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Particles, Volume 6, Issue 1 (March 2023) – 25 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Gluons are massless at the level of the fundamental QCD Lagrangian, but acquire an effective mass through the action of the celebrated Schwinger mechanism. The activation of this mechanism hinges on the formation of composite massless poles, which modify the analytic structure of the fundamental vertices of the theory, and induce smoking gun displacements in the corresponding Ward identities. In this article, we elucidate the key notions connected with this special dynamical scenario, placing particular emphasis on the synergy between continuum Schwinger function methods and lattice simulations, and highlighting recent advances that corroborate the action of the Schwinger mechanism in QCD. View this paper
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19 pages, 388 KiB  
Review
Future of Neutron Star Studies with Fast Radio Bursts
by Sergei B. Popov and Maxim S. Pshirkov
Particles 2023, 6(1), 451-469; https://doi.org/10.3390/particles6010025 - 21 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1804
Abstract
Fast radio bursts (FRBs) were discovered only in 2007. However, the number of known events and sources of repeating bursts grows very rapidly. In the near future, the number of events will be ≳104 and the number of repeaters ≳100. Presently, there [...] Read more.
Fast radio bursts (FRBs) were discovered only in 2007. However, the number of known events and sources of repeating bursts grows very rapidly. In the near future, the number of events will be ≳104 and the number of repeaters ≳100. Presently, there is a consensus that most of the sources of FRBs might be neutron stars (NSs) with large magnetic fields. These objects might have different origin as suggested by studies of their host galaxies which represent a very diverse sample: from regions of very active star formation to old globular clusters. Thus, in the following decade we expect to have a very large sample of events directly related to extragalactic magnetars of different origin. This might open new possibilities to probe various aspects of NS physics. In the review we briefly discuss the main directions of such future studies and summarize our present knowledge about FRBs and their sources. Full article
11 pages, 4636 KiB  
Project Report
Light-Nuclei Production in Heavy-Ion Collisions at sNN = 6.4 – 19.6 GeV in THESEUS Generator Based on Three-Fluid Dynamics
by Marina Kozhevnikova and Yuri B. Ivanov
Particles 2023, 6(1), 440-450; https://doi.org/10.3390/particles6010024 - 16 Mar 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1504
Abstract
Light-nuclei production in relativistic heavy-ion collisions is simulated within an updated Three-fluid Hydrodynamics-based Event Simulator Extended by UrQMD (Ultra-relativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics) final State interactions (THESEUS). The simulations are performed in the collision energy range of sNN= 6.4–19.6 GeV. The [...] Read more.
Light-nuclei production in relativistic heavy-ion collisions is simulated within an updated Three-fluid Hydrodynamics-based Event Simulator Extended by UrQMD (Ultra-relativistic Quantum Molecular Dynamics) final State interactions (THESEUS). The simulations are performed in the collision energy range of sNN= 6.4–19.6 GeV. The light-nuclei are produced within the thermodynamical approach on an equal basis with hadrons. Since the light nuclei do not participate in the UrQMD evolution, the only additional parameter related to the light nuclei, i.e., the energy density of late freeze-out, is used for the imitation of the afterburner stage of the collision. The updated THESEUS provides a reasonable reproduction of data on bulk observables of the light nuclei, especially their functional dependence on the collision energy and light-nucleus mass. Various ratios, d/p, t/p, t/d, and N(t)×N(p)/N2(d), are also considered. Imperfect reproduction of the light-nuclei data leaves room for medium effects in produced light nuclei. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from "Physics Performance Studies at FAIR and NICA")
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24 pages, 7008 KiB  
Review
Nucleon Resonance Electroexcitation Amplitudes and Emergent Hadron Mass
by Daniel S. Carman, Ralf W. Gothe, Victor I. Mokeev and Craig D. Roberts
Particles 2023, 6(1), 416-439; https://doi.org/10.3390/particles6010023 - 15 Mar 2023
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 1876
Abstract
Understanding the strong interaction dynamics that govern the emergence of hadron mass (EHM) represents a challenging open problem in the Standard Model. In this paper we describe new opportunities for gaining insight into EHM from results on nucleon resonance (N*) [...] Read more.
