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Gastrointest. Disord., Volume 6, Issue 1 (March 2024) – 24 articles

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9 pages, 1166 KiB  
Brief Report
Bowel Cleansing Preparations Are Associated with Gastroduodenal Lesions
by Anas Khouri, Cesar G. Moreno and Jack A. Di Palma
Gastrointest. Disord. 2024, 6(1), 359-367; https://doi.org/10.3390/gidisord6010024 - 15 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1237
Abstract
Background: During esophagogastroduodenoscopy performed with colonoscopy, gastric and duodenal erythema, erosions, and ulcerations are often observed. This investigation was designed to review the prevalence of gastroduodenal lesions in patients who have undergone wireless capsule endoscopy using standard bowel cleansing preparations, but no endoscopy [...] Read more.
Background: During esophagogastroduodenoscopy performed with colonoscopy, gastric and duodenal erythema, erosions, and ulcerations are often observed. This investigation was designed to review the prevalence of gastroduodenal lesions in patients who have undergone wireless capsule endoscopy using standard bowel cleansing preparations, but no endoscopy or sedation. Methods: A retrospective analysis was conducted on patients referred for capsule endoscopy. Records and capsule reports were reviewed for the patient demographics, preparation prescribed, procedural indications, and gastroduodenal findings. The preparations studied included polyethylene glycol lavage (PEG), PEG plus bisacodyl (PEG + bis), bisacodyl (bis), oral sulfate solution (OSS), and no prep. Results: Among the 1236 records, 498 (40.3%) were men and 738 (59.7%) were women. The mean age was 56 years +/− 18 years SD. The percentage of patients with lesions after any bowel preparation was 52.7% for gastric lesions and 23.6% for duodenal lesions. The percentage of patients with gastroduodenal lesions was 58.3% with prep, compared to 38.2% without prep. These findings were statistically significant, with an RR of 1.53 [1.19–1.94] (p-value = 0.00004). This difference was more pronounced in the OSS group RR of 1.65 [1.29–2.1] and bisacodyl group RR of 1.64 [1.25–2.15] compared to the PEG group RR of 0.95 [0.7–1.3]. Conclusions: This study showed that patients undergoing wireless capsule endoscopy who received bowel preparations had a significant increase in gastric and duodenal lesions. Of the preparations studied, OSS was associated with a greater number of gastroduodenal lesions, while PEG was the least associated with lesions, with an occurrence similar to the non-prep group. The clinical significance of these lesions remains undetermined. Endoscopists should be aware that preparations are associated with gastroduodenal lesions to avoid the misinterpretation and misdiagnosis of these lesions. Full article
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22 pages, 1394 KiB  
Review
A Critical Review on In Vitro and Ex Vivo Models of the Intestinal Epithelium of Humans and Monogastric Animals
by Célia Maria Costa, Nelson Mota de Carvalho, Diana Luazi de Oliveira and Ana Raquel Madureira
Gastrointest. Disord. 2024, 6(1), 337-358; https://doi.org/10.3390/gidisord6010023 - 14 Mar 2024
Viewed by 715
Abstract
Recently, the bioactive potential of several functional ingredients and biomolecules has been evaluated regarding human and animal nutrition. The digestive process from food intake to absorption and metabolism are important events that induce changes in ingredients, which affect their bioactivity. Consequently, there is [...] Read more.
Recently, the bioactive potential of several functional ingredients and biomolecules has been evaluated regarding human and animal nutrition. The digestive process from food intake to absorption and metabolism are important events that induce changes in ingredients, which affect their bioactivity. Consequently, there is a need to assess the bioavailability and bioaccessibility of these compounds. The methodology for the simulation of the human gastrointestinal tract has been standardized (INFOGEST protocol), while a gastrointestinal protocol for other animals (e.g., ruminants or broilers) has yet to be established. However, INFOGEST allows us only to predict bioaccessibility, leaving a gap regarding a methodology able to assess bioavailability by mimicking intestinal permeability and absorption. Several approaches—including in vitro, ex vivo, in situ and in vivo methods—can be found in the literature, aiming to tackle transepithelial routes, but leading to different results concerning the bioefficiency of the compounds studied. Therefore, this review aims to assess the current state-of-the-art regarding monogastric intestinal dynamics, absorption, and permeability events. Moreover, it compiled methodologies for simulating intestinal absorption in several biological systems, while reasoning their advantages, disadvantages, applications in ingredient development and the existing gaps. Full article
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25 pages, 1338 KiB  
Review
Main Disorders of Gastrointestinal Tract in Older People: An Overview
by Antonella Gallo, Simona Pellegrino, Erika Pero, Maria Chiara Agnitelli, Caterina Parlangeli, Francesco Landi and Massimo Montalto
Gastrointest. Disord. 2024, 6(1), 313-336; https://doi.org/10.3390/gidisord6010022 - 10 Mar 2024
Viewed by 1048
Abstract
From a physiological standpoint, aging is a progressive reduction in each organ system’s capacity to maintain homeostasis in the face of illness or stressors. With advancing age, gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms and signs may increase, not only due to the aging processes but also [...] Read more.
