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BioTech, Volume 13, Issue 2 (June 2024) – 8 articles

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16 pages, 1553 KiB  
Article
Valorization of Wheat Bran by Co-Cultivation of Fungi with Integrated Hydrolysis to Provide Sugars and Animal Feed
by Fabian Mittermeier, Fabienne Fischer, Sebastian Hauke, Peter Hirschmann and Dirk Weuster-Botz
BioTech 2024, 13(2), 15; https://doi.org/10.3390/biotech13020015 - 18 May 2024
Viewed by 197
Abstract
The enzymatic hydrolysis of agricultural residues like wheat bran enables the valorization of otherwise unused carbon sources for biotechnological processes. The co-culture of Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma reesei with wheat bran particles as substrate produces an enzyme set consisting of xylanases, amylases, and [...] Read more.
The enzymatic hydrolysis of agricultural residues like wheat bran enables the valorization of otherwise unused carbon sources for biotechnological processes. The co-culture of Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma reesei with wheat bran particles as substrate produces an enzyme set consisting of xylanases, amylases, and cellulases that is suitable to degrade lignocellulosic biomass to sugar monomers (D-glucose, D-xylose, and L-arabinose). An integrated one-pot process for enzyme production followed by hydrolysis in stirred tank bioreactors resulted in hydrolysates with overall sugar concentrations of 32.3 g L−1 and 24.4 g L−1 at a 25 L and a 1000 L scale, respectively, within 86 h. Furthermore, the residual solid biomass consisting of fermented wheat bran with protein-rich fungal mycelium displays improved nutritional properties for usage as animal feed due to its increased content of sugars, protein, and fat. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Agricultural and Food Biotechnology)
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24 pages, 978 KiB  
Review
Challenges for the Post-Market Environmental Monitoring in the European Union Imposed by Novel Applications of Genetically Modified and Genome-Edited Organisms
by Marion Dolezel, Andreas Lang, Anita Greiter, Marianne Miklau, Michael Eckerstorfer, Andreas Heissenberger, Eva Willée and Wiebke Züghart
BioTech 2024, 13(2), 14; https://doi.org/10.3390/biotech13020014 - 15 May 2024
Viewed by 601
Abstract
Information on the state of the environment is important to achieve the objectives of the European Green Deal, including the EU’s Biodiversity Strategy for 2030. The existing regulatory provisions for genetically modified organisms (GMOs) foresee an obligatory post-market environmental monitoring (PMEM) of potential [...] Read more.
Information on the state of the environment is important to achieve the objectives of the European Green Deal, including the EU’s Biodiversity Strategy for 2030. The existing regulatory provisions for genetically modified organisms (GMOs) foresee an obligatory post-market environmental monitoring (PMEM) of potential adverse effects upon release into the environment. So far, GMO monitoring activities have focused on genetically modified crops. With the advent of new genomic techniques (NGT), novel GMO applications are being developed and may be released into a range of different, non-agricultural environments with potential implications for ecosystems and biodiversity. This challenges the current monitoring concepts and requires adaptation of existing monitoring programs to meet monitoring requirements. While the incorporation of existing biodiversity monitoring programs into GMO monitoring at the national level is important, additional monitoring activities will also be required. Using case examples, we highlight that monitoring requirements for novel GMO applications differ from those of GM crop plants previously authorized for commercial use in the European Union. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Biotechnology)
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24 pages, 1620 KiB  
Review
Proteases: Importance, Immobilization Protocols, Potential of Activated Carbon as Support, and the Importance of Modifying Supports for Immobilization
by Mateus Pereira Flores Santos, Evaldo Cardozo de Souza Junior, Carolina Villadóniga, Diego Vallés, Susana Castro-Sowinski, Renata Cristina Ferreira Bonomo and Cristiane Martins Veloso
BioTech 2024, 13(2), 13; https://doi.org/10.3390/biotech13020013 - 30 Apr 2024
Viewed by 516
Abstract
Although enzymes have been used for thousands of years, their application in industrial processes has gained importance since the 20th century due to technological and scientific advances in several areas, including biochemistry [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Industrial Biotechnology)
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15 pages, 1300 KiB  
Article
Eco-Friendly Sanitization of Indoor Environments: Effectiveness of Thyme Essential Oil in Controlling Bioaerosol Levels and Disinfecting Surfaces
by Daniela Sateriale, Giuseppina Forgione, Giuseppa Anna De Cristofaro, Leonardo Continisio, Chiara Pagliuca, Roberta Colicchio, Paola Salvatore, Marina Paolucci and Caterina Pagliarulo
BioTech 2024, 13(2), 12; https://doi.org/10.3390/biotech13020012 - 26 Apr 2024
Viewed by 571
Abstract
Bioaerosols and pathogens in indoor workplaces and residential environments are the primary culprits of several infections. Techniques for sanitizing air and surfaces typically involve the use of UV rays or chemical sanitizers, which may release chemical residues harmful to human health. Essential oils, [...] Read more.