Understanding the strong interaction dynamics that govern the emergence of hadron mass (EHM) represents a challenging open problem in the Standard Model. In this paper we describe new opportunities for gaining insight into EHM from results on nucleon resonance (N*) electroexcitation amplitudes (i.e., γvpN* electrocouplings) in the mass range up to 1.8 GeV for virtual photon four-momentum squared (i.e., photon virtualities Q2) up to 7.5 GeV2 available from exclusive meson electroproduction data acquired during the 6-GeV era of experiments at Jefferson Laboratory (JLab). These results, combined with achievements in the use of continuum Schwinger function methods (CSMs), offer new opportunities for charting the momentum dependence of the dressed quark mass from results on the Q2-evolution of the γvpN* electrocouplings. This mass function is one of the three pillars of EHM and its behavior expresses influences of the other two, viz. the running gluon mass and momentum-dependent effective charge. A successful description of the Δ(1232)3/2+ and N(1440)1/2+ electrocouplings has been achieved using CSMs with, in both cases, common momentum-dependent mass functions for the dressed quarks, for the gluons, and the same momentum-dependent strong coupling. The properties of these functions have been inferred from nonperturbative studies of QCD and confirmed, e.g., in the description of nucleon and pion elastic electromagnetic form factors. Parameter-free CSM predictions for the electrocouplings of the Δ(1600)3/2+ became available in 2019. The experimental results obtained in the first half of 2022 have confirmed the CSM predictions. We also discuss prospects for these studies during the 12-GeV era at JLab using the CLAS12 detector, with experiments that are currently in progress, and canvass the physics motivation for continued studies in this area with a possible increase of the JLab electron beam energy up to 22 GeV. Such an upgrade would finally enable mapping of the dressed quark mass over the full range of distances (i.e., quark momenta) where the dominant part of hadron mass and N* structure emerge in the transition from the strongly coupled to perturbative QCD regimes. Full article
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11 pages, 579 KiB  
Article
An Improved Core-Corona Model for Λ and Λ Polarization in Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions
by Alejandro Ayala, Isabel Dominguez, Ivonne Maldonado and Maria Elena Tejeda-Yeomans
Particles 2023, 6(1), 405-415; https://doi.org/10.3390/particles6010022 - 03 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1468
Abstract
Due to its sensitivity to the dynamics of strongly interacting matter subject to extreme conditions, hyperon global polarization has become an important observable to study the system created in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. Recently, the STAR and HADES collaborations have measured the global polarization [...] Read more.
Due to its sensitivity to the dynamics of strongly interacting matter subject to extreme conditions, hyperon global polarization has become an important observable to study the system created in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. Recently, the STAR and HADES collaborations have measured the global polarization of both Λ and Λ¯ produced in semi-central collisions in a wide range of collision energies. The polarization excitation functions show an increasing trend as the collision energy decreases, with the increase being more pronounced for the Λ¯. In this work, we make a summary of a core-corona model that we have developed to quantify the global polarization contributions from Λ and Λ¯ created in different regions of the fireball. The core-corona model assumes that Λs and Λ¯s are produced in both regions, the high-density core and the lower density corona, with different relative abundances which modulate the polarization excitation function. We have shown that the model works well for the description of experimental results. The global polarization excitation functions computed with the model show a peak at different collision energies in the region sNN10 GeV. Finally, we discuss and report on the model global polarization predictions for BES-II, NICA and CBM at FAIR and HADES energies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from "Physics Performance Studies at FAIR and NICA")
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6 pages, 697 KiB  
Communication
Prospects for the (Hyper)Nuclei Study in the Nica Energy Range
by Viktar Kireyeu, Vadim Kolesnikov, Alexander Zinchenko, Veronika Vasendina and Alexander Mudrokh
Particles 2023, 6(1), 399-404; https://doi.org/10.3390/particles6010021 - 02 Mar 2023
Viewed by 996
Abstract
The production of nuclei and hypernuclei is of interest for experimental and theoretical studies: it is a big question how such weakly bound objects survive in a hot, dense environment and which new insights on the heavy-ion collisions dynamics they can bring us. [...] Read more.
The production of nuclei and hypernuclei is of interest for experimental and theoretical studies: it is a big question how such weakly bound objects survive in a hot, dense environment and which new insights on the heavy-ion collisions dynamics they can bring us. We present the results on the hypernuclei feasibility study for the flagship Nuclotron-based Ion Collider fAcility (NICA)/Multi-Purpose Detector (MPD) experiment at the Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) in Dubna using the Parton-Hadron-Quantum-Molecular Dynamics (PHQMD) transport approach and a realistic reconstruction chain. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from "Physics Performance Studies at FAIR and NICA")
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14 pages, 3171 KiB  
Article
Precision Storage Rings for Electric Dipole Moment Searches: A Tool En Route to Physics Beyond-the-Standard-Model
by Hans Ströher, Sebastian M. Schmidt, Paolo Lenisa and Jörg Pretz
Particles 2023, 6(1), 385-398; https://doi.org/10.3390/particles6010020 - 02 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1452
Abstract
Electric Dipole Moments (EDM) of particles (leptons, nucleons, and light nuclei) are currently deemed one of the best indicators for new physics, i.e., phenomena which lie outside the Standard Model (SM) of elementary particle physics—so-called physics “Beyond-the-Standard-Model” (BSM). Since EDMs of the SM [...] Read more.
