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Knowledge, Volume 4, Issue 1 (March 2024) – 6 articles

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24 pages, 1680 KiB  
Article
Resampling to Classify Rare Attack Tactics in UWF-ZeekData22
by Sikha S. Bagui, Dustin Mink, Subhash C. Bagui and Sakthivel Subramaniam
Knowledge 2024, 4(1), 96-119; https://doi.org/10.3390/knowledge4010006 - 14 Mar 2024
Viewed by 504
Abstract
One of the major problems in classifying network attack tactics is the imbalanced nature of data. Typical network datasets have an extremely high percentage of normal or benign traffic and machine learners are skewed toward classes with more data; hence, attack data remain [...] Read more.
One of the major problems in classifying network attack tactics is the imbalanced nature of data. Typical network datasets have an extremely high percentage of normal or benign traffic and machine learners are skewed toward classes with more data; hence, attack data remain incorrectly classified. This paper addresses the class imbalance problem using resampling techniques on a newly created dataset, UWF-ZeekData22. This is the first dataset with tactic labels, labeled as per the MITRE ATT&CK framework. This dataset contains about half benign data and half attack tactic data, but specific tactics have a meager number of occurrences within the attack tactics. Our objective in this paper was to use resampling techniques to classify two rare tactics, privilege escalation and credential access, never before classified. The study also looks at the order of oversampling and undersampling. Varying resampling ratios were used with oversampling techniques such as BSMOTE and SVM-SMOTE and random undersampling without replacement was used. Based on the results, it can be observed that the order of oversampling and undersampling matters and, in many cases, even an oversampling ratio of 10% of the majority data is enough to obtain the best results. Full article
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11 pages, 507 KiB  
Article
The Impact of a Computing Curriculum Accessible to Students with ASD on the Development of Computing Artifacts
by Abdu Arslanyilmaz, Margaret L. Briley, Gregory V. Boerio, Katie Petridis, Ramlah Ilyas and Feng Yu
Knowledge 2024, 4(1), 85-95; https://doi.org/10.3390/knowledge4010005 - 5 Mar 2024
Viewed by 760
Abstract
There has been no study examining the effectiveness of an accessible computing curriculum for students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) on their learning of computational thinking concepts (CTCs), flow control, data representation, abstraction, user interactivity, synchronization, parallelism, and logic. This study aims to [...] Read more.
There has been no study examining the effectiveness of an accessible computing curriculum for students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) on their learning of computational thinking concepts (CTCs), flow control, data representation, abstraction, user interactivity, synchronization, parallelism, and logic. This study aims to investigate the effects of an accessible computing curriculum for students with ASD on their learning of CTCs as measured by the scores of 312 computing artifacts developed by two groups of students with ASD. Conducted among 21 seventh-grade students with ASD (10 in the experimental group and 11 in the control), this study involved collecting data on the computing projects of these students over 24 instructional sessions. Group classification was considered the independent variable, and computing project scores were set as the dependent variables. The results showed that the original curriculum was statistically significantly more effective for students in learning logic than the accessible one when all seven CTCs were examined as a single construct. Both curriculums were statistically significantly effective in progressively improving students’ learning of data representation, abstraction, synchronization, parallelism, and all CTCs as a single construct when examining the gradual increase in their computing artifact scores over the 24 sessions. Both curriculums were statistically significantly effective in increasing the scores of synchronization and all CTCs as a single construct when the correlations between CTCs and sessions for individual groups were analyzed. The findings underscore that students with ASD can effectively learn computing skills through accessible or standard curriculums, provided that adjustments are made during delivery. Full article
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17 pages, 254 KiB  
Article
The Curriculum in IDD Healthcare (CIDDH) eLearn Course: Evidence of Continued Effectiveness Using the Streamlined Evaluation and Analysis Method (SEAM)
by John P. Bartkowski, Xiaohe Xu and Katherine Klee
Knowledge 2024, 4(1), 68-84; https://doi.org/10.3390/knowledge4010004 - 21 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1107
Abstract
Medical professionals are rarely trained to treat the unique healthcare needs and health disparities of people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). The Curriculum in IDD Healthcare (CIDDH) eLearn course aims to redress gaps in the delivery of medical care to people with [...] Read more.
Medical professionals are rarely trained to treat the unique healthcare needs and health disparities of people with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD). The Curriculum in IDD Healthcare (CIDDH) eLearn course aims to redress gaps in the delivery of medical care to people with IDD. An initial comprehensive evaluation of CIDDH in-person training content had previously underscored its knowledge and skill transfer efficacy for Mississippi healthcare providers. Training content has recently become available to medical professionals nationwide through an online self-paced modality to address physicians’ IDD education needs. This study introduces and applies a new evaluation framework called SEAM (Streamlined Evaluation and Analysis Method) that offers a promising avenue for rendering a follow-up appraisal after rigorous evidence of program effectiveness has been previously established. SEAM reduces the data-reporting burden on trainees and maximizes instructor–trainee contact time by relying on an abbreviated post-only questionnaire focused on subjective trainee appraisals. It further reduces methodological and analytical complexity to enhance programmatic self-assessment and facilitate sound data interpretation when an external evaluator is unavailable. Ratings from a small sample of early-cohort trainees provide an important test of effectiveness during CIDDH’s transition to online learning for clinicians nationwide. Using SEAM, CIDDH achieved high ratings from this initial wave of trainees across various evaluative domains. The study concludes by highlighting several promising implications for CIDDH and SEAM. Full article
17 pages, 1235 KiB  
Article
Web Mining of Online Resources for German Labor Market Research and Education: Finding the Ground Truth?
by Andreas Fischer and Jens Dörpinghaus
Knowledge 2024, 4(1), 51-67; https://doi.org/10.3390/knowledge4010003 - 19 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1779
Abstract
The labor market is highly dependent on vocational and academic education, training, retraining, and further education in order to master challenges such as advancing digitalization and sustainability. Further training is a key factor in ensuring a qualified workforce, the employability of all employees, [...] Read more.