From a physiological standpoint, aging is a progressive reduction in each organ system’s capacity to maintain homeostasis in the face of illness or stressors. With advancing age, gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms and signs may increase, not only due to the aging processes but also to the superimposed effects of comorbidities, which can badly affect digestive functions (i.e., diabetes, malignancy, etc.) and environmental exposure. In general, gastrointestinal symptoms in older people more often underlie organic pathologies, while GI functional disorders are less frequently diagnosed in this age group. Moreover, gastrointestinal disease can also present in a nuanced and atypical manner, making the diagnostic hypothesis and, consequently, the correct diagnosis and therapy more challenging. In addition, with reference to this age group, the clinical implications of gastrointestinal pathologies can be more severe due to a decreased physiologic reserve, with a higher risk for malnutrition resulting in falls, depression, social isolation, and a deterioration of functional status. In this review, we focused on the most frequent GI tract disorders, highlighting the main age-related changes, their epidemiological, pathophysiological and clinical implications, and any differences with younger patients. Full article
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5 pages, 223 KiB  
Editorial
Editorial: Pediatric Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders: Challenges in Diagnosis and Treatment
by Angharad Vernon-Roberts, Mark Safe and Andrew S. Day
Gastrointest. Disord. 2024, 6(1), 308-312; https://doi.org/10.3390/gidisord6010021 - 08 Mar 2024
Viewed by 901
Abstract
Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) are classified as those with no organic cause and those not attributable to structural or biochemical abnormalities [...] Full article
16 pages, 2735 KiB  
Article
Detection of Ulcerative Colitis Lesions from Weakly Annotated Colonoscopy Videos Using Bounding Boxes
by Safaa Al-Ali, John Chaussard, Sébastien Li-Thiao-Té, Éric Ogier-Denis, Alice Percy-du-Sert, Xavier Treton and Hatem Zaag
Gastrointest. Disord. 2024, 6(1), 292-307; https://doi.org/10.3390/gidisord6010020 - 07 Mar 2024
Viewed by 733
Abstract
Ulcerative colitis is a chronic disease characterized by bleeding and ulcers in the colon. Disease severity assessment via colonoscopy videos is time-consuming and only focuses on the most severe lesions. Automated detection methods enable fine-grained assessment but depend on the training set quality. [...] Read more.
Ulcerative colitis is a chronic disease characterized by bleeding and ulcers in the colon. Disease severity assessment via colonoscopy videos is time-consuming and only focuses on the most severe lesions. Automated detection methods enable fine-grained assessment but depend on the training set quality. To suit the local clinical setup, an internal training dataset containing only rough bounding box annotations around lesions was utilized. Following previous works, we propose to use linear models in suitable color spaces to detect lesions. We introduce an efficient sampling scheme for exploring the set of linear classifiers and removing trivial models i.e., those showing zero false negative or positive ratios. Bounding boxes lead to exaggerated false detection ratios due to mislabeled pixels, especially in the corners, resulting in decreased model accuracy. Therefore, we propose to evaluate the model sensitivity on the annotation level instead of the pixel level. Our sampling strategy can eliminate up to 25% of trivial models. Despite the limited quality of annotations, the detectors achieved better performance in comparison with the state-of-the-art methods. When tested on a small subset of endoscopic images, the best models exhibit low variability. However, the inter-patient model performance was variable suggesting that appearance normalization is critical in this context. Full article
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35 pages, 30758 KiB  
Review
Mesenchymal Tumors of the Gastrointestinal Tract—Beyond GIST—A Review
by João Martins Gama and Rui Caetano Oliveira
Gastrointest. Disord. 2024, 6(1), 257-291; https://doi.org/10.3390/gidisord6010019 - 04 Mar 2024
Viewed by 996
Abstract
Sarcomas are rare lesions and encompass a wide variety of entities, depending on their nature. In recent years new entities have been described and new knowledge, especially that provided by molecular studies, has been increasing. This makes it very difficult to be updated [...] Read more.
Sarcomas are rare lesions and encompass a wide variety of entities, depending on their nature. In recent years new entities have been described and new knowledge, especially that provided by molecular studies, has been increasing. This makes it very difficult to be updated with all the described entities, since only some of the centers have the desired ancillary studies for the correct diagnosis. Some lesions are extremely rare and may appear once or twice during the lifetime of a general pathologist. When we refer to sarcomas of the gastrointestinal tract, the gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is the most well-known lesion that the pathologist will most frequently find in daily practice. This paper aims to comprehensively review the sarcomas associated with the gastrointestinal tract, emphasizing histopathology and going beyond GIST. This review highlights the histopathology of rare types of sarcomas so it may increase awareness of common and rare lesions, prompting an easy and effective diagnosis. Full article
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16 pages, 318 KiB  
Review
Biologics in Focus: A Comprehensive Review of the Current Biological Therapies for Ulcerative Colitis in the United Arab Emirates (UAE)
by Ahmed El-Sayed, Ceyhun Oztumer, Camellia Richards, Omar-Adam Salim, Mathuri Sivakumar and Laith Alrubaiy
Gastrointest. Disord. 2024, 6(1), 241-256; https://doi.org/10.3390/gidisord6010018 - 01 Mar 2024
Viewed by 957
Abstract
Background: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a relapsing–remitting inflammatory condition that has an increasing incidence across the world, including in the Middle East. Biological monoclonal antibody drugs (biologics) have been shown to be advantageous in treating UC. We undertook a review of the currently [...] Read more.
