in phytochemicals, has been used for centuries by the indigenous people of South and Central America as a therapeutic and is currently widely exported for medicinal purposes. Extracts [...] Read more.
Cat’s claw (Uncaria tomentosa (Willd. ex Schults) DC.), a plant that is exceptionally rich in phytochemicals, has been used for centuries by the indigenous people of South and Central America as a therapeutic and is currently widely exported for medicinal purposes. Extracts and individual components have shown considerable potential as antibacterials in the literature. The purpose of this review is twofold: first, to provide a substantiated, comprehensive collection of the known chemical constituents of U. tomentosa, including their detailed structures; second, to identify those components that offer some promise as antibacterials based on the research to date. Bacterial resistance to currently available antibiotics continues to increase and is widely recognized as an impending, potentially catastrophic, problem. There is research to suggest that U. tomentosa components may have antibacterial potential individually or synergistically with established antibiotics against microbes, including Borrelia burgdorferi, the causative agent of Lyme disease. It is our intention that this review will provide a valuable resource to investigators in search of new antimicrobials to meet the daunting challenge of antibiotic resistance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in AppliedChem)
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