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BioMed, Volume 2, Issue 2 (June 2022) – 8 articles

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12 pages, 569 KiB  
Perspective
Low Back Pain—A Disease or Condition of Impaired Functional Health? Definition-Inherent Consequences for the Comprehensive Care of Back Pain Patients
by Kurt Ammer, Gerold Ebenbichler and Thomas Bochdansky
BioMed 2022, 2(2), 270-281; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomed2020022 - 08 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3764
Abstract
This article provides arguments for and against the classification of low back pain (LBP) as a disease or health condition. Based on the basic definitions of health, disease, illness, sickness, infirmity, and pain, little support has been found for the idea that LBP [...] Read more.
This article provides arguments for and against the classification of low back pain (LBP) as a disease or health condition. Based on the basic definitions of health, disease, illness, sickness, infirmity, and pain, little support has been found for the idea that LBP represents a specific disease entity. Although specified back pains do not signify disease, the pain experienced may be caused by specific diseases, such as inflammation, neuropathy, fractures, or tumors. Common findings in medical imaging indicate disk herniation, degenerative joints with or without signs of inflammation in the facet joints, and spinal stenosis present in a relatively high proportion of pain-free persons. The same applies to hypomobile segmental dysfunction (joint blockage) and myofascial syndrome. Both functional entities play a core role in manual medicine but are common in asymptomatic subjects, showing low–moderate reliability and failing to meet the classification requirements of disease. Reducing disability through interventions targeting a disease’s structural/functional conditions cannot be achieved since the relationship between pathological changes and activity restrictions/participation is indirect in most cases. Considering LBP as a condition shifts the goal of treatment from the disease to the patient’s optimal performance in activities/participation and allows them to be self-determined and independent. Full article
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15 pages, 3861 KiB  
Article
A Novel Augmented Reality Mobile-Based Application for Biomechanical Measurement
by Shahin Basiratzadeh, Edward D. Lemaire and Natalie Baddour
BioMed 2022, 2(2), 255-269; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomed2020021 - 28 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2150
Abstract
Human posture and range of motion (ROM) measurements are important health indicators for identifying abnormalities from various disorders (e.g., scoliosis, musculoskeletal disorders, pain syndromes). A viable real-time mobile application for measuring body posture and ROM is currently lacking. To address this need, a [...] Read more.
Human posture and range of motion (ROM) measurements are important health indicators for identifying abnormalities from various disorders (e.g., scoliosis, musculoskeletal disorders, pain syndromes). A viable real-time mobile application for measuring body posture and ROM is currently lacking. To address this need, a novel Android smartphone augmented-reality-based application was developed and evaluated to enable real-time AprilTag2 marker measurement at the point of patient contact (Biomechanical Augmented Reality-Marker, BAR-M). Mobile app performance was evaluated on a body opponent bag (BOB) and 15 healthy participants by comparing smartphone app and Vicon motion analysis output (pelvis, shoulder, arm, torso angles). A Samsung Galaxy smartphone recorded live video, calculated AprilTag orientations and angle of “a line connecting the center of two tags”, and displayed outcomes in real time. For the BOB test, the absolute difference between Vicon and smartphone angles were 0.09° ± 0.05° for hip, 0.09° ± 0.06° for shoulder, and 0.69° for arm abduction. For the participant test, the absolute mean angle differences were 1.70° ± 0.23° for hip, 1.34° ± 0.27° for shoulder, and 11.18° ± 3.68° for arm abduction. Overall, the app obtained valid and reliable angle measurements for postural and ROM assessments using the smartphone’s front camera. Arm abduction results were affected by clothing movement that caused Vicon markers to move differently from AprilTag markers. Thus, with appropriate measurement methods, this real-time smartphone app is a viable tool to facilitate immediate clinical decision making based on human posture and ROM assessments. Full article
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17 pages, 1791 KiB  
Article
The Secreted Metabolome of Hela Cells under Effect of Crotamine, a Cell-Penetrating Peptide from a Rattlesnake Using NMR-Based Metabolomics Analyses
by Mônika Aparecida Coronado, Fábio Rogério de Moraes, Bruna Stuqui, Marília Freitas Calmon, Raphael Josef Eberle, Paula Rahal and Raghuvir Krishnaswamy Arni
BioMed 2022, 2(2), 238-254; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomed2020020 - 22 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2396
Abstract
Sequestering and reprogramming of cellular metabolism represents one of the principal hallmarks of several cells. Antimicrobial peptides have been shown to exhibit selective anticancer activities. In this study, the secreted metabolome of HeLa cells under action of the antimicrobial peptide Crotamine from the [...] Read more.
