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J, Volume 3, Issue 3 (September 2020) – 9 articles

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15 pages, 1768 KiB  
Review
Influence of SPV Installations on the Thermal Character of the Urban Milieu
by Khushal Matai
J 2020, 3(3), 343-357; https://doi.org/10.3390/j3030027 - 18 Sep 2020
Viewed by 2969
Abstract
The solar photovoltaic (SPV) market is growing at a rapid pace with ambitious targets being set worldwide. India is not far behind with an overall solar target of 100 gigawatts (GW) to be achieved by 2022, out of which 40 gigawatts is to [...] Read more.
The solar photovoltaic (SPV) market is growing at a rapid pace with ambitious targets being set worldwide. India is not far behind with an overall solar target of 100 gigawatts (GW) to be achieved by 2022, out of which 40 gigawatts is to be achieved by solar rooftop. Additionally, the depleting non-renewable energy sources and the extensive pollution being done by the aforementioned sources are fueling the renewable energy drive. The threat of climate change, which is fast becoming a reality with effects seen globally, is another contributing factor. The effect of SPV installations on the temperature profiles of their surroundings and the urban thermal environment (UTE) is being studied at a global level, which has arrived at contradictory results, positive as well as negative. However, no such study has been done in the Indian context, which is crucial considering the country’s targets for rooftop installation specifically. The thermal environment of the vicinity is affected by the installations, as seen in the various global studies; the question is how this heat–energy balance is occurring in the Indian context. This review paper looks critically at studies focusing on the relation between SPV installation and the urban heat island (UHI) effect. It is a compilation and analysis of 22 different studies done so far at the global level to gain a thorough understanding of the diverse results. In conclusion, this review highlights the absence of any comprehensive study on the interaction of SPV installations with the built environment at a micro-level and establishes the need for region-based complete studies on the thermal behavior of SPV technology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable and Resource – Efficient Homes and Communities)
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14 pages, 1793 KiB  
Article
Assessment of Cosmeceutical Potentials of Selected Mushroom Fruitbody Extracts Through Evaluation of Antioxidant, Anti-Hyaluronidase and Anti-Tyrosinase Activity
by Dang Lelamurni Abd Razak, Anisah Jamaluddin, Nur Yuhasliza Abd Rashid, Nor Ajila Sani and Musaalbakri Abdul Manan
J 2020, 3(3), 329-342; https://doi.org/10.3390/j3030026 - 18 Sep 2020
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 5110
Abstract
Cosmeceutical formulations containing naturally derived active ingredients are currently preferred by consumers worldwide. Mushrooms are one of the potential sources for cosmeceutical ingredients but relevant research is still lacking. In this study, hot- and cold-water extractions were performed on four locally-cultivated mushrooms—Pleurotus [...] Read more.