Background: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a relapsing–remitting inflammatory condition that has an increasing incidence across the world, including in the Middle East. Biological monoclonal antibody drugs (biologics) have been shown to be advantageous in treating UC. We undertook a review of the currently available biological and small-molecule therapies, with a particular emphasis on those currently licensed in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). Methods: We conducted a literature search for studies on biological therapies using the PubMed, MEDLINE, and Embase databases using a list of keywords that were generated following referral to existing treatment guidelines for UC. Papers looking at biological and small-molecule treatments for UC in adult populations were included. Pediatric, pregnancy, and cost-effectiveness studies were excluded. Results and Discussion: There are currently three classes of biologics (anti-tumor necrosis factors (anti-TNFs), anti-integrins, and anti-interleukins) and one class of small-molecule therapy (Janus kinase (JAK) inhibitor) licensed for UC treatment in the UAE. Within the anti-TNF class, three medications have been approved: infliximab, adalimumab, and golimumab. For JAK inhibitors, there are two: tofacitinib and upadacitinib. There is only one licensed medication in the remaining classes: vedolizumab (anti-integrin) and ustekinumab (anti-interleukin). The length of studies varied from 6–8 weeks for induction studies and 52 weeks for maintenance studies. The studies demonstrated increased efficacy in these medications compared to placebos when clinical response, clinical remission, and other secondary measures such as mucosal healing were assessed following the induction and maintenance phases. Biosimilars of infliximab and adalimumab are also available for treating UC, and their safety and efficacy were compared to their biologic originators. Conclusions: The introduction of biologics has been proven to be beneficial for the treatment of UC. This review summarizes the efficacy and safety of each biological class in the treatment of the disease; however, biological drug registries and further studies are required to offer more insight into the comparative efficacy and safety of these agents. Full article
11 pages, 1615 KiB  
Article
Prospective Visual Inspection of the Ventrum of Tongue (VIVOT) Vasculature Predicts the Presence of Esophageal Varices
by Martin Tobi, Monina Pascua, Rebecca Rodriguez, Yu-Xiao Yang, John Lieb, Douglas Weinstein and David E. Kaplan
Gastrointest. Disord. 2024, 6(1), 230-240; https://doi.org/10.3390/gidisord6010017 - 26 Feb 2024
Viewed by 831
Abstract
Venous collateral shunting of blood from the splanchnic to systemic venous systems due to portal hypertension increases the pressure in the ventral lingual venous bed. We hypothesized that the appearance of sublingual varices evaluated by pre-endoscopy/bedside visual inspection of ventrum of tongue (VIVOT) [...] Read more.
Venous collateral shunting of blood from the splanchnic to systemic venous systems due to portal hypertension increases the pressure in the ventral lingual venous bed. We hypothesized that the appearance of sublingual varices evaluated by pre-endoscopy/bedside visual inspection of ventrum of tongue (VIVOT) might predict the presence of esophageal varices (EVs). Methods: To test this hypothesis, we prospectively enrolled patients with cirrhosis (CP) referred for EV screening for assessment of lingual vasculature after informed consent. Non-cirrhosis control patients were also enrolled. Methods: VIVOT was scored based on the presence of vessels > 2 mm and/or serpiginous veins. VIVOT scores were then correlated with endoscopic findings. Results: A total of 59 patients with cirrhosis (Group 1) were enrolled, as were 62 patients without cirrhosis (Group 2). Group 1 consisted of 100% male patients with mean age 59.5 ± 5.4 years; 39.0% were African American (AA). Group 2 consisted of 86% male patients, 59.0 ± 13 years and 53% AA. Among Group 1 patients, varices were present in 29% (16 esophageal and 3 gastric). There were no demographic differences among Group 1 patients with or without varices. Positive VIVOT scores were associated with EVs on endoscopy in 11 of 16 patients (sensitivity 68.75%). Positive VIVOT findings were present in 8 of 40 patients without EVs (specificity 80%). False-positive VIVOT scores were present in 6 of 62 non-cirrhotic controls. Overall, the positive predictive value among patients with cirrhosis was 59% with a negative predictive value of 84%. Conclusions: VIVOT has modest values in predicting EVs and should not be used alone to stratify patients for endoscopic evaluation when elastography and laboratory tests are available; however, its use in resource-limited settings to identify high-risk patients may be considered. Full article
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16 pages, 898 KiB  
Review
Diabetic Gastroparesis: Navigating Pathophysiology and Nutritional Interventions
by Alfredo Caturano, Massimiliano Cavallo, Davide Nilo, Gaetano Vaudo, Vincenzo Russo, Raffaele Galiero, Luca Rinaldi, Raffaele Marfella, Marcellino Monda, Giovanni Luca and Ferdinando Carlo Sasso
Gastrointest. Disord. 2024, 6(1), 214-229; https://doi.org/10.3390/gidisord6010016 - 22 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1101
Abstract
Diabetic gastroparesis (DGP) delays gastric emptying in diabetes patients, notably impacting those with type 1 and long-standing type 2 diabetes. Symptoms include early satiety, fullness, appetite loss, bloating, abdominal pain, and vomiting, arising from slow stomach-to-intestine food movement. DGP’s unpredictable nature complicates diagnosis [...] Read more.
Diabetic gastroparesis (DGP) delays gastric emptying in diabetes patients, notably impacting those with type 1 and long-standing type 2 diabetes. Symptoms include early satiety, fullness, appetite loss, bloating, abdominal pain, and vomiting, arising from slow stomach-to-intestine food movement. DGP’s unpredictable nature complicates diagnosis and blood glucose management, leading to severe complications like dehydration, malnutrition, and bezoar formation. Understanding DGP’s mechanisms is crucial for effective management. Vagal dysfunction, disturbances in the interstitial cells of Cajal, reduced neural nitric oxide synthase, and increased oxidative stress contribute to the complex pathophysiology. Accurate diagnosis demands a comprehensive approach, utilizing tools like gastric scintigraphy and the Gastric Emptying Breath Test. Considering the complex relationship between DGP and glycemia, managing blood glucose levels becomes paramount. Nutritional interventions, tailored to each patient, address malnutrition risks, emphasizing smaller, more frequent meals and liquid consistency. DGP’s complex nature necessitates collaborative efforts for enhanced diagnostic strategies, improved pathophysiological understanding, and compassionate management approaches. This comprehensive approach offers hope for a future where individuals with DGP can experience improved well-being and quality of life. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Gastrointestinal Disorders in 2023-2024)
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12 pages, 1243 KiB  
Article
An Evaluation of the Efficacy and Safety of TAMIXAM®, Based on Hyaluronic Acid and Tamarind Seed Extract, for Esophageal Mucosal Protection from Acid Insult
by Marisa Francesca Motta, Giuseppe Pulitano, Antonino Bagnulo, Giampaolo Buriani, Umberto Di Maio, Fabio Amone, Vincenzo Nobile and Rocco Malivindi
Gastrointest. Disord. 2024, 6(1), 202-213; https://doi.org/10.3390/gidisord6010015 - 18 Feb 2024
Viewed by 918
Abstract
TAMIXAM® is a novel technology that combines hyaluronic acid and tamarind seed extract in its formulation. It is designed to protect the esophageal mucosa by creating a barrier through its filmogenic properties. The aim of this study is to evaluate the safety [...] Read more.
