Evaluating the Influence of Criteria Revitalization Strategy Implementation for the Hospitality Industry in the Post-Pandemic Era
2. Literature Review Related to the COVID-19 Crisis
2.1. Academic Perspective
2.2. Industry and Government Perspective
2.3. Comparison of Academic, Industry, and Government Perspectives
3. The COVID-19 Outbreak Real Situation in Taiwan
4. Research Method
4.1. Fuzzy Preference Relations
4.2. Consistency of the Fuzzy Preference Relations
4.3. Additive Transitive Consistency of the Fuzzy Preference Relations
5. Framework and Influential Criteria to Implement a Revitalization Strategy (RS) for the Hospitality Industry in Taiwan
5.1. The Framework and Evaluated Criteria in Case Study Model
- C1—Financial aid. The government provides financial assistance to industries and employees with a total relief package of NT$1.05 trillion in stimulus loans and operational aid for small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). The authority not only allows generous interest subsidies, lenient processing of returned checks and reducing interest to SME, but also provides relief loans to workers .
- C2—Employment assistance. Employees are furloughed and supplemental employee salaries and subsidies are available while also encouraging employees to undergo training during the pandemic. Moreover, the government not only provides usual unemployment payments for employees but also subsidizes compensation to companies for hiring the unemployed .
- C3—Tax breaks. Small businesses are automatically exempted from tax payments from reported sales revenue. Tax deadlines and government-provided subsidies allow taxpayers and employers to postpone payment of taxes or to pay through installments .
- C4—Infrastructure facilities. This includes the public markets and the basic projects subsidized by the government to help industry innovation and transformation. The government has expanded facilities for improvement and allowed project development to be advantaged in order to improve safe and sanitary conditions in public facilities. Business districts, public markets and regulated night markets have assisted with environmental disinfection, and have enhanced the usable space .
- C5—Utilities discount. Companies have experienced a 15% reduction in revenue for two consecutive months, as compared with last year, with the water fee discount being 5% and the monthly limit reduced by NT$5000. For electricity costs, users not only receive a 10% discount and the monthly limit is reduced by NT$100,000 but contractual capacity and basic electricity fees charged within the past two years are reduced as well .
- C6—Innovation and transformation. Public industry associations connect counties and municipal governments that integrate relevant government assistance resources to serve as a one-stage-service platform. Attention is given to simplify and improve the efficiency of administrative procedures for industry. Innovative subsidies related to industrial products, services, and technology to increase market occupancy and competitive have been the primary focus. In addition, diversified exhibitions have invited international purchasers to Taiwan to stimulate and increase consumption, and to assist industry revitalization, transformation and upgrading [13,34].
- C7—Market revitalization. After the pandemic has stabilized, various promotional and stimulus measures are to be taken, such as triple stimulus vouchers subsided by the government for every citizen to stimulate consumption in domestic-demand industries, especially regarding retail department stores, hotels, restaurants, night markets, traditional markets, conventions and exhibitions, shopping malls, etc. [3,34].
- C8—COVID-19 prevention measures. Taiwan Centers for Disease announced COVID prevention measures to the public in requiring face masks, social distancing, temperature checking and ethanol hand washing before entering public facilities, hotels, restaurants and public transportation venues. COVID-19 prevention measures could contribute significantly to the observed decline in infection rates [26,27].
5.2. The Hierarchy Analytical Process for Evaluating the Influence of Criteria
5.2.1. Linguistic Variables
5.2.2. Reciprocal Additive Consistent Fuzzy Preference Relations for Weighting the Influential Criteria
- Conversion of preference value into utilizing an interval scale follows, resulting in the preserved relying on the reciprocal transitivity property gives:
- The evaluators’ opinions can aggregate weights of influential criteria. Moreover, let indicate transforming the fuzzy preference score of evaluator k for evaluating criteria i and j. This study obtained integral values of m evaluators by applying the symbol of the average score , viz.:
- The aggregated fuzzy preference relations matrices by normalizing is utilized to refer to the normalized fuzzy preference scores of every criterion, namely
6. Empirical Illustration and Discussion
6.1. Empirical Illustration
- The appraisal of evaluator 1 (E1) can serve as an instance, see Table 3. The linguistic terms may be transformed into parallelism scores.
- Transform the elements by applying Equation (2) (listed in Table 3) into an interval [0, 1], with the illustration providing the following:
- The calculated procedures illustrate the fuzzy preference relation matrices of another 15 evaluators; moreover, the aggregated pairwise comparison matrix of 16 evaluators is acquired by utilizing Equation (14), as listed in Table 6.
- Nurture an awareness of potential crises that may inflict economic harm;
- Establish a priority-setting process during a crisis;
- Identify influential factors from expert opinions that reflect real needs for different industries;
- Determine the accuracy, urgency, and relevance of revitalization strategy implementation policies;
- Supervise disaster control to make accurate decisions to pilot industry-recall of a product or the shutdown of a system;
- Mobilize and utilize resources or methods to deal with critical impact effectively and objectively;
- Promptly notify and then provide support for one-stage-services of critical industrial demand to deal with the coronavirus pandemic outbreak or similar events; and,
- Establish a governmental “hotline” for the public, industry, media, and private individuals to announce the transparency situation of the COVID-19 outbreak.
9. Limitations and Future Research
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Definition||Intensity of Importance|
|Absolutely important (AB)||9|
|Very strongly important (VS)||7|
|Strongly important (ST)||5|
|Moderately important (MO)||3|
|Equally important (EQ)||1|
|Intermediate values between two influential criteria||2, 4, 6, 8|
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Wang, T.-C.; Hsieh, H.-C.; Nguyen, X.-H.; Huang, C.-Y.; Lee, J.-Y. Evaluating the Influence of Criteria Revitalization Strategy Implementation for the Hospitality Industry in the Post-Pandemic Era. World 2022, 3, 219-236. https://doi.org/10.3390/world3020012
Wang T-C, Hsieh H-C, Nguyen X-H, Huang C-Y, Lee J-Y. Evaluating the Influence of Criteria Revitalization Strategy Implementation for the Hospitality Industry in the Post-Pandemic Era. World. 2022; 3(2):219-236. https://doi.org/10.3390/world3020012Chicago/Turabian Style
Wang, Tien-Chin, Hsiu-Chin Hsieh, Xuan-Huynh Nguyen, Chin-Ying Huang, and Jen-Yao Lee. 2022. "Evaluating the Influence of Criteria Revitalization Strategy Implementation for the Hospitality Industry in the Post-Pandemic Era" World 3, no. 2: 219-236. https://doi.org/10.3390/world3020012