Cosmeceutical formulations containing naturally derived active ingredients are currently preferred by consumers worldwide. Mushrooms are one of the potential sources for cosmeceutical ingredients but relevant research is still lacking. In this study, hot- and cold-water extractions were performed on four locally-cultivated mushrooms—Pleurotus ostreatus, Ganoderma lucidum, Auricularia polytricha and Schizophyllum commune—with the aim to assess the cosmeceutical potential of these mushroom fruitbody extracts. Total phenolics, polysaccharide and glucan content were determined. Antioxidant property of the mushroom extracts was assessed by determining the DPPH radical scavenging, ferric-reducing (FRAP) and superoxide anion (SOA) scavenging activity. Anti-hyaluronidase activity was used as an indicator for the anti-aging and anti-inflammatory property, while anti-tyrosinase activity was evaluated to assess the anti-pigmentation or whitening property of these extracts. Our results showed that total polysaccharide content of P. ostreatus extracts was the highest (235.8–253.6 mg GE/g extract), while extracts from G. lucidum contained the lowest glucan (10.12–10.67%). Cold-water extract from S. commune exhibited substantial tyrosinase inhibition activity (98.15%) and SOA scavenging activity (94.82%). The greatest hyaluronidase activity was exhibited by G. lucidum hot-water extract, with the value of 72.78%. The findings from the correlation analyses suggest that the cosmeceutical properties of these mushrooms can be attributed mainly to the combination of different types of compound such as polysaccharides and phenolics. Overall, cold-water extract of S. commune and hot-water extract of G. lucidum showed the best results and may be further investigated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Biology & Life Sciences)
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43 pages, 250 KiB  
Correction
Correction: Abramov, R. The Random Gas of Hard Spheres. J 2019, 2, 162–205
by Rafail V. Abramov
J 2020, 3(3), 324-328; https://doi.org/10.3390/j3030025 - 16 Sep 2020
Viewed by 1820
Abstract
In the published paper [1], we used the spatial correlation function R(σ) of two spheres, each of diameter σ, to construct a closure to the BBGKY hierarchy of hard spheres [...] Full article
11 pages, 242 KiB  
Article
Maternal Education at Birth and Youth Breakfast Consumption at Age 15: Blacks’ Diminished Returns
by Shervin Assari, Shanika Boyce, Mohsen Bazargan, Cleopatra H. Caldwell and Ron Mincy
J 2020, 3(3), 313-323; https://doi.org/10.3390/j3030024 - 16 Sep 2020
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3256
Abstract
Background: Based on the Marginalization-related Diminished Returns (MDRs) framework, high socioeconomic status (SES) such as parental education shows weaker effects for Blacks than Whites. For example, high SES Black individuals report a high level of depression, anxiety, suicide, chronic disease, smoking, and mortality. [...] Read more.
Background: Based on the Marginalization-related Diminished Returns (MDRs) framework, high socioeconomic status (SES) such as parental education shows weaker effects for Blacks than Whites. For example, high SES Black individuals report a high level of depression, anxiety, suicide, chronic disease, smoking, and mortality. Limited knowledge exists on MDRs of parental education on dietary behavior. Aims: Built on the MDRs framework, we tested the hypothesis of whether the effect of parental education on eating breakfast differs for Black compared to White families. We hypothesized that there is an association between mothers’ educational attainment and eating breakfast and compared Blacks and Whites for the effect of mothers’ educational attainment on the frequency of eating breakfast. Methods: The Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study is a 15-year follow up study of a random sample of births in cities larger than 200,000 population. The predictor was parental education at birth. The outcome was the frequency of eating breakfast at age 15. Linear regression was used for data analysis. Results: Maternal educational attainment at birth was positively associated with youth frequency of eating breakfast among Whites, not Blacks. We also found a significant interaction between maternal educational attainment at birth and race, suggesting that the association between maternal education and youth frequency of eating breakfast at age 15 was weaker for Black than White families. Conclusions: Diminished returns of maternal educational attainment on healthy youth diet may contribute to the racial disparities in poor health of high SES Black families. That is, a smaller protective effect of maternal education on changing health behaviors for Black than White youth may be one of the mechanisms by which health is worse than expected in high SES Black families. The health disparities are not only due to racial differences in SES but also the diminishing returns of socioeconomic status indicators such as education for racial minorities. Research should study contextual and structural factors that reduce Black families’ ability to mobilize their human capital and secure health outcomes in urban settings. Full article
14 pages, 1781 KiB  
Article
Do Claims about the Naturalness and Dose of Cosmetics Ingredients Affect the Public’s Perception of Their Safety?
by Louise Chandon
J 2020, 3(3), 299-312; https://doi.org/10.3390/j3030023 - 6 Sep 2020
Viewed by 5362
Abstract
Media articles have claimed that “synthetic mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH)”, which are used in many cosmetics such as lip balms, are unsafe at any dose and should be replaced with natural alternatives. This paper examines whether these claims are correct and whether [...] Read more.