TAMIXAM® is a novel technology that combines hyaluronic acid and tamarind seed extract in its formulation. It is designed to protect the esophageal mucosa by creating a barrier through its filmogenic properties. The aim of this study is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of this technology through mucoadhesion tests, a cell viability assay, TEER measurements, and morphological analysis on reconstructed esophageal mucosa exposed to 10% hydrochloric acid before and after treatment. The mucoadhesion test highlighted the synergistic bioadhesive effect of the technology’s components. Cell viability assays revealed the substantial mucoprotective and barrier effects of the technology, preserving tissue viability when applied before exposure to acid insult. A morphological analysis illustrated TAMIXAM®’s efficacy in countering acid-induced damage, reducing erosion, necrosis, and tissue degeneration compared to the positive control, both pre- and post-acid insult. An evaluation of epithelial integrity through TEER measurements indicated a minimal reduction in tissues treated with the invention before acid exposure, demonstrating its ability to maintain epithelial integrity in the presence of an acid insult. However, this effect was less pronounced in tissues treated with the technology after the acid insult, implying a potential partial recovery of epithelial integrity. Furthermore, comprehensive in vitro and in vivo studies supported the safety profile of the invention. In conclusion, TAMIXAM® emerged as a compelling solution, providing enhanced mechanical action to maintain epithelial balance and shield the esophageal mucosa from acid-induced damage. Full article
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11 pages, 464 KiB  
Article
Investigating the Role of Gastrointestinal-Specific Anxiety and Perceived Disability in the Adjustment to Inflammatory Bowel Disease
by Angela Seaman and Nuno Ferreira
Gastrointest. Disord. 2024, 6(1), 191-201; https://doi.org/10.3390/gidisord6010014 - 17 Feb 2024
Viewed by 866
Abstract
In this study, an exploratory model was tested to investigate the mediating role of gastrointestinal-specific anxiety and perceived disability in the relation between disease activity and the outcomes of quality of life and depression in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In a [...] Read more.
In this study, an exploratory model was tested to investigate the mediating role of gastrointestinal-specific anxiety and perceived disability in the relation between disease activity and the outcomes of quality of life and depression in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In a cross-sectional design, data from an online survey of patients with IBD (over the age of 16) recruited through a UK-based IBD charity were used to test a model of serial mediation. Measures targeted disease activity (self-reported), gastrointestinal-specific anxiety (Visceral Sensitivity Index), perceived disability (Perceived Disability Scale), IBD-specific quality of life (UK Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire), and depression (Depression subscale of the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale). The theoretical model was investigated using model 6 of the PROCESS macro for SPSS. Bootstrapped 95% confidence intervals were constructed for each estimate A total of 320 participants provided valid responses to the survey. Gastrointestinal-specific anxiety and perceived disability were found to serially mediate the relationship between disease activity and quality of life (95%CI = −0.80 to −0.19) and disease activity and depression (95%CI = 0.13 to 0.59). Findings suggested that the effect of multiple psychosocial variables in the experience of people living with IBD and its respective outcomes should be taken into account when planning treatment. The theoretical and clinical implications of these findings are discussed. Full article
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11 pages, 549 KiB  
Review
Metabolic Endoscopy: Should Gastroenterologists Be Treating Type 2 Diabetes?
by Benjamin Charles Norton, Apostolis Papaefthymiou, Andrea Telese, Ritwika Mallik, Alberto Murino, Gavin Johnson, Charles Murray, Janine Makaronidis and Rehan Haidry
Gastrointest. Disord. 2024, 6(1), 180-190; https://doi.org/10.3390/gidisord6010013 - 15 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1097
Abstract
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is one of the most significant and fast-growing health challenges of the 21st century. Despite the variety of available glucose-lowering agents, many patients do not attain or maintain adequate glycaemic control. Bariatric surgery demonstrates a profound anti-diabetic effect, which [...] Read more.
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is one of the most significant and fast-growing health challenges of the 21st century. Despite the variety of available glucose-lowering agents, many patients do not attain or maintain adequate glycaemic control. Bariatric surgery demonstrates a profound anti-diabetic effect, which is almost immediate and weight-loss independent. The significant improvement in diabetes after bariatric surgery together with the endoscopic accessibility of the duodenum has led to the development of new metabolic endoscopic procedures that capitalise on the importance of the proximal small bowel in glycaemic control. Clinical trials have shown a clear efficacy signal, and now, several devices are undergoing evaluation as primary T2D treatments. Establishing where these procedures fit into the treatment algorithms for T2D and how they can be combined with modern pharmacotherapies is needed in a rapidly changing landscape. Ultimately, through metabolic endoscopy, gastroenterologists are on the cusp of providing safe and effective treatments for the multidisciplinary management of T2D. Full article
16 pages, 1177 KiB  
Review
The Influence of Ultra-Processed Food on Colorectal Cancer: A Systematic Review
by Rocío Caceres-Matos, Aurora Castro-Méndez, Marina García Domínguez, Daniel Pabón-Carrasco and Manuel Pabón-Carrasco
Gastrointest. Disord. 2024, 6(1), 164-179; https://doi.org/10.3390/gidisord6010012 - 08 Feb 2024
Viewed by 1509
Abstract
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a disease characterised by the development of malignant tumours in the colon or rectum; it is considered the most common cancer in women, and up to 50% of cases can be prevented with a healthy lifestyle. Nutritional habits are [...] Read more.