Sequestering and reprogramming of cellular metabolism represents one of the principal hallmarks of several cells. Antimicrobial peptides have been shown to exhibit selective anticancer activities. In this study, the secreted metabolome of HeLa cells under action of the antimicrobial peptide Crotamine from the venom of the South American rattlesnake Crotalus durissus terrificus was evaluated. Crotamine has been shown to be selective for highly proliferating cells and is able to extend the in vivo lifespan. The present study using a cell line of cervical cancer, HeLa cells, provide insights into how Crotamine acts in cell metabolism. NMR spectroscopy was used to identify and quantify relative metabolite levels, which are associated with Crotamine uptake. Statistical analysis reveals that Crotamine dramatically affects metabolites related to glycolysis, metabolism and biosynthesis of amino acids and pyruvate metabolism. The developed machine learning model is found to be robust by ROC curve analysis, suggesting that the metabolic state of HeLa cells treated with Crotamine is different from the control samples. To account for metabolite levels, it is suggested that Crotamine would have to act on glycolysis, which, in turn, affects several other metabolic pathways, such as, glutathione metabolism, TCA cycle and pyruvate metabolism. The observed metabolic changes shed light into the mode of Crotamine function. Full article
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28 pages, 1023 KiB  
Review
Berry Anthocyanins in Rodent and Human Obesity and Diabetes: A Review of the Evidence
by Joseph Riordan and Patrick Solverson
BioMed 2022, 2(2), 210-237; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomed2020019 - 16 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2413
Abstract
Obesity in America is a public health crisis that will continue to impact the country at an individual, social, and economic level unless we address the disease with dietary modifications to reduce or prevent its development. Nutritional interventions designed for obesity treatment are [...] Read more.
Obesity in America is a public health crisis that will continue to impact the country at an individual, social, and economic level unless we address the disease with dietary modifications to reduce or prevent its development. Nutritional interventions designed for obesity treatment are constantly evolving. Berries, which are a rich source of polyphenols, have been suggested as a potential bioactive component, as they have been reported to have anti-obesity effects. Therefore, this review will provide an overview of epidemiological studies to introduce the idea of berries for health promotion. Studies conducted in both rodents and humans are summarized. This review includes an overview of the physiological responses associated with berry consumption, including the effects on the composition of the gut microbiota in humans and rodents, which demonstrate how berry consumption may provide a protective effect against obesity and its related comorbidities. However, these findings have yet to be translated into feasible, long-term nutrition intervention in humans. Future research into different berries and their components will identify effective, accessible functional food options that can augment nutritional interventions. Full article
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11 pages, 20153 KiB  
Article
Augmented Sensitivity of At-Home Rapid SARS-CoV-2 Antigen Test (RAT) Kits with Computer Vision: A Framework and Proof of Concept
by Kim Miikki, Lars Miikki, Jenny Wiklund and Alp Karakoç
BioMed 2022, 2(2), 199-209; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomed2020018 - 14 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3015
Abstract
At-home rapid antigen test (RAT) kits for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are valuable public health tools during the present coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. They provide fast identification of coronavirus infection, which can help to reduce the transmission rates and burden [...] Read more.
At-home rapid antigen test (RAT) kits for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are valuable public health tools during the present coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic. They provide fast identification of coronavirus infection, which can help to reduce the transmission rates and burden on the healthcare system. However, they have lower sensitivity compared to the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) tests. One of the reasons for the lower sensitivity is due to the RAT color indicators being indistinct or invisible to the naked eye after the measurements. For this reason, we present a proof of concept of a novel approach, through which we investigated anonymously provided at-home RAT kit results by using our in-house open-source image processing scripts developed for affordable Raspberry Pi computer and Raspberry Pi HQ camera systems. Therefore, we aimed at minimizing the human-related analysis errors for such kits and believe that the present computer vision-based assessment framework can contribute to reducing delayed quarantines of infected individuals and the spread of the current infectious disease. Full article
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18 pages, 2929 KiB  
Review
A Comprehensive Review on the Management of COVID-19-Associated Mucormycosis (CAM): The New Basics
by Divyam Girdhar and Ekta Manocha
BioMed 2022, 2(2), 181-198; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomed2020017 - 12 Apr 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2721
Abstract
The outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), which comes with several comorbidities, was declared a pandemic in early 2020 by World Health Organization (WHO). Glucocorticoids that are used in severe cases of COVID-19 as therapeutic measures may lead to opportunistic fungal infections in such [...] Read more.
