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Osteology, Volume 3, Issue 2 (June 2023) – 2 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): An association between ACPA and bone mineral density was investigated, and it was found that ACPA affects bone mineral density. However, its action was not determinately strong but works relatively, just as the annual change of the Z-score has a significant negative correlation with the logarithm of ACPA titer in every part of the bone. View this paper
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10 pages, 2020 KiB  
Article
Human Middle Ear Anatomy Based on Micro-Computed Tomography and Reconstruction: An Immersive Virtual Reality Development
by Kai Cheng, Ian Curthoys, Hamish MacDougall, Jonathan Robert Clark and Payal Mukherjee
Osteology 2023, 3(2), 61-70; https://doi.org/10.3390/osteology3020007 - 23 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2092
Abstract
Background: For almost a decade, virtual reality (VR) has been employed in otology simulation. The realism and accuracy of traditional three-dimensional (3D) mesh models of the middle ear from clinical CT have suffered because of their low resolution. Although micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) imaging [...] Read more.
Background: For almost a decade, virtual reality (VR) has been employed in otology simulation. The realism and accuracy of traditional three-dimensional (3D) mesh models of the middle ear from clinical CT have suffered because of their low resolution. Although micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) imaging overcomes resolution issues, its usage in virtual reality platforms has been limited due to the high computational requirements. The aim of this study was to optimize a high-resolution 3D human middle ear mesh model suitable for viewing and manipulation in an immersive VR environment using an HTC VIVE VR headset (HTC and Valve Corporation, USA) to enable a seamless middle ear anatomical visualisation viewing experience in VR while preserving anatomical accuracy. Methods: A high-resolution 3D mesh model of the human middle ear was reconstructed using micro-CT data with 28 μm voxel resolution. The models were optimised by tailoring the surface model polygon counts, file size, loading time, and frame rate. Results: The optimized middle ear model and its surrounding structures (polygon counts reduced from 21 million polygons to 2.5 million) could be uploaded and visualised in immersive VR at 82 frames per second with no VR-related motion sickness reported. Conclusion: High-resolution micro-CT data can be visualized in an immersive VR environment after optimisation. To our knowledge, this is the first report on overcoming the translational hurdle in middle ear applications of VR. Full article
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14 pages, 301 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Anti-Citrullinated Polypeptide Antibodies on Bone Mineral Density Decrease and Incident Major Osteoporotic Fractures in Patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Retrospective Case-Control Study
by Ichiro Yoshii, Tatsumi Chijiwa and Naoya Sawada
Osteology 2023, 3(2), 47-60; https://doi.org/10.3390/osteology3020006 - 6 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1385
Abstract
Background: Effects of anti-citrullinated polypeptide antibodies (ACPA) on the bone mineral density (BMD) reduction and incidence of major osteoporotic fractures (MOF) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were evaluated using a retrospective longitudinal case-control study. Methods: Patients with RA who were examined using [...] Read more.
Background: Effects of anti-citrullinated polypeptide antibodies (ACPA) on the bone mineral density (BMD) reduction and incidence of major osteoporotic fractures (MOF) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) were evaluated using a retrospective longitudinal case-control study. Methods: Patients with RA who were examined using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and simultaneously treated for more than 5 years were recruited. BMD absolute value and Z-scores at initial measurements (baseline) and changes of these values from baseline were assessed, and associations between BMD and candidate risk factors including ACPA positivity and serum titer levels were statistically evaluated. Additional statistical evaluations of ACPA positivity in regard to the incidence of MOF were tested. Results: A total of 222 patients were included. Higher ACPA titers correlated significantly with lower BMD and Z-scores at baseline using a multivariate model (p < 0.05). ACPA positivity correlated significantly with lower values and an annual decrease in the Z-score in total hip at follow-up using a univariate model (p < 0.05), whereas no significant correlation was found using a multivariate model. Z-scores in the ACPA-positive group were significantly lower than those of the ACPA-negative group (p < 0.05). However, ACPA-positivity demonstrated no higher risk for incident MOF. Conclusions: The presence of ACPA is a potential risk of BMD loss however weak. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Bone Biomechanics: Diseases, Treatment and Rehabilitation II)
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