Bioaerosols and pathogens in indoor workplaces and residential environments are the primary culprits of several infections. Techniques for sanitizing air and surfaces typically involve the use of UV rays or chemical sanitizers, which may release chemical residues harmful to human health. Essential oils, natural substances derived from plants, which exhibit broad antimicrobial properties, could be a viable alternative for air and surface sanitation. The objective of this study has been to investigate the efficacy of thyme essential oil (TEO) in environmental sanitation processes. In Vitro assays through agar well diffusion, disk volatilization and tube dilution methods revealed significant antimicrobial activity of TEO 100% against foodborne and environmental isolates, with both bacteriostatic/fungistatic and bactericidal/fungicidal effects. Therefore, aqueous solutions of TEO 2.5% and 5% were formulated for air sanitation through nebulization and surface disinfection via direct contact. Bioaerosol samples and surface swabs were analyzed before and after sanitation, demonstrating the efficacy of aqueous solutions of TEO in reducing mesophilic and psychrophilic bacteria and environmental fungi levels in both air and on surfaces. The obtained results prove the antimicrobial potential of aqueous solutions of TEO in improving indoor air quality and surface cleanliness, suggesting thyme essential oil as an effective and safe natural sanitizer with minimal environmental impact compared to dangerous chemical disinfectants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Biotechnology)
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16 pages, 3070 KiB  
Article
Development of the 12-Base Short Dimeric Myogenetic Oligodeoxynucleotide That Induces Myogenic Differentiation
by Koji Umezawa, Rena Ikeda, Taiichi Sakamoto, Yuya Enomoto, Yuma Nihashi, Sayaka Shinji, Takeshi Shimosato, Hiroshi Kagami and Tomohide Takaya
BioTech 2024, 13(2), 11; https://doi.org/10.3390/biotech13020011 - 25 Apr 2024
Viewed by 523
Abstract
A myogenetic oligodeoxynucleotide (myoDN), iSN04 (5′-AGA TTA GGG TGA GGG TGA-3′), is a single-stranded 18-base telomeric DNA that serves as an anti-nucleolin aptamer and induces myogenic differentiation, which is expected to be a nucleic acid drug for the prevention of disease-associated muscle wasting. [...] Read more.