The outbreak of coronavirus disease (COVID-19), which comes with several comorbidities, was declared a pandemic in early 2020 by World Health Organization (WHO). Glucocorticoids that are used in severe cases of COVID-19 as therapeutic measures may lead to opportunistic fungal infections in such patients. Mucormycosis is one of these infections and mostly occurs in immune-compromised patients such as those who undergo transplant surgeries. However, it rarely develops in COVID-19 patients, although many cases of COVID-19-associated mucormycosis (CAM) have been found in developing nations, like India. CAM usually develops between 15 days to a few months after hospitalization or complete recovery from coronavirus disease. It is an uncommon yet serious infection that further agitates the severe symptoms of COVID-19 disease. Patients with diabetes mellitus and other comorbidities are likely to be at a higher risk for developing mucormycosis. Concurrent glucocorticoid therapy possibly heightens the risk as it increases blood glucose levels. Dentists, as frontline healthcare workers, maybe the first to be presented with oral manifestations and therefore need to pay special attention. In light of the available pieces of evidence, this review highlights the basics of the underlying condition starting from the pathology, causative factors, and clinical manifestations, including the oral cavity, to diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of mucormycosis with both conventional and advanced approaches. We limited this study to the basic and established methods of CAM management and treatment along with the statistical updates. Other antifungal drugs and novel microbiological peptides are in development and need future studies for their elucidation. Full article
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11 pages, 583 KiB  
Review
The Impact of Food Insecurity on Glycemic Control among Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes
by Barbara Gordon
BioMed 2022, 2(2), 170-180; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomed2020016 - 30 Mar 2022
Viewed by 2563
Abstract
The global prevalence of diabetes exceeds half a billion people globally. The Diabetes Prevention Program, a 27-site, randomized clinical trial demonstrated that dietary and other lifestyle changes can prevent more than half (58%) of diabetes cases. Implementation of dietary recommendations can be challenging [...] Read more.
The global prevalence of diabetes exceeds half a billion people globally. The Diabetes Prevention Program, a 27-site, randomized clinical trial demonstrated that dietary and other lifestyle changes can prevent more than half (58%) of diabetes cases. Implementation of dietary recommendations can be challenging for those who are not food secure. In a review on the intersection of food insecurity (FI) and diabetes (date range through May 2014), the authors concluded that the lack of access to sufficient, safe, and nutritious food impairs the ability of those with diabetes to implement the dietary modifications required to manage the condition. A challenge to diabetes self-management among this population was adverse social determinants of health. This study assessed insights gleaned about the association between FI and suboptimal glycemic control among adults with type 2 diabetes from research published after May 2014. Conflicting evidence emerged regarding the impact of FI on HbA1c levels among adults with type 2 diabetes. Glycemic control was impacted by social and medical factors. Potential areas for further research are also presented. Full article
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37 pages, 14711 KiB  
Article
A Correlation Study of COVID-19 in Europe Considering Different Vaccines, Age Groups and Variants Including Delta and Omicron
by Hasan Iqbal, Muhammad Umair, Syeda Amna Rizvi and Muhammad Aamir Cheema
BioMed 2022, 2(2), 133-169; https://doi.org/10.3390/biomed2020015 - 26 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 4311
Abstract
Vaccination has been the most effective approach in the fight against COVID-19 pandemic. More than half of the world’s population has been vaccinated and sufficient data is available to analyze the impact of COVID-19 vaccines around the globe. In this paper, we present [...] Read more.
Vaccination has been the most effective approach in the fight against COVID-19 pandemic. More than half of the world’s population has been vaccinated and sufficient data is available to analyze the impact of COVID-19 vaccines around the globe. In this paper, we present a correlation analysis between administered vaccine doses and COVID-19 cases/deaths in Europe. The correlation analysis is performed considering different types of vaccinations, different age groups and different COVID-19 variants (including the prevalent Delta and Omicron variants). We present a detailed analysis for 30 European countries giving various insights such as efficacy of six different vaccines, effect of vaccinating different age groups and how the correlation evolves as different COVID-19 variants emerge. Full article
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