Electric Dipole Moments (EDM) of particles (leptons, nucleons, and light nuclei) are currently deemed one of the best indicators for new physics, i.e., phenomena which lie outside the Standard Model (SM) of elementary particle physics—so-called physics “Beyond-the-Standard-Model” (BSM). Since EDMs of the SM are vanishingly small, a finite permanent EDM would indicate charge-parity (CP) symmetry violation in addition to the well-known sources of the SM, and could explain the baryon asymmetry of the Universe, while an oscillating EDM would hint at a possible Dark Matter (DM) field comprising axions or axion-like particles (ALPs). A new approach exploiting polarized charged particles (proton, deuteron, 3He) in precision storage rings offers the prospect to push current experimental EDM upper limits significantly further, including the possibility of an EDM discovery. In this paper, we describe the scientific background and the steps towards the realization of a precision storage ring, which will make such measurements possible. Full article
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12 pages, 2491 KiB  
Article
Λ and Λ¯ Freeze-Out Distributions and Global Polarizations in Au+Au Collisions
by Nikita Tsegelnik, Evgeni Kolomeitsev and Vadym Voronyuk
Particles 2023, 6(1), 373-384; https://doi.org/10.3390/particles6010019 - 27 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1117
Abstract
The gold–gold collisions at sNN=7.7 and 11.5 GeV are simulated within the PHSD transport model. In each collision event, the spectator nucleons are separated and the fluidization procedure for the participants is performed. The local velocities are determined in [...] Read more.
The gold–gold collisions at sNN=7.7 and 11.5 GeV are simulated within the PHSD transport model. In each collision event, the spectator nucleons are separated and the fluidization procedure for the participants is performed. The local velocities are determined in the Landau frame and the kinematic and thermal vorticity fields are evaluated. We analyze the thermodynamic properties of the cells where Λs and Λ¯s were born or had their last interaction. Such cells contribute to the formation of the observed global polarization of hyperons induced by the thermal vorticity of the medium. The Λ¯ polarization signal is found to be mainly determined by hot, dense, and highly vortical cells at the earlier stage of the collision, whereas the Λ polarization signal is accumulated over the longer time and includes cells with lower vorticity. The calculated global polarizations for both Λs and Λ¯s agree well with the experimental finding by the STAR collaboration at energy sNN=11.5 GeV. For collisions at sNN=7.7 GeV, we can reproduce the STAR data for Λ hyperons, but significantly underpredict the observed global polarization of Λ¯. Furthermore, we consider the centrality dependence of the hyperon polarization in collisions at 7.7 GeV. It increases with an increase of centrality, reaches a maximum at 65–75% and then starts decreasing rapidly for peripheral collisions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from "Physics Performance Studies at FAIR and NICA")
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9 pages, 3187 KiB  
Article
Feasibility Studies for the Measurement of Open-Charm Mesons at ALICE-3 Using Decay Channels with Neutral Mesons and Photons in the Final State
by Mikhail Malaev and Victor Riabov
Particles 2023, 6(1), 364-372; https://doi.org/10.3390/particles6010018 - 17 Feb 2023
Viewed by 1138
Abstract
ALICE-3 is being designed as a next-generation heavy-ion experiment to be operated at the high-luminosity Large Hadron Collider. With luminosities higher by a factor of fifty, ALICE-3 will be able to study5 properties of quark–gluon matter with probes and precision which were previously [...] Read more.
