Comprehensive Review of Power Electronic Converters in Electric Vehicle Applications
Abstract
:1. Introduction
2. Charging Section
2.1. Conductive Charging for Electric Vehicles
2.1.1. Onboard Charging
Phase Shift Modulation Topology
Isolated FullBridge LLC Resonant Converters
2.1.2. Offboard Charging
ThreePhase Bridgeless Boost Rectifier
Vienna Rectifier
2.2. Wireless Charging
2.2.1. Classification of Wireless Power Transfer (WPT)
Microwave Radiation WPT System
Capacitive WPT System
Inductive WPT System
Static Wireless Charging
QuasiDynamic Wireless Charging
Dynamic Wireless Charging
2.2.2. Compensation Networks
Capacitive Power Transfer Compensations
Inductive Power Transfer Compensations
2.2.3. Wireless Charging Challenges
3. DC–DC Converter
3.1. Conventional Boost DC–DC Converter (BC)
3.2. Interleaved FourPhase Boost DC–DC Converter (IBC)
3.3. Boost DC–DC Converter with Resonant Circuit (BCRC)
3.4. Full Bridge Boost DC–DC Converter (FBC)
3.5. Isolated ZVS DC–DC Converter (ZVSC)
3.6. Isolated Multiport DC–DC Converter (MPC)
3.7. Multidevice Interleaved DC–DC Bidirectional Converter (MDIBC)
4. Energy Storage
5. Inverter
5.1. TwoLevel Inverter (TLI)
5.2. MultiLevel Inverter (MLI)
6. Motor and Drive
6.1. Traction Motor
6.2. Integrated Motor Drive
7. Simulation Result and Analysis
7.1. Charging Section
7.2. DC–DC Converter
7.3. Inverter
8. Comparative Analysis and Summary
9. Future Trends
9.1. WBG Devices
9.1.1. Chargers
9.1.2. Electrified Powertrain
9.1.3. Motor Drives
9.2. System Integration
10. Conclusions
Author Contributions
Funding
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
References
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EVs Power Electronic Converters Overview Contributions  Recently Overviewed Articles  Citation  Addressed in this Overview 

Overview of charging rectifiers  [5,6]  104;198  √ 
Overview of powertrain DC–DC converters  [6,35]  198;1339  √ 
Overview of powertrain multilevel inverters  [1,12,36,37]  73;164;269;39  √ 
Overview of electric motors for EV  [15,38,39]  92;66;11  √ 
Overview of energy storage for EV  [40]  677  √ 
Overview of wireless power charging  [7,16,41,42]  518;97;551;30  √ 
Overview of the utilization of GaN and SiC  [32,33,34,43]  14;25;1874;72  √ 
Vehicle  First Production Year  Battery Voltage (V) 

Nissan Leaf  2010  350 
Tesla Model S  2012  350 
Chevrolet Spark EV  2013  400 
Audi etron  2018  400 
Porsche Taycan  2019  800 
Lucid Air  2020  900 
Aston Martin Rapide E  2020  800 
Parameters  Bridgeless Boost Rectifier  Vienna Rectifier 

RMS Input voltage, V_{in} (V)  230  230 
Output voltage, V_{out}  467  507 
Output power, P_{o} (kW)  22.41  32.10 
Frequency, f (Hz)  50  50 
Phases, N  3  3 
Inductor, L (µH)    1000 
Capacitor, C (µF)  461  1000 (×2) 
Parameters  BC  IBC  BCRC  FBC  ZVSC  MPC  MDIBC 