A myogenetic oligodeoxynucleotide (myoDN), iSN04 (5′-AGA TTA GGG TGA GGG TGA-3′), is a single-stranded 18-base telomeric DNA that serves as an anti-nucleolin aptamer and induces myogenic differentiation, which is expected to be a nucleic acid drug for the prevention of disease-associated muscle wasting. To improve the drug efficacy and synthesis cost of myoDN, shortening the sequence while maintaining its structure-based function is a major challenge. Here, we report the novel 12-base non-telomeric myoDN, iMyo01 (5′-TTG GGT GGG GAA-3′), which has comparable myogenic activity to iSN04. iMyo01 as well as iSN04 promoted myotube formation of primary-cultured human myoblasts with upregulation of myogenic gene expression. Both iMyo01 and iSN04 interacted with nucleolin, but iMyo01 did not bind to berberine, the isoquinoline alkaloid that stabilizes iSN04. Nuclear magnetic resonance revealed that iMyo01 forms a G-quadruplex structure despite its short sequence. Native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and a computational molecular dynamics simulation indicated that iMyo01 forms a homodimer to generate a G-quadruplex. These results provide new insights into the aptamer truncation technology that preserves aptamer conformation and bioactivity for the development of efficient nucleic acid drugs. Full article
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22 pages, 1219 KiB  
Article
Transcriptional and Metabolic Response of a Strain of Escherichia coli PTS to a Perturbation of the Energetic Level by Modification of [ATP]/[ADP] Ratio
by Sandra Soria, Ofelia E. Carreón-Rodríguez, Ramón de Anda, Noemí Flores, Adelfo Escalante and Francisco Bolívar
BioTech 2024, 13(2), 10; https://doi.org/10.3390/biotech13020010 - 10 Apr 2024
Viewed by 695
Abstract
The intracellular [ATP]/[ADP] ratio is crucial for Escherichia coli’s cellular functions, impacting transport, phosphorylation, signaling, and stress responses. Overexpression of F1-ATPase genes in E. coli increases glucose consumption, lowers energy levels, and triggers transcriptional responses in central carbon metabolism genes, [...] Read more.
The intracellular [ATP]/[ADP] ratio is crucial for Escherichia coli’s cellular functions, impacting transport, phosphorylation, signaling, and stress responses. Overexpression of F1-ATPase genes in E. coli increases glucose consumption, lowers energy levels, and triggers transcriptional responses in central carbon metabolism genes, particularly glycolytic ones, enhancing carbon flux. In this contribution, we report the impact of the perturbation of the energetic level in a PTS mutant of E. coli by modifying the [ATP]/[ADP] ratio by uncoupling the cytoplasmic activity of the F1 subunit of the ATP synthase. The disruption of [ATP]/[ADP] ratio in the evolved strain of E. coli PB12 (PTS) was achieved by the expression of the atpAGD operon encoding the soluble portion of ATP synthase F1-ATPase (strain PB12AGD+). The analysis of the physiological and metabolic response of the PTS strain to the ATP disruption was determined using RT–qPCR of 96 genes involved in glucose and acetate transport, glycolysis and gluconeogenesis, pentose phosphate pathway (PPP), TCA cycle and glyoxylate shunt, several anaplerotic, respiratory chain, and fermentative pathways genes, sigma factors, and global regulators. The apt mutant exhibited reduced growth despite increased glucose transport due to decreased energy levels. It heightened stress response capabilities under glucose-induced energetic starvation, suggesting that the carbon flux from glycolysis is distributed toward the pentose phosphate and the Entner–Duodoroff pathway with the concomitant. Increase acetate transport, production, and utilization in response to the reduction in the [ATP]/[ADP] ratio. Upregulation of several genes encoding the TCA cycle and the glyoxylate shunt as several respiratory genes indicates increased respiratory capabilities, coupled possibly with increased availability of electron donor compounds from the TCA cycle, as this mutant increased respiratory capability by 240% more than in the PB12. The reduction in the intracellular concentration of cAMP in the atp mutant resulted in a reduced number of upregulated genes compared to PB12, suggesting that the mutant remains a robust genetic background despite the severe disruption in its energetic level. Full article
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26 pages, 10784 KiB  
Review
Synthesis and Biological Activities of Some Metal Complexes of Peptides: A Review
by Petja Marinova and Kristina Tamahkyarova
BioTech 2024, 13(2), 9; https://doi.org/10.3390/biotech13020009 - 8 Apr 2024
Viewed by 920
Abstract
Peptides, both natural and synthetic, are well suited for a wide range of purposes and offer versatile applications in different fields such as biocatalysts, injectable hydrogels, tumor treatment, and drug delivery. The research of the better part of the cited papers was conducted [...] Read more.