ALICE-3 is being designed as a next-generation heavy-ion experiment to be operated at the high-luminosity Large Hadron Collider. With luminosities higher by a factor of fifty, ALICE-3 will be able to study5 properties of quark–gluon matter with probes and precision which were previously unavailable due to small cross sections, high background levels, and insufficient detector sensitivity. In particular, the properties of hot and dense QCD matter will be studied by measuring production cross sections, flow coefficients, azimuthal angular correlations and nuclear modification factors for open-charm hadrons. In this contribution, we present the results of feasibility studies for the measurement of ground and excited states of open-charm mesons in decay channels D0 → K + π+ + π0, D*(2007)0 → D0 + γ and D*(2010)± → D0 + π± in pp, p-Pb and Pb-Pb collisions at LHC energies using the ALICE-3 experimental setup. We formulate the main requirements for the selection of particles and their combinations to ensure reliable signal extraction in a wide transverse momentum range and estimate the minimum size of the required data samples. The results obtained are also compared to previous findings for the open-charm measurements in different decay channels. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from "Physics Performance Studies at FAIR and NICA")
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52 pages, 2842 KiB  
Review
Gauge Sector Dynamics in QCD
by Mauricio Narciso Ferreira and Joannis Papavassiliou
Particles 2023, 6(1), 312-363; https://doi.org/10.3390/particles6010017 - 15 Feb 2023
Cited by 21 | Viewed by 2247
Abstract
The dynamics of the QCD gauge sector give rise to non-perturbative phenomena that are crucial for the internal consistency of the theory; most notably, they account for the generation of a gluon mass through the action of the Schwinger mechanism, the taming of [...] Read more.
The dynamics of the QCD gauge sector give rise to non-perturbative phenomena that are crucial for the internal consistency of the theory; most notably, they account for the generation of a gluon mass through the action of the Schwinger mechanism, the taming of the Landau pole, the ensuing stabilization of the gauge coupling, and the infrared suppression of the three-gluon vertex. In the present work, we review some key advances in the ongoing investigation of this sector within the framework of the continuum Schwinger function methods, supplemented by results obtained from lattice simulations. Full article
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15 pages, 911 KiB  
Article
Long-Lived Particles Anomaly Detection with Parametrized Quantum Circuits
by Simone Bordoni, Denis Stanev, Tommaso Santantonio and Stefano Giagu
Particles 2023, 6(1), 297-311; https://doi.org/10.3390/particles6010016 - 13 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1969
Abstract
We investigate the possibility to apply quantum machine learning techniques for data analysis, with particular regard to an interesting use-case in high-energy physics. We propose an anomaly detection algorithm based on a parametrized quantum circuit. This algorithm was trained on a classical computer [...] Read more.
We investigate the possibility to apply quantum machine learning techniques for data analysis, with particular regard to an interesting use-case in high-energy physics. We propose an anomaly detection algorithm based on a parametrized quantum circuit. This algorithm was trained on a classical computer and tested with simulations as well as on real quantum hardware. Tests on NISQ devices were performed with IBM quantum computers. For the execution on quantum hardware, specific hardware-driven adaptations were devised and implemented. The quantum anomaly detection algorithm was able to detect simple anomalies such as different characters in handwritten digits as well as more complex structures such as anomalous patterns in the particle detectors produced by the decay products of long-lived particles produced at a collider experiment. For the high-energy physics application, the performance was estimated in simulation only, as the quantum circuit was not simple enough to be executed on the available quantum hardware platform. This work demonstrates that it is possible to perform anomaly detection with quantum algorithms; however, as an amplitude encoding of classical data is required for the task, due to the noise level in the available quantum hardware platform, the current implementation cannot outperform classic anomaly detection algorithms based on deep neural networks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 2022 Feature Papers by Particles’ Editorial Board Members)
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35 pages, 1247 KiB  
Review
Generalised Parton Distributions in Continuum Schwinger Methods: Progresses, Opportunities and Challenges
by Cédric Mezrag
Particles 2023, 6(1), 262-296; https://doi.org/10.3390/particles6010015 - 08 Feb 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1749
Abstract
This paper review the modelling efforts regarding Generalised Parton Distributions (GPDs) using continuum techniques relying on Dyson–Schwinger and Bethe–Salpeter equations. The definition and main properties of the GPDs are first recalled. Then, we detail the strategies developed in the last decade in the [...] Read more.
This paper review the modelling efforts regarding Generalised Parton Distributions (GPDs) using continuum techniques relying on Dyson–Schwinger and Bethe–Salpeter equations. The definition and main properties of the GPDs are first recalled. Then, we detail the strategies developed in the last decade in the meson sector, highlighting that observables connected to the pion GPDs may be measured at future colliders. We also highlight the challenges one will face when targeting baryons in the future. Full article
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17 pages, 1734 KiB  
Review
Λ Polarization and Vortex Rings in Heavy-Ion Collisions at NICA Energies
by Yuri B. Ivanov and Alexei A. Soldatov
Particles 2023, 6(1), 245-261; https://doi.org/10.3390/particles6010014 - 06 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1338
Abstract
We review recent studies of vortical motion and the resulting polarization of Λ hyperons in heavy-ion collisions at NICA energies, in particular, within the model of three-fluid dynamics (3FD). This includes predictions of the global Λ polarization and ring structures that appear in [...] Read more.