Input Voltage, V_{in} (V)  200  200  150  200  100  288, 48  250, 200 
Output Voltage, V_{out} (V)  300  400  380  400  300  400  400 
Switching Frequency, f_{sw} (kHz)  20  20  30  40  20  20  20 
Inductor Current, I_{max} (A)  250  250  7.5  75      100 
Inductor current ripple, ΔI_{max} (A)  12.5  12.5  0.75  3.75      10 
Output Voltage Ripple, ΔV_{out} (V)  4  4  4  4  3    4 
Number of Phase, N  1  4  1  1  1    4 
Turns ratio, n        1:2  1:3  1:2   
Output Power, P_{o} (kW)  30  30  5  30  1.6  30  30 
Maximum Duty Cycle, D  0.50  0.25  0.50  0.50  0.35    0.25 
Inductor, L (μH)  400  100  6670  1200  0.56  175  187, 160 
Capacitor, C (μF)  780  195  25  14.64  10  150  160 
Input Voltage, V_{in} (V)  200  200  150  200  100  288, 48  250, 200 
Output Voltage, V_{out} (V)  300  400  380  400  300  400  400 
Parameters  TLI  SLI  THISLI 

Input voltage, V_{in} (V)  450  200  200 
Output voltage (V_{PP}), V_{out} (V)  450  400  400 
Output real power, P_{o} (kW)  4.6  4.8  5 
Frequency, f (Hz)  25–50  13–50  13–50 
Phases, N  3  3  3 
Output levels  2  7  7 
Load, L  EM (5.4 HP)  EM (5.4 HP)  EM (5.4 HP) 
Topologies  Controllability  Bidirectionality  Reliability  Power Range  Efficiency 

PSFBC  High  Not Present  High  High  Moderate 
FBLLC  Moderate  Not Present  Low  Moderate  Low 
Topologies  Merits  Demerits 

PSFBC 


FBLLC 


Topologies  Controllability  Bidirectionality  Reliability  Power Range  Efficiency 

Bridgeless Boost Rectifier  Moderate  Present  Moderate  Moderate  High 
Vienna Rectifier  High  Not Present  High  High  High 
Topologies  Merits  Demerits 

Bridgeless Boost Rectifier 


Vienna Rectifier 


Topologies  Controllability  Bidirectionality  Reliability  Power Range  Efficiency 

BC  High  Not Present  Moderate  High  Low 
IBC  High  Not Present  Moderate  High  Moderate 
BCRC  High  Not Present  High  Low  Low 
FBC  High  Not Present  High  High  Moderate 
ZVSC  Moderate  Not Present  High  Low  High 
MPC  Moderate  Present  Low  High  High 
MDIBC  High  Present  High  High  High 
Topologies  Merits  Demerits 

BC 


IBC 


BCRC 


FBC 


ZVSC 


MPC 


MDIBC 


Topologies  Controllability  Bidirectionality  Reliability  Power Range  Efficiency 

TLI  Moderate  Present  Moderate  Low  Low 
SLI  High  Present  Moderate  High  High 
THISLI  High  Present  High  High  High 
Topologies  Merits  Demerits 

TLI 


SLI 


THISLI 


Parameters  Si  SiC  GaN 

Electron mobility (cm^{2}/V×s)  1400  900  1800 
Energy gap (eV)  1.12  3.26  3.5 
Breakdown electric field (MV/cm)  0.3  3  3.3 
Thermal conductivity (W/cm×K)  1.5  4.9  1.3 
Saturation drift velocity (Mcm/s)  10  27  27 
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Islam, R.; Rafin, S.M.S.H.; Mohammed, O.A. Comprehensive Review of Power Electronic Converters in Electric Vehicle Applications. Forecasting 2023, 5, 2280. https://doi.org/10.3390/forecast5010002
Islam R, Rafin SMSH, Mohammed OA. Comprehensive Review of Power Electronic Converters in Electric Vehicle Applications. Forecasting. 2023; 5(1):2280. https://doi.org/10.3390/forecast5010002
Chicago/Turabian StyleIslam, Rejaul, S M Sajjad Hossain Rafin, and Osama A. Mohammed. 2023. "Comprehensive Review of Power Electronic Converters in Electric Vehicle Applications" Forecasting 5, no. 1: 2280. https://doi.org/10.3390/forecast5010002