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Proceeding Paper

Air Monitoring System Based on Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Powered from the Ground †

1
Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Bialystok University of Technology, Wiejska 45D, 15-351 Bialystok, Poland
2
Faculty of Engineering Management, Bialystok University of Technology, 2 Ojca Tarasiuka Street, 16-001 Kleosin, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Presented at Innovations-Sustainability-Modernity-Openness Conference (ISMO’22), Bialystok, Poland, 26–27 May 2022.
Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 18(1), 18; https://doi.org/10.3390/environsciproc2022018018
Published: 13 September 2022
(This article belongs to the Proceedings of Innovations-Sustainability-Modernity-Openness Conference (ISMO’22))

Abstract

:
This article presents a design of the prototype and experimental verification of an air quality measurement device that can be equipped with sensors such as CH4, CO2, O2, PM2.5, and PM10. The proposed solution allows for a long-term visual observation that is connected with the monitoring of air parameters, due to the power supply via a cable from the ground.

1. Introduction

Recently, a rapid development of various types of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) applications in areas that are related to the environment protection can be observed. One example of this phenomenon is the use of UAVs for observation and monitoring using vision systems that are equipped with heads for daytime, infrared, thermal, and hyperspectral observations. These, among other things, enable the early detection of fires, smoke outbreaks, or plant disease conditions based on the analysis of the electromagnetic radiation that they reflect [1]. Another application is the detection of pollutants that are products of illegal waste incineration [2]. The main issue is that there are no commercially available shelf products for the integration with the tethered or free-flying UAVs. In this research, the design and development of hardware and software components of the AirLAB module are described. This description ranges from the phase of the 3D design of the module chassis, through a scheme of its electronic components, to the design of a measurement chamber, up to electro-compatibility tests.
The aim and scope of this research was to design a prototype and conduct an experimental verification of an air quality measurement device which was a module of the MISIO system, the unmanned aerial vehicle platform that is the result of an R&D project number POIR.01.02.00-00-0072/16, titled: “Modular surveying-inspecting system based on a flying multirotor platform powered from a ground station”, which was co-financed by Moose spolka z ograniczona odpowiedzialnoscia and the Polish National Center for Research and Development. The proposed solution allows a long-term visual observation that is connected to the monitoring of air parameters, due to a power supply via a cable from the ground. The ControlBASE (ground control station (GCS) application) is the element of the system that used to ensure the safety of flight and allows the possibility to focus on observation instead of the control of the UAV. The GCS application is a dedicated application which is the central point of the MISIO system. The main features of the application are: the control of UAV movement with the proper safety margin, the verification of flight parameters that are typed by the user, steaming image from the cameras, and monitoring the air quality parameters that are measured by the AirLAB module that is mounted onboard the UAV platform.
The device (Table 1) consists of a dedicated casing—inside which there is a closed chamber—into which the air is sucked for preheating and further analysis (shown in Figure 1 and Figure 2). The air that is collected in the chamber goes to a set of electrochemical sensors and environmental parameters sensors are: methane concentration, oxygen concentration, carbon dioxide concentration, atmospheric pressure, relative humidity, temperature, and concentrations of dusts of diameters of 2.5 µm and 10 µm.

2. The Air Monitoring Platform

The verification of the design was conducted by experimental tests in laboratory conditions and by successful electromagnetic compatibility verification which was performed in a certified laboratory. During the tests, among other elements, the communication between the AirLAB module and the GCS station computer was positively verified. The data link was critical for a proper operation of the platform and monitoring the measurement sensors. The GCS application—the ControlBASE—is shown in Figure 3.

3. Results and Conclusions

The first prototype was developed with the use of 3D printing of the housing with air ducts for testing the air sample. The electronic part of the project and software for controlling the device were developed parallelly. Then, the communication interface between the AirLAB module and the ControlBASE application was created. The presented solution, with both the AirLAB measurement device and ControlBASE (the ground control station that is application linked with developed interfaces) allows for the remote measurement of air quality parameters and gas detection.
The final stage of work was preparing a prototype of the AirLAB module for testing the compliance with the 2014/30/EU EMC Directive. Due to the close proximity of the UAV, driving tests were conducted on the susceptibility of the AirLAB module to electromagnetic interference. Positive results confirmed the correctness of our assumptions and the realization of the gas detection module; the results are shown in Figure 4.

Author Contributions

W.W. Research coordination, W.W., M.S. and M.G. Investigation, M.S. and M.G. software realization, W.W., M.S. and M.G. Article writing, W.W. Writing review and editing, M.S. and M.G. Data analysis, visualization, M.G. Funding Acquisition. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript.

Funding

The research was supported by R&D project number POIR.01.02.00-00-0072/16 which was titled “Modular surveying-inspecting system based on a flying multirotor platform powered from a ground station”, which was co-financed by Moose spolka z ograniczona odpowiedzialnoscia and the Polish National Center for Research and Development.

Institutional Review Board Statement

Not applicable.

Informed Consent Statement

Not applicable.

Data Availability Statement

Not applicable.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Gu, Q.; Jia, C. A Consumer UAV-based Air Quality Monitoring System for Smart Cities. In Proceedings of the 2019 IEEE International Conference on Consumer Electronics (ICCE), Las Vegas, NV, USA, 11–13 January 2019; IEEE: New York, NY, USA, 2019. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  2. Yao, Y.; Wei, S.; Zhang, H.; Li, Q. Application of UAV in Monitoring Chemical Pollutant Gases. Chem. Eng. Trans. 2018, 67, 583–588. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
Figure 1. Air quality meter functional components diagram.
Figure 1. Air quality meter functional components diagram.
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Figure 2. Visualization of the chassis 3D model: (a) a view of the chassis prototype; (b) inner side of the meter with functional component arrangement (c).
Figure 2. Visualization of the chassis 3D model: (a) a view of the chassis prototype; (b) inner side of the meter with functional component arrangement (c).
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Figure 3. The simulated parameters read from the AirLAB module are shown in the ground control station application ControlBASE.
Figure 3. The simulated parameters read from the AirLAB module are shown in the ground control station application ControlBASE.
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Figure 4. Confirmation of positive EMC tests results of AirLAB module.
Figure 4. Confirmation of positive EMC tests results of AirLAB module.
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Table 1. Technical properties of the device.
Table 1. Technical properties of the device.
Power RequirementsVoltage20 V DC–32 V DC
Power consumptionMaximum consumption40 W
CommunicationWiredUSB, [emulated COM 115200/N/8/1]
WirelessWiFi, USART [115200/N/8/1]
MemoryNumber of samples4091
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MDPI and ACS Style

Walendziuk, W.; Słowik, M.; Gulewicz, M. Air Monitoring System Based on Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Powered from the Ground. Environ. Sci. Proc. 2022, 18, 18. https://doi.org/10.3390/environsciproc2022018018

AMA Style

Walendziuk W, Słowik M, Gulewicz M. Air Monitoring System Based on Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Powered from the Ground. Environmental Sciences Proceedings. 2022; 18(1):18. https://doi.org/10.3390/environsciproc2022018018

Chicago/Turabian Style

Walendziuk, Wojciech, Maciej Słowik, and Małgorzata Gulewicz. 2022. "Air Monitoring System Based on Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Powered from the Ground" Environmental Sciences Proceedings 18, no. 1: 18. https://doi.org/10.3390/environsciproc2022018018

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