We review recent studies of vortical motion and the resulting polarization of Λ hyperons in heavy-ion collisions at NICA energies, in particular, within the model of three-fluid dynamics (3FD). This includes predictions of the global Λ polarization and ring structures that appear in Au+Au collisions. The global Λ polarization in Au+Au collisions is calculated, including its rapidity and centrality dependence. The contributions of the thermal vorticity and meson-field term (proposed by Csernai, Kapusta, and Welle) to the global polarization are considered. The results are compared with data from recent STAR and HADES experiments. It is predicted that the polarization maximum is reached at sNN 3 GeV if the measurements are performed with the same acceptance. It is demonstrated that a pair of vortex rings are formed, one at forward rapidities and another at backward rapidities, in ultra-central Au+Au collisions at sNN> 4 GeV. The vortex rings carry information about the early stage of the collision, in particular, the stopping of baryons. It is shown that these rings can be detected by measuring the ring observable RΛ, even in the midrapidity region at sNN= 5–20 GeV. At forward/backward rapidities, the RΛ signal is expected to be stronger. The possibility of observing the vortex-ring signal against the background of non-collective transverse polarization is discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from "Physics Performance Studies at FAIR and NICA")
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6 pages, 232 KiB  
Brief Report
The Invariance of Inelastic Overlap Function
by Sergey Mikhailovich Troshin and Nikolai Evgenjevich Tyurin
Particles 2023, 6(1), 239-244; https://doi.org/10.3390/particles6010013 - 03 Feb 2023
Viewed by 913
Abstract
In this study, we consider the symmetry property of the inelastic overlap function and its relation to the reflective scattering mode appearance. This symmetry property disfavors an exclusion of one of the scattering modes—the reflective mode—when approaching the asymptotic limit. Predominance of the [...] Read more.
In this study, we consider the symmetry property of the inelastic overlap function and its relation to the reflective scattering mode appearance. This symmetry property disfavors an exclusion of one of the scattering modes—the reflective mode—when approaching the asymptotic limit. Predominance of the particular mode correlates with the energy and impact parameters ranges. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection High Energy Physics)
22 pages, 1551 KiB  
Article
Masses of Compact (Neutron) Stars with Distinguished Cores
by Rico Zöllner, Minghui Ding and Burkhard Kämpfer
Particles 2023, 6(1), 217-238; https://doi.org/10.3390/particles6010012 - 02 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1796
Abstract
In this paper, the impact of core mass on the compact/neutron-star mass-radius relation is studied. Besides the mass, the core is parameterized by its radius and surface pressure, which supports the outside one-component Standard Model (SM) matter. The core may accommodate SM matter [...] Read more.
In this paper, the impact of core mass on the compact/neutron-star mass-radius relation is studied. Besides the mass, the core is parameterized by its radius and surface pressure, which supports the outside one-component Standard Model (SM) matter. The core may accommodate SM matter with unspecified (or poorly known) equation-of-state or several components, e.g., consisting of admixtures of Dark Matter and/or Mirror World matter etc. beyond the SM. Thus, the admissible range of masses and radii of compact stars can be considerably extended. Full article
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19 pages, 4463 KiB  
Article
Bayesian Exploration of Phenomenological EoS of Neutron/Hybrid Stars with Recent Observations
by Emanuel V. Chimanski, Ronaldo V. Lobato, Andre R. Goncalves and Carlos A. Bertulani
Particles 2023, 6(1), 198-216; https://doi.org/10.3390/particles6010011 - 02 Feb 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1611
Abstract
The description of the stellar interior of compact stars remains as a big challenge for the nuclear astrophysics community. The consolidated knowledge is restricted to density regions around the saturation of hadronic matter [...] Read more.