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a disease characterised by the development of malignant tumours in the colon or rectum; it is considered the most common cancer in women, and up to 50% of cases can be prevented with a healthy lifestyle. Nutritional habits are related to its appearance, and the current trend of an increased consumption of ultra-processed foods (UPFs) has led to a surge in the incidence of CRC in recent years. This systematic review aims to evaluate, based on scientific evidence, the role of UPF in the incidence of CRC. The PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL, and Web of Science databases were reviewed, and a total of 24 scientific articles were selected according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria of this review (studies from the past 5 years and observational studies in English). The conclusions of this study point to an association between UPF-based diets and the appearance of CRC, which is promoted by the harmful effects of the consumption of high levels of sugar, fat, red meat, and additives. These dietary habits, coupled with a sedentary lifestyle and obesity, further increase the incidence of CRC. Full article
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12 pages, 525 KiB  
Article
A Multiparametric Method Improves the Serological Characterization of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: Preliminary Results from a Multicenter Eastern Europe Study
by Nikola Panic, Marco Marino, Goran Hauser, Silvia Jacobsen, Francesco Curcio, Francesco Meroi, Adriana Cifù, Eleonora Castagnaviz, Cinzia Pistis, Giovanni Terrosu, Milutin Bulajic, Salvatore Francesco Vadalà di Prampero, Dino Tarabar, Irena Krznaric-Zrnic, Gordana Kovacevic, Ivan Ranković and Martina Fabris
Gastrointest. Disord. 2024, 6(1), 152-163; https://doi.org/10.3390/gidisord6010011 - 29 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1169
Abstract
The serological support for early diagnosis and differential diagnosis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) is actually very limited. In this study, we evaluated the performance of a promising multiparametric method including either well-established and newly developed biomarkers. We conducted a multicenter cross-sectional study [...] Read more.
The serological support for early diagnosis and differential diagnosis of inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) is actually very limited. In this study, we evaluated the performance of a promising multiparametric method including either well-established and newly developed biomarkers. We conducted a multicenter cross-sectional study at the Gastroenterology Units of Udine (Italy), Rijeka (Croatia) and Belgrade (Serbia). Sera was collected from IBD patients, and autoantibody profiles were determined using a mosaic cell and tissue-based indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) method simultaneously investigating anti-saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCAs), anti-atypical perinuclear neutrophilic antibodies (P-ANCAs), anti-pancreatic antigens antibodies (PABs) and anti-goblet cells antibodies (GAB). The study finally enrolled 156 patients with IBD: 100 affected by Crohn’s disease (CD) and 56 by ulcerative colitis (UC). Twenty age-sex matched blood donors (BDs) were included as controls. PAB (anti-CUZD1 and/or anti-GP2 antibodies) were present in 24 CD patients versus none of the UC patients or BDs (24% sensitivity, 100% specificity). As regards CD patients, combined positivity of PAB and ASCA (sensitivity 84%, specificity 71.4%) performed better than ASCA alone. Colon involvement (87.5% vs. 60.5%; p = 0.014), deep mucosal lesions (58.3% vs. 25.0%; p = 0.002) and need for biologic therapies (79.2% vs. 46.1%; p = 0.005) were significantly more prevalent in PAB-positive than in PAB-negative CD patients. Multivariate analysis identified PAB positivity (OR = 3.67; 95%CI = 1.29–10.46) and anti-CUZD1 in particular (OR = 3.54; 95%CI = 1.08–11.63) as significant risk factors for deep mucosal lesion development in CD. A multiparametric diagnostic approach appears very useful to better characterize IBD patients. PABs, whether isolated or combined with other autoantibodies, may support differential diagnosis but above all facilitate the selection of CD patients at risk for more severe disease. Full article
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9 pages, 236 KiB  
Study Protocol
Developing a Core Outcome Set for Cytoreductive Surgery for Colorectal Cancer with Peritoneal Metastases: A Mixed-Method Study Protocol
by Pratik Raichurkar, Kilian Brown, Nabila Ansari, Cherry Koh, Nima Ahmadi, Michael Solomon, Brendan Moran and Daniel Steffens
Gastrointest. Disord. 2024, 6(1), 143-151; https://doi.org/10.3390/gidisord6010010 - 18 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1163
Abstract
As the number of centres offering cytoreductive surgery (CRS) for colorectal cancer with peritoneal metastases (CPMs) is increasing worldwide, research is focused on establishing better patient selection and ensuring that new techniques have positive impacts on survival. However, high-impact comparative research in this [...] Read more.
As the number of centres offering cytoreductive surgery (CRS) for colorectal cancer with peritoneal metastases (CPMs) is increasing worldwide, research is focused on establishing better patient selection and ensuring that new techniques have positive impacts on survival. However, high-impact comparative research in this field is limited by the heterogeneity of outcome measurement and reporting. Additionally, as there are comparatively few randomised controlled trials reporting comprehensive patient-reported outcomes, it is possible that key stakeholders such as patients and carers are underrepresented in the current literature. A core outcome set (COS) for CRS with or without intraperitoneal chemotherapy for the treatment of CPMs, supported by clinicians and patients, will promote homogenous comparison across trials and optimise the utility of research findings. We have established a comprehensive protocol based on the Core Outcome Measures in Effectiveness Trials (COMETs) method to facilitate this. A systematic review will identify all the outcomes reported in the literature, whereas a semi-structured interview will identify outcomes considered important by patients and carers. The identified outcomes will populate an international Delhi survey, distributed to patients, carers, surgeons, oncologists, nurses, and allied health clinicians. Outcomes reaching international consensus of importance will be further discussed in a face-to-face workshop between patients, carers, and clinicians. This process will inform the development of a final COS for CRS for patients with CPMs. Full article
12 pages, 3448 KiB  
Review
Endoscopic Management of Gastric Disruptions
by Veeral M. Oza and Truptesh H. Kothari
Gastrointest. Disord. 2024, 6(1), 131-142; https://doi.org/10.3390/gidisord6010009 - 11 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1179
Abstract
Gastric perforations and leaks are significant complications that can arise from various gastrointestinal disorders and surgical interventions. Over the past decade, endoscopic techniques have emerged as an effective method for managing these conditions. Furthermore, as endoscopic resection techniques have grown in popularity, the [...] Read more.