The labor market is highly dependent on vocational and academic education, training, retraining, and further education in order to master challenges such as advancing digitalization and sustainability. Further training is a key factor in ensuring a qualified workforce, the employability of all employees, and, thus, national competitiveness and innovation. In the contribution at hand, we explore an innovative way to derive knowledge about learning pathways by connecting the dots from different data sources of the German labor market. In particular, we focus on the web mining of online resources for German labor market research and education, such as online advertisements, information portals, and official government websites. A key question for working with different data sources is how to find the ground truth and common data structures that can be used to make the data interoperable. We discuss how to classify and summarize web data from different platforms and which methods can be used for extracting data, entities and relationships from online resources on the German labor market to build a network of educational pathways. Our proposed solution is based on the classification of occupations (KldB) and related document codes (DKZ), and combines natural language processing and knowledge graph technologies. Our research provides the foundation for further investigation into educational pathways and linked data for labor market research. While our work focuses on German data, it is also useful for other German-speaking countries and could easily be extended to other languages such as English. Full article
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24 pages, 1799 KiB  
Review
Uncovering Challenges and Pitfalls in Identifying Threshold Concepts: A Comprehensive Review
by Paulo R. M. Correia, Ivan A. I. Soida, Izabela de Souza and Manolita C. Lima
Knowledge 2024, 4(1), 27-50; https://doi.org/10.3390/knowledge4010002 - 30 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1309
Abstract
The exploration of threshold concepts, which represent a transformed way of understanding, interpreting, or viewing something necessary for a learner’s progress, has significantly influenced teaching and learning in higher education, gaining broad acceptance in academic circles. Despite widespread enthusiasm, the scientific development of [...] Read more.
The exploration of threshold concepts, which represent a transformed way of understanding, interpreting, or viewing something necessary for a learner’s progress, has significantly influenced teaching and learning in higher education, gaining broad acceptance in academic circles. Despite widespread enthusiasm, the scientific development of the field faces obstacles, especially epistemological and ontological uncertainties, directly implying the reliability of identification techniques and, by extension, raising questions about the validity of previous findings. This comprehensive review delves into 60 articles sourced from the Web of Science database to scrutinize the literature on threshold concept identification. The findings confirm the adaptability of threshold concepts across diverse disciplines. However, the fluid definition inherent in these concepts introduces ontological challenges, influencing biases in the identification process. The review highlights the diverse identification methods influenced by knowledge area specificities, community affinities, and research practice traditions. A diagram depicting the methods employed to identify threshold concepts is offered to highlight five central decisions to be considered. Acknowledging professors as pivotal mediators adept at navigating the epistemological and ontological dimensions of threshold concepts while integrating theoretical and applied knowledge, this study enhances our nuanced understanding of threshold concept identification. Emphasizing methodological validity and reliability, it acknowledges the crucial role of experienced educators in this issue and presents future perspectives for advancing current research, fostering the maturation of the field. Full article
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26 pages, 930 KiB  
Article
Agriculture Named Entity Recognition—Towards FAIR, Reusable Scholarly Contributions in Agriculture
by Jennifer D’Souza
Knowledge 2024, 4(1), 1-26; https://doi.org/10.3390/knowledge4010001 - 19 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1054
Abstract
We introduce the Open Research Knowledge Graph Agriculture Named Entity Recognition (the ORKG Agri-NER) corpus and service for contribution-centric scientific entity extraction and classification. The ORKG Agri-NER corpus is a seminal benchmark for the evaluation of contribution-centric scientific entity extraction and classification in [...] Read more.
We introduce the Open Research Knowledge Graph Agriculture Named Entity Recognition (the ORKG Agri-NER) corpus and service for contribution-centric scientific entity extraction and classification. The ORKG Agri-NER corpus is a seminal benchmark for the evaluation of contribution-centric scientific entity extraction and classification in the agricultural domain. It comprises titles of scholarly papers that are available as Open Access articles on a major publishing platform. We describe the creation of this corpus and highlight the obtained findings in terms of the following features: (1) a generic conceptual formalism focused on capturing scientific entities in agriculture that reflect the direct contribution of a work; (2) a performance benchmark for named entity recognition of scientific entities in the agricultural domain by empirically evaluating various state-of-the-art sequence labeling neural architectures and transformer models; and (3) a delineated 3-step automatic entity resolution procedure for the resolution of the scientific entities to an authoritative ontology, specifically AGROVOC that is released in the Linked Open Vocabularies cloud. With this work we aim to provide a strong foundation for future work on the automatic discovery of scientific entities in the scholarly literature of the agricultural domain. Full article
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