The description of the stellar interior of compact stars remains as a big challenge for the nuclear astrophysics community. The consolidated knowledge is restricted to density regions around the saturation of hadronic matter ρ0=2.8×1014gcm3, regimes where our nuclear models are successfully applied. As one moves towards higher densities and extreme conditions up to the quark/gluons deconfinement, little can be said about the microphysics of the equation of state (EoS). Here, we employ a Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) strategy to access the variability at high density regions of polytropic piecewise models for neutron star (NS) EoS or possible hybrid stars, i.e., a NS with a small quark-matter core. With a fixed description of the hadronic matter for low density, below the nuclear saturation density, we explore a variety of models for the high density regimes leading to stellar masses near to 2.5M, in accordance with the observations of massive pulsars. The models are constrained, including the observation of the merger of neutrons stars from VIRGO-LIGO and with the pulsar observed by NICER. In addition, we also discuss the possibility of the use of a Bayesian power regression model with heteroscedastic error. The set of EoS from the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) was used as input and treated as the data set for the testing case. Full article
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10 pages, 593 KiB  
Article
Charge Asymmetry of Muons Generated in a Muon Generator from Ultra-Dense Hydrogen D(0) and p(0)
by Leif Holmlid
Particles 2023, 6(1), 188-197; https://doi.org/10.3390/particles6010010 - 30 Jan 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1496
Abstract
Laser-induced nuclear reactions in ultra-dense hydrogen H(0) (review in Physica Scripta 2019) create mesons (kaons and pions). These mesons decay mainly to muons. The muons created are useful (patented source) for the muon-induced fusion process. The sign of the muons from the source [...] Read more.
Laser-induced nuclear reactions in ultra-dense hydrogen H(0) (review in Physica Scripta 2019) create mesons (kaons and pions). These mesons decay mainly to muons. The muons created are useful (patented source) for the muon-induced fusion process. The sign of the muons from the source depends on the initial baryons used. With D(0) (ultra-dense deuterium) the source produces mainly positive muons and with p(0) (ultra-dense protium) the source produces mainly negative muons. Negative muons are required for muon-induced fusion. This charge asymmetry was reported earlier, and has now been confirmed by experiments with a coil current transformer as the beam detector. The current coil detector would give no signal from the muons if charge symmetry existed. The charge asymmetry could indicate unknown processes, for example, caused by the different annihilation processes in D(0) and p(0). The conclusions of a new analysis of the results are presented here. Using D(0) in the muon source, the asymmetry is likely due to the capture of µ- in D atoms and D2 molecules. This leads to emission of excess µ+ from D(0). With p(0) in the muon source, the capture rate of µ- is lower than in D(0). The emitted number of µ+ will be decreased by the reaction between µ+ and the surrounding abundant electrons, forming neutral muonium particles. This effect decreases the amount of emitted µ+ for both p(0) and D(0), and it is proposed to be the main reason for a larger fraction of emitted µ- in the case of p(0). Thus, there is no dominant emission of negative muons which would violate charge conservation. Full article
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15 pages, 1349 KiB  
Article
Direct Photon Production in Heavy-Ion Collisions: Theory and Experiment
by Dmitry Blau and Dmitri Peresunko
Particles 2023, 6(1), 173-187; https://doi.org/10.3390/particles6010009 - 30 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1739
Abstract
Direct photons provide a possibility to test properties of hot matter created in proton–proton (pp), proton–nucleus (p–A) or nucleus–nucleus (A–A) collisions. As they are created in charged particles’ scatterings and freely escape the hot region, they provide a tool to test all stages [...] Read more.
Direct photons provide a possibility to test properties of hot matter created in proton–proton (pp), proton–nucleus (p–A) or nucleus–nucleus (A–A) collisions. As they are created in charged particles’ scatterings and freely escape the hot region, they provide a tool to test all stages of the collision: the scattering of the partons of incoming nucleons, pre-equilibrium evolution and collective expansion of hot quark–gluon matter created in nucleus–nucleus collisions. Comparing direct photon production in pp, p–A and A–A collisions, one can check the scaling with the number of binary collisions expected at a high transverse momentum range and obtain insight into the hot and cold hadronic matter properties with soft photons. The collective elliptic flow of direct photons is a unique possibility to trace the collective flow formation and space–time evolution of the fireball. We review the experimental results on direct photon production in pp, p–A and A–A collisions at the Super Proton Synchroton (SPS), the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) energies and discuss an agreement of theoretical predictions with measurements. Finally, we present predictions of direct photon spectra and collective flow for lower energy collisions expected at the Nuclotron-based Ion Collider fAcility (NICA) and the Facility for Antiproton and Ion Research (FAIR). Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from "Physics Performance Studies at FAIR and NICA")
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29 pages, 493 KiB  
Article
Beyond the Standard Model with Six-Dimensional Spinors
by David Chester, Alessio Marrani and Michael Rios
Particles 2023, 6(1), 144-172; https://doi.org/10.3390/particles6010008 - 28 Jan 2023
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 2376
Abstract
Six-dimensional spinors with Spin(3,3) symmetry are utilized to efficiently encode three generations of matter. E8(24) is shown to contain physically relevant subgroups with representations for GUT groups, spacetime symmetries, three [...] Read more.