Gastric perforations and leaks are significant complications that can arise from various gastrointestinal disorders and surgical interventions. Over the past decade, endoscopic techniques have emerged as an effective method for managing these conditions. Furthermore, as endoscopic resection techniques have grown in popularity, the risk of acute and delayed perforations has also grown. This review aims to provide an in-depth analysis of the endoscopic management strategies employed in the management of gastric perforations and leaks. We will discuss the etiology, diagnostic modalities, and various endoscopic techniques utilized, as well as emerging trends in endoscopic management. Our attempt in writing this review paper is to educate and guide clinicians in making informed decisions when faced with gastric perforations and leaks. Full article
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17 pages, 581 KiB  
Systematic Review
Probiotic Interventions in Coeliac Disease: A Systematic Review with a Focus on Cardiovascular Risk
by Lorretta Olu Fagbemi, Carlo Soldaini, Adele Costabile, Sofia Kolida, Carolina Ciacci and Yvonne Jeanes
Gastrointest. Disord. 2024, 6(1), 114-130; https://doi.org/10.3390/gidisord6010008 - 10 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1552
Abstract
People with coeliac disease (CD) have a higher risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD), potentially due to inflammation. Probiotics can influence CVD risk through several mechanisms including modifying inflammation. We performed a systematic review of probiotic interventions in people with CD. In total, [...] Read more.
People with coeliac disease (CD) have a higher risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD), potentially due to inflammation. Probiotics can influence CVD risk through several mechanisms including modifying inflammation. We performed a systematic review of probiotic interventions in people with CD. In total, 4 databases were systematically searched for studies published up to March 2023. All outcomes, inclusive of any cardiovascular risk factors, were collated and reported. We screened 8084 articles and 11 publications reporting on 7 RCTs and 2 non-RCTs met the inclusion criteria for qualitative analysis. In total, 1 RCT and both non-RCTs were considered to have a high risk of bias. There was large heterogeneity between the studies and adherence to a gluten-free diet was only measured in two studies. No specific outcomes related to cardiovascular risk were reported. Two studies reported a significant reduction on serum TNF-α in children over time after probiotic supplementation. One study reported no significant change in intestinal permeability over a 3-week intervention. Currently there is insufficient evidence to advocate a positive impact of probiotics on inflammation in CD, due, in part, to the limited data on adherence to the gluten-free diet and active disease. Full article
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11 pages, 2295 KiB  
Article
In the Driving Seat with High-Resolution Ano-Rectal Manometry
by Mary Nwaezeigwe, Julie O’Neill, Lucy Quinlivan, Lorraine Nolan, John O’Grady and Martin Buckley
Gastrointest. Disord. 2024, 6(1), 103-113; https://doi.org/10.3390/gidisord6010007 - 10 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1206
Abstract
Introduction: High-resolution ano-rectal manometry (HRAM), part of the investigative process to diagnose disorders of recto-anal co-ordination, is currently performed in the left-lateral position (LLP). This may seem unnatural for patients and recent data suggest that the seated, squatted position (SP) may improve rectal [...] Read more.
Introduction: High-resolution ano-rectal manometry (HRAM), part of the investigative process to diagnose disorders of recto-anal co-ordination, is currently performed in the left-lateral position (LLP). This may seem unnatural for patients and recent data suggest that the seated, squatted position (SP) may improve rectal drive and recto-anal pressure gradients, raising the question as to whether defaecatory dyssenergia (DD) is over-diagnosed when the test is carried out in the LLP. Aim/method: A single centre study was carried out in patients with faecal incontinence and/or constipation to evaluate the effect of SP versus LLP on HRAM analysis and resultant manometric diagnosis of DD. Positioning was consecutive and the order was randomised for each patient. The HRAM protocol was carried out in accordance with the manufacturer’s guidelines (Manoscan). Data analysis and interpretation were blinded with a consensus reached for each test position. Data (mean ± SEM) were analysed using an unpaired t-test and Chi-square test. Results: In total, 40 patients completed the study, including 33 females with a median age of 56 (IQR 48–63). The mean rectal drive was significantly higher in the SP vs. LLP (82.6 ± 5.3 mmHg vs. 44.1 ± 3.9 mmHg, respectively, p < 0.0001). No difference in the anal sphincter relaxation pressure (66.7 ± 5.7 mmHg vs. 70.9 ± 5.5 mmHg, p = 0.9535) was detected. The manometric diagnoses of abnormal ano-rectal co-ordination were significantly higher in the LLP, when p = 0.013. Patients reported a significant preference for the seated position, when p = 0.0001. Conclusion: These data show that HRAM in the seated position improves rectal drive, which reduces manometric diagnoses of abnormal ano-rectal coordination. These findings may have important implications for practice and may inform future guidelines. Full article
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9 pages, 1132 KiB  
Systematic Review
The Diagnostic Accuracy of Abdominal X-ray in Childhood Constipation: A Systematic Review of the Literature
by David Avelar Rodriguez, Ghaida Dahlwi, Michelle Gould, Margaret Marcon and Marc Benninga
Gastrointest. Disord. 2024, 6(1), 94-102; https://doi.org/10.3390/gidisord6010006 - 09 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1392
Abstract
Background: Previous systematic reviews have found insufficient and conflicting evidence for an association between the clinical and radiographic diagnosis of functional constipation. Abdominal X-ray is frequently used for the diagnosis of functional constipation in clinical practice. The objective of this study was to [...] Read more.