Media articles have claimed that “synthetic mineral oil saturated hydrocarbons (MOSH)”, which are used in many cosmetics such as lip balms, are unsafe at any dose and should be replaced with natural alternatives. This paper examines whether these claims are correct and whether the perceived safety of these substances is influenced by the language used in the media. To achieve these goals, it first provides an extensive review of the toxicology literature, finding no support that MOSHs are unsafe at current usage levels. It then reviews the psychology literature to examine the effects of labelling a cosmetic ingredient as “natural” rather than “synthetic” and the effects of dose information. A 2 × 2 between-subjects experiments involving adult lip balm users shows that, as hypothesized, the perceived safety of lip balms increases when they are described as containing “naturally sourced mineral oil” rather than “synthetic mineral oil saturated hydrocarbon (MOSH)”, which are both correct descriptions. In addition, the perceived safety increases when the substance is described as being present in a low vs. a high dose, regardless of whether it was described as natural or synthetic. Overall, safety perceptions for common cosmetic substances can be significantly influenced by the language used in media reporting. Full article
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10 pages, 853 KiB  
Article
Perceptions Regarding Daith Piercing in Migraine, A Survey of Pediatric Patients
by Trevor Gerson, Mark Connelly, Madeline Boorigie, Jennifer Bickel and Jennifer Dilts
J 2020, 3(3), 289-298; https://doi.org/10.3390/j3030022 - 31 Aug 2020
Viewed by 12752
Abstract
The treatment of migraine is evolving to include non-traditional approaches, as pharmacologic therapy alone is unsuccessful in many patients. Daith piercing, a cartilaginous ear piercing, has become popular as a potential nonpharmacological treatment option for migraine. However, there are no systematic data on [...] Read more.
The treatment of migraine is evolving to include non-traditional approaches, as pharmacologic therapy alone is unsuccessful in many patients. Daith piercing, a cartilaginous ear piercing, has become popular as a potential nonpharmacological treatment option for migraine. However, there are no systematic data on the utilization and efficacy of these piercings. Therefore, we investigated the perceptions of pediatric patients regarding Daith piercing and gathered initial retrospective data for patients who had already received it. Patients presenting to a pediatric neurology clinic were invited to complete a questionnaire to assess knowledge about and attitudes towards Daith piercing and their willingness to undergo such a treatment. For those with a Daith piercing, the effects on headaches, function, and mood were evaluated. Of the 171 respondents, 61% had prior knowledge of Daith piercings, 27% knew someone with a Daith piercing, and 60% of patients presenting with headache were willing to undergo piercing. Of the eight patients (5% of respondents) who had already undergone piercing, six (75%) reported improvement in headaches, five (62%) had missed fewer days of school or work, and seven (87%) reported mood improvement. The high proportion of pediatric patients willing to undergo this form of treatment speaks to the desire for and acceptance of nonpharmacologic treatments. Although based on a small sample, the data from children who have already undergone Daith piercing is promising and supports a need for further systematic investigation into this treatment approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Pain and Chronic Pain)
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14 pages, 753 KiB  
Article
Riluzole Oral Suspension for the Treatment of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Texture and Compatibility with Food Thickeners Evaluation
by Giuseppe Colombo, Roberta Artico and Daniele Barbareschi
J 2020, 3(3), 275-288; https://doi.org/10.3390/j3030021 - 19 Aug 2020
Viewed by 3787
Abstract
Riluzole 5 mg/mL oral suspension is the only licensed liquid medicine to treat Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) orally. As more than 80% of ALS patients develop dysphagia, an oral liquid formulation provides an important therapeutic option. The Riluzole 5 mg/mL oral suspension is [...] Read more.