Six-dimensional spinors with Spin(3,3) symmetry are utilized to efficiently encode three generations of matter. E8(24) is shown to contain physically relevant subgroups with representations for GUT groups, spacetime symmetries, three generations of the standard model fermions, and Higgs bosons. Pati–Salam, SU(5), and Spin(10) grand unified theories are found when a single generation is isolated. For spacetime symmetries, Spin(4,2) may be used for conformal symmetry, AdS5dS4, or simply broken to Spin(3,1) of a Minkowski space. Another class of representations finds Spin(2,2) and can give AdS3 with various GUTs. An action for three generations of fermions in the Majorana–Weyl spinor 128 of Spin(4,12) is found with Spin(3) flavor symmetry inside E8(24). The 128 of Spin(12,4) can be regarded as the tangent space to a particular pseudo-Riemannian form of the octo-octonionic Rosenfeld projective plane E8(24)/Spin(12,4)=(OsxO)P2. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Particles: Feature Papers)
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8 pages, 498 KiB  
Concept Paper
Coulomb Force from Non-Local Self-Assembly of Multi-Peak Densities in a Charged Space Continuum
by Igor É. Bulyzhenkov
Particles 2023, 6(1), 136-143; https://doi.org/10.3390/particles6010007 - 20 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1318
Abstract
Maxwell’s electrodynamics admits radial charge densities of the elementary organization with one vertex of the spherical symmetry. A multi-vertex distribution of sharply inhomogeneous charge densities can also be described by monistic field solutions to Maxwell’s equations–equalities. Coulomb–Lorentz forces are exerted locally to correlated [...] Read more.
Maxwell’s electrodynamics admits radial charge densities of the elementary organization with one vertex of the spherical symmetry. A multi-vertex distribution of sharply inhomogeneous charge densities can also be described by monistic field solutions to Maxwell’s equations–equalities. Coulomb–Lorentz forces are exerted locally to correlated electric densities in their volume organization with the fixed self-energy integral. The long-range Coulomb interaction between the dense peaks of the charged space continuum can be described quantitatively through bulk integrals of local tensions within observable bodies in favor of the monistic all-unity in the material space physics of Descartes and Russian cosmists. Full article
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2 pages, 150 KiB  
Editorial
Acknowledgment to the Reviewers of Particles in 2022
by Particles Editorial Office
Particles 2023, 6(1), 134-135; https://doi.org/10.3390/particles6010006 - 18 Jan 2023
Viewed by 830
Abstract
High-quality academic publishing is built on rigorous peer review [...] Full article
13 pages, 1237 KiB  
Article
Interference with Non-Interacting Free Particles and a Special Type of Detector
by Ioannis Contopoulos, Athanasios C. Tzemos, Foivos Zanias and George Contopoulos
Particles 2023, 6(1), 121-133; https://doi.org/10.3390/particles6010005 - 17 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1271
Abstract
This paper demonstrates how a classical detector that collects non-interacting individual classical massive free particles can generate a quantum interference pattern. The proposed classical picture requires that particles carry the information of a phase equal to an action integral along their trajectory. At [...] Read more.
This paper demonstrates how a classical detector that collects non-interacting individual classical massive free particles can generate a quantum interference pattern. The proposed classical picture requires that particles carry the information of a phase equal to an action integral along their trajectory. At the point of their detection, a special type of detector collects the phases from all individual particles reaching it, adds them up over time as complex numbers, and divides them by the square root of their number. The detector announces a number of detections equal to the square of the amplitude of the resulting complex number. An interference pattern is gradually built from the collection of particle phases in the detection bins of the detector after several repetitions of the experiment. We obtain perfect agreement with three solutions of the Schrödinger equation for free particles: a Gaussian wavepacket, two Gaussian wavepackets approaching each other, and a Gaussian wavepacket reflecting off a wall. The main conclusion of the present work is that the interference of quantum mechanics is basically due to the detectors that collect the particles when there are macroscopic detectors operating as proposed. Finally, a simple physical experiment with a single-photon detector is proposed that will be able to test our theory. Full article
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64 pages, 5437 KiB  
Review
Emergence of Hadron Mass and Structure
by Minghui Ding, Craig D. Roberts and Sebastian M. Schmidt
Particles 2023, 6(1), 57-120; https://doi.org/10.3390/particles6010004 - 11 Jan 2023
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 22105
Abstract
Visible matter is characterised by a single mass scale; namely, the proton mass. The proton’s existence and structure are supposed to be described by quantum chromodynamics (QCD); yet, absent Higgs boson couplings, chromodynamics is scale-invariant. Thus, if the Standard Model is truly a [...] Read more.