Background: Previous systematic reviews have found insufficient and conflicting evidence for an association between the clinical and radiographic diagnosis of functional constipation. Abdominal X-ray is frequently used for the diagnosis of functional constipation in clinical practice. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of abdominal X-ray for the evaluation of functional constipation in children. Results: Three studies were included in the final qualitative analysis. They were heterogeneous in their study design, definition of constipation, and radiologic parameters used to evaluate the abdominal X-rays. Sensitivities ranged from 73–92%, specificities ranged from 26–92%, and diagnostic accuracies ranged from 78–90%. Methods: This study involved a systematic review of English literature published between 2012 and 2022 covering children 2–18 years of age with a diagnosis of functional constipation in whom abdominal X-ray was performed. The databases searched include Medline, Embase, and Scopus. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) and Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies 2 (QUADAS-2) guidelines were followed. PROSPERO ID: CRD42022301833. Conclusions: There is insufficient evidence to support the use of abdominal X-ray as part of the diagnostic workup of functional constipation. More methodologically rigorous studies are needed to determine the utility of abdominal X-ray in the evaluation of functional constipation. The diagnosis of functional constipation should be based on history and clinical findings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Gastrointestinal Disorders in 2023-2024)
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30 pages, 3939 KiB  
Review
Viral Liver Disease and Intestinal Gut–Liver Axis
by Elias Kouroumalis, Ioannis Tsomidis and Argyro Voumvouraki
Gastrointest. Disord. 2024, 6(1), 64-93; https://doi.org/10.3390/gidisord6010005 - 08 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1601
Abstract
The intestinal microbiota is closely related to liver diseases via the intestinal barrier and bile secretion to the gut. Impairment of the barrier can translocate microbes or their components to the liver where they can contribute to liver damage and fibrosis. The components [...] Read more.
The intestinal microbiota is closely related to liver diseases via the intestinal barrier and bile secretion to the gut. Impairment of the barrier can translocate microbes or their components to the liver where they can contribute to liver damage and fibrosis. The components of the barrier are discussed in this review along with the other elements of the so-called gut–liver axis. This bidirectional relation has been widely studied in alcoholic and non-alcoholic liver disease. However, the involvement of microbiota in the pathogenesis and treatment of viral liver diseases have not been extensively studied, and controversial data have been published. Therefore, we reviewed data regarding the integrity and function of the intestinal barrier and the changes of the intestinal microbioma that contribute to progression of Hepatitis B (HBV) and Hepatitis C (HCV) infection. Their consequences, such as cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy, were also discussed in connection with therapeutic interventions such as the effects of antiviral eradication and the use of probiotics that may influence the outcome of liver disease. Profound alterations of the microbioma with significant reduction in microbial diversity and changes in the abundance of both beneficial and pathogenic bacteria were found. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers in Gastrointestinal Disorders in 2023-2024)
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15 pages, 737 KiB  
Article
Insights into Personal Perceptions and Experiences of Colonoscopy after Positive FIT in the Flemish Colorectal Cancer Screening Program
by Sarah Hoeck and Thuy Ngan Tran
Gastrointest. Disord. 2024, 6(1), 49-63; https://doi.org/10.3390/gidisord6010004 - 08 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1186
Abstract
Background: A timely diagnostic colonoscopy (DC) after a positive FIT result is crucial for effective colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. In the Flemish CRC screening program (CRC-SP), 17% of FIT-positive participants had no DC in 2020. This study explores self-reported barriers, experiences, and perceptions [...] Read more.
Background: A timely diagnostic colonoscopy (DC) after a positive FIT result is crucial for effective colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. In the Flemish CRC screening program (CRC-SP), 17% of FIT-positive participants had no DC in 2020. This study explores self-reported barriers, experiences, and perceptions about DC in FIT-positive participants. Methods: An online survey combining qualitative and quantitative approaches was sent by email to FIT-positive participants (November 2019–September 2020). Results: Out of 5134 invitees, 1597 respondents (31.1%) completed the survey. Among them, 77.5% had undergone/planned a DC, while 22.5% were unwilling to undergo a DC. DC perceptions, expectations, and experiences differed among groups; 57% of the ‘DC-performed’ group reported better-than-expected experiences. A substantial portion of the ‘DC-naïve’ group anticipated pain (42%) and embarrassment (30%), while the actual experience in the ‘DC-performed’ group was much lower (6.4% and 3.2%, respectively). GP advice, support from close contacts, and colonoscopy experiencers trigger DC planning, whereas lack of symptoms, false-positive perception, fears, and embarrassment were identified as barriers to DC. Conclusions: The study reveals barriers/facilitators for a DC in the Flemish CRC-SP. The findings inform targeted interventions for improved DC completion and its impact, including patient navigation and testimonial videos of ‘colonoscopy experiencers’ to address DC misperceptions. Full article
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23 pages, 2250 KiB  
Article
Bleeding and Perforation Complications after Follow-Up Colonoscopies in Faecal Immunochemical Test-Based Colorectal Cancer Screening: Insights from a Retrospective Case–Control Study
by Thuy Ngan Tran, Joanna Bouchat, Marc Peeters, Bea Berghmans, Eric Van Cutsem, Guido Van Hal, Koen Van Herck and Sarah Hoeck
Gastrointest. Disord. 2024, 6(1), 26-48; https://doi.org/10.3390/gidisord6010003 - 05 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1486
Abstract
Monitoring complications of colonoscopies after a positive faecal immunochemical test (FIT-colonoscopies) is crucial in FIT-based colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. We investigated the occurrence of bleeding and perforation post FIT-colonoscopies (2013–2019) in Flanders and the contributing factors. A retrospective case–control study was conducted, including [...] Read more.