Riluzole 5 mg/mL oral suspension is the only licensed liquid medicine to treat Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) orally. As more than 80% of ALS patients develop dysphagia, an oral liquid formulation provides an important therapeutic option. The Riluzole 5 mg/mL oral suspension is administered by means of the graduated oral dosing syringe included in the medicine package. Its concentration (5 mg/mL) is consistent with a small and easy to measure volume (10 mL) to deliver the prescribed 50-mg dose twice daily. This work had a dual objective. The first was to evaluate the texture of the Riluzole 5 mg/mL oral suspension according to the International Dysphagia Diet Standardisation Initiative (IDDSI) flow test. Results of this experiment indicated that Riluzole 5 mg/mL oral suspension would basically fall under the “mildly thick” IDDSI descriptors. This is an important feature because thick fluids facilitate a safer swallow in patients with dysphagia. As a second objective, we evaluated for scientific purposes the compatibility of Riluzole 5 mg/mL oral suspension with some of the most common food thickeners available on the market. Intimate mixtures of the Riluzole 5 mg/mL oral suspension with thickeners were evaluated for appearance, pH, Riluzole assay and Riluzole related substances immediately after preparation and after two hours at room temperature. Riluzole 5 mg/mL oral suspension resulted to be compatible with all the marketed thickeners tested. Full article
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9 pages, 843 KiB  
Perspective
Real-Time Sensing and Control of Integrative Horticultural Lighting Systems
by Dorukalp Durmus
J 2020, 3(3), 266-274; https://doi.org/10.3390/j3030020 - 23 Jul 2020
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3089
Abstract
Optical radiation, including light, plays a crucial role in the structural development of plants through photomorphogenesis and the response to environmental changes. However, plant sensitivity to optical radiation widely varies across species. While research efforts are currently underway to discover the fundamentals of [...] Read more.
Optical radiation, including light, plays a crucial role in the structural development of plants through photomorphogenesis and the response to environmental changes. However, plant sensitivity to optical radiation widely varies across species. While research efforts are currently underway to discover the fundamentals of plant physiology, light sources with preprogrammed light settings (light recipes) are offered to clients to expedite plant growth. Since horticultural lighting research is in its infancy, prescribed lighting conditions are not likely to address every plants’ needs in terms of the spatial and spectral distribution, intensity, and duration of the light sources. However, it is possible to imagine an intelligent horticultural lighting system that can diagnose plants through sensors, and adjust the light intensity, the spatial and spectral distribution for the specific plant species with active feedback. Such an advanced real-time horticultural lighting system would consist of sensors to detect physiological markers from plants and environmental factors and an artificial intelligence algorithm to adjust the output. While the underlying technology for a real-time optimization system exists, the implementation and training would require further research. Full article
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17 pages, 358 KiB  
Article
The Factors that Influence Human Resources on Affordable Housing Delivery within Restraint of Budget
by Imisioluseyi Akinyede, Julius Fapohunda and Rainer Haldenwang
J 2020, 3(3), 250-265; https://doi.org/10.3390/j3030019 - 28 Jun 2020
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3593
Abstract
The study aims to establish the factors influencing human resources on cost, since the construction cost of housing delivery is often above budgeted cost. The challenges occurred due to unsustainable practices in the use of human resources, design-related issues, matching resources availability with [...] Read more.
The study aims to establish the factors influencing human resources on cost, since the construction cost of housing delivery is often above budgeted cost. The challenges occurred due to unsustainable practices in the use of human resources, design-related issues, matching resources availability with cost and time frame problems. The methodology used is a sequential mixed method to achieve the aim and objective of the study, for this purpose, construction managers and stakeholders were considered as research respondents. Data collected was analysed on SPSS software version 25, with the application of a descriptive statistics analysis technique. Findings deduced are involvement of all team members in the planning and implementation process will enhance mutual relationships, less conflict and fewer controversies on design, while documenting delivery roles and responsibilities among construction team members will increase the satisfaction of interest and efficient resources utilisation. This study establishes “factors regulating human resources management on construction cost and “strong component factors influencing human resources on cost”. The study then assembles the factors to develop an operational framework that will control construction resources management on cost, as a guide to improve competency and sustainable techniques for affordable housing delivery within the income limit of the poor people in South Africa. Full article
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