Peptides, both natural and synthetic, are well suited for a wide range of purposes and offer versatile applications in different fields such as biocatalysts, injectable hydrogels, tumor treatment, and drug delivery. The research of the better part of the cited papers was conducted using various database platforms such as MetalPDB. The rising prominence of therapeutic peptides encompasses anticancer, antiviral, antimicrobial, and anti-neurodegenerative properties. The metals Na, K, Mg, Ca, Fe, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, and Mo are ten of the twenty elements that are considered essential for life. Crucial for understanding the biological role of metals is the exploration of metal-bound proteins and peptides. Aside from essential metals, there are other non-essential metals that also interact biologically, exhibiting either therapeutic or toxic effects. Irregularities in metal binding contribute to diseases like Alzheimer’s, neurodegenerative disorders, Wilson’s, and Menkes disease. Certain metal complexes have potential applications as radiopharmaceuticals. The examination of these complexes was achieved by preforming UV–Vis, IR, EPR, NMR spectroscopy, and X-ray analysis. This summary, although unable to cover all of the studies in the field, offers a review of the ongoing experimentation and is a basis for new ideas, as well as strategies to explore and gain knowledge from the extensive realm of peptide-chelated metals and biotechnologies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medical Biotechnology)
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20 pages, 2855 KiB  
Article
Novel Pseudomonas Species Prevent the Growth of the Phytopathogenic Fungus Aspergillus flavus
by Franciene Rabiço, Tiago Cabral Borelli, Robson Carlos Alnoch, Maria de Lourdes Teixeira de Moraes Polizeli, Ricardo R. da Silva, Rafael Silva-Rocha and María-Eugenia Guazzaroni
BioTech 2024, 13(2), 8; https://doi.org/10.3390/biotech13020008 - 30 Mar 2024
Viewed by 910
Abstract
In response to the escalating demand for sustainable agricultural methodologies, the utilization of microbial volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as antagonists against phytopathogens has emerged as a viable eco-friendly alternative. Microbial volatiles exhibit rapid diffusion rates, facilitating prompt chemical interactions. Moreover, microorganisms possess the [...] Read more.
In response to the escalating demand for sustainable agricultural methodologies, the utilization of microbial volatile organic compounds (VOCs) as antagonists against phytopathogens has emerged as a viable eco-friendly alternative. Microbial volatiles exhibit rapid diffusion rates, facilitating prompt chemical interactions. Moreover, microorganisms possess the capacity to emit volatiles constitutively, as well as in response to biological interactions and environmental stimuli. In addition to volatile compounds, these bacteria demonstrate the ability to produce soluble metabolites with antifungal properties, such as APE Vf, pyoverdin, and fragin. In this study, we identified two Pseudomonas strains (BJa3 and MCal1) capable of inhibiting the in vitro mycelial growth of the phytopathogenic fungus Aspergillus flavus, which serves as the causal agent of diseases in sugarcane and maize. Utilizing GC/MS analysis, we detected 47 distinct VOCs which were produced by these bacterial strains. Notably, certain volatile compounds, including 1-heptoxydecane and tridecan-2-one, emerged as primary candidates for inhibiting fungal growth. These compounds belong to essential chemical classes previously documented for their antifungal activity, while others represent novel molecules. Furthermore, examination via confocal microscopy unveiled significant morphological alterations, particularly in the cell wall, of mycelia exposed to VOCs emitted by both Pseudomonas species. These findings underscore the potential of the identified BJa3 and MCal1 Pseudomonas strains as promising agents for fungal biocontrol in agricultural crops. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Food Processing)
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