Monitoring complications of colonoscopies after a positive faecal immunochemical test (FIT-colonoscopies) is crucial in FIT-based colorectal cancer (CRC) screening. We investigated the occurrence of bleeding and perforation post FIT-colonoscopies (2013–2019) in Flanders and the contributing factors. A retrospective case–control study was conducted, including bleeding/perforation cases within 14 days after index colonoscopy, and controls without such events. Bleeding rates dropped from 0.9–1.1% (pre-2017) to 0.3% (2017–2018) and further to 0.05% (2019), while perforation rates remained at 0.05–0.11% (2014–2019). Male gender, polypectomy, general anaesthesia, and recent antiplatelet/antithrombotic drug use increased bleeding odds. Incomplete colonoscopy, polypectomy, general anaesthesia, and recent antiplatelet/antithrombotic drug use raised perforation odds. The endoscopists (n = 16) with highest bleeding rates (top 5%) performed only 6% of total FIT-colonoscopies, yet their patients experienced 45.5% of bleeding events. Similarly, for the top 5% of perforation rates, endoscopists conducting only 4.5% of total FIT-colonoscopy had 49.0% of perforation events occur in their patients. This study sheds light on FIT-colonoscopy-related complications in Flanders, their rates and risk factors. These findings can be incorporated into CRC screening materials and guide interventions to mitigate complications. A central colonoscopy register is currently lacking in Belgium, highlighting the need for its establishment to facilitate recurrent monitoring and evaluation. Full article
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13 pages, 1483 KiB  
Article
The Treatment Effects of Percutaneous Drainage with or without Sclerotherapy for Symptomatic Liver Cysts
by Satoshi Takakusagi, Satoru Kakizaki, Naoto Saito, Tatsuya Kohga, Takashi Ueno, Takeshi Hatanaka, Masashi Namikawa, Hiroki Tojima, Atsushi Naganuma, Takashi Kosone, Toshio Uraoka and Hitoshi Takagi
Gastrointest. Disord. 2024, 6(1), 13-25; https://doi.org/10.3390/gidisord6010002 - 05 Jan 2024
Viewed by 1199
Abstract
Background: While the current guidelines recommend laparoscopic deroofing for symptomatic simple liver cysts, percutaneous drainage may serve as a less invasive alternative method. In this study, the treatment effects of percutaneous drainage with or without sclerotherapy for symptomatic simple liver cysts were evaluated. [...] Read more.
Background: While the current guidelines recommend laparoscopic deroofing for symptomatic simple liver cysts, percutaneous drainage may serve as a less invasive alternative method. In this study, the treatment effects of percutaneous drainage with or without sclerotherapy for symptomatic simple liver cysts were evaluated. Methods: Between April 2016 and March 2021, 79 patients who initially required hospitalization due to symptomatic simple liver cysts were enrolled in this multicenter retrospective study. They were treated percutaneously with or without sclerotherapy. The factors associated with symptom recurrence, clinical course and prognosis were investigated. Results: Of the 79 patients treated percutaneously, 11 (13.9%) had symptom recurrence due to liver cysts during the observation period. The maximum diameter of liver cysts at baseline was the only significant factor for the recurrence of these symptoms (p = 0.004). In a receiver operating characteristics analysis, the cut-off of the diameter for symptom recurrence was 16.5 cm. No additional effect of sclerotherapy on drainage was demonstrated in patients with a cyst diameter of <16.5 cm, and in patients with a cyst diameter of ≥16.5 cm, the cumulative recurrence rates of symptoms were significantly lower in the patients treated via sclerotherapy with 5% ethanolamine oleate or with minocycline hydrochloride than in those treated with drainage alone or via sclerotherapy with absolute ethanol. No problematic adverse effects were observed of sclerotherapy. Conclusions: Drainage with sclerotherapy with 5% ethanolamine oleate or minocycline hydrochloride was an effective and safe treatment for patients whose liver cysts had a maximum diameter of ≥16.5 cm. Considering both its efficacy and safety, sclerotherapy with either of these agents is recommended for patients with a maximum liver cyst diameter of ≥16.5 cm. Full article
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12 pages, 590 KiB  
Article
Gastrointestinal Group Education for Children and Adolescents with Functional Abdominal Pain Disorders—A Feasibility Study of a Brief Intervention
by Emilia Löfgren, Perjohan Lindfors, Karin Nilsson, Jenny Wannstedt, Marianne Bonnert and Agneta Uusijärvi
Gastrointest. Disord. 2024, 6(1), 1-12; https://doi.org/10.3390/gidisord6010001 - 20 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1362
Abstract
Functional abdominal pain disorders are common and disabling in children, but treatment options are limited. In a pilot study, we aimed to investigate if a brief group education program for pediatric patients with functional abdominal pain disorders and their parents is feasible and [...] Read more.
Functional abdominal pain disorders are common and disabling in children, but treatment options are limited. In a pilot study, we aimed to investigate if a brief group education program for pediatric patients with functional abdominal pain disorders and their parents is feasible and acceptable. Group education in adult irritable bowel syndrome has shown large treatment effects, but it has not been evaluated in children. The gastrointestinal (GI) group education, delivered in the clinic to 23 child–parent dyads, consisted of lectures by a pediatric gastroenterologist, a psychologist, and a dietician. Validated digital questionnaires were filled in by children and parents before and after the intervention. Most participants in the GI group education attended all sessions, and credibility in treatment was deemed high. Children’s self-reported knowledge of functional abdominal pain disorders increased, and improvements in gastrointestinal symptoms were reported at the end of this study. Our findings indicate that group education for children and adolescents with functional abdominal pain disorders, and their parents, is acceptable and feasible and may improve symptoms. A brief group education program may be of benefit in the management of pediatric functional abdominal pain disorders in several cases and when the family needs more knowledge than can be provided in primary care. Full article
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