Visible matter is characterised by a single mass scale; namely, the proton mass. The proton’s existence and structure are supposed to be described by quantum chromodynamics (QCD); yet, absent Higgs boson couplings, chromodynamics is scale-invariant. Thus, if the Standard Model is truly a part of the theory of Nature, then the proton mass is an emergent feature of QCD; and emergent hadron mass (EHM) must provide the basic link between theory and observation. Nonperturbative tools are necessary if such connections are to be made; and in this context, we sketch recent progress in the application of continuum Schwinger function methods to an array of related problems in hadron and particle physics. Special emphasis is given to the three pillars of EHM—namely, the running gluon mass, process-independent effective charge, and running quark mass; their role in stabilising QCD; and their measurable expressions in a diverse array of observables. Full article
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27 pages, 1516 KiB  
Article
Constraints on Nuclear Symmetry Energy Parameters
by James M. Lattimer
Particles 2023, 6(1), 30-56; https://doi.org/10.3390/particles6010003 - 04 Jan 2023
Cited by 31 | Viewed by 2448
Abstract
A review is made of constraints on the nuclear symmetry energy parameters arising from nuclear binding energy measurements, theoretical chiral effective field predictions of neutron matter properties, the unitary gas conjecture, and measurements of neutron skin thicknesses and dipole polarizabilities. While most studies [...] Read more.
A review is made of constraints on the nuclear symmetry energy parameters arising from nuclear binding energy measurements, theoretical chiral effective field predictions of neutron matter properties, the unitary gas conjecture, and measurements of neutron skin thicknesses and dipole polarizabilities. While most studies have been confined to the parameters SV and L, the important roles played by, and constraints on Ksym, or, equivalently, the neutron matter incompressibility KN, are discussed. Strong correlations among SV,L, and KN are found from both nuclear binding energies and neutron matter theory. However, these correlations somewhat differ in the two cases, and those from neutron matter theory have smaller uncertainties. To 68% confidence, it is found from neutron matter theory that SV=32.0±1.1 MeV, L=51.9±7.9 MeV and KN=152.2±38.1 MeV. Theoretical predictions for neutron skin thickness and dipole polarizability measurements of the neutron-rich nuclei 48Ca, 120Sn, and 208Pb are compared to recent experimental measurements, most notably the CREX and PREX neutron skin experiments from Jefferson Laboratory. By themselves, PREX I+II measurements of 208Pb and CREX measurement of 48Ca suggest L=121±47 MeV and L=5±40 MeV, respectively, to 68% confidence. However, we show that nuclear interactions optimally satisfying both measurements imply L=53±13 MeV, nearly the range suggested by either nuclear mass measurements or neutron matter theory, and is also consistent with nuclear dipole polarizability measurements. This small parameter range implies R1.4=11.6±1.0 km and Λ1.4=22890+148, which are consistent with NICER X-ray and LIGO/Virgo gravitational wave observations of neutron stars. Full article
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13 pages, 766 KiB  
Article
Elliptic Flow and Its Fluctuations from Transport Models for Au+Au Collisions at sNN = 7.7 and 11.5 GeV
by Vinh Ba Luong, Dim Idrisov, Petr Parfenov and Arkadiy Taranenko
Particles 2023, 6(1), 17-29; https://doi.org/10.3390/particles6010002 - 30 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1529
Abstract
The elliptic flow v2 is one of the key observables sensitive to the transport properties of the strongly interacting matter formed in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. In this work, we report on the calculations of v2 and its fluctuations of charged hadrons [...] Read more.
The elliptic flow v2 is one of the key observables sensitive to the transport properties of the strongly interacting matter formed in relativistic heavy-ion collisions. In this work, we report on the calculations of v2 and its fluctuations of charged hadrons produced in Au+Au collisions at center-of-mass energy per nucleon pair sNN = 7.7 and 11.5 GeV from several transport models and provide a direct comparison with published results from the STAR experiment. This study motivates further experimental investigations of v2 and its fluctuations with the Multi-Purpose Detector (MPD) at the NICA Collider. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Selected Papers from "Physics Performance Studies at FAIR and NICA")
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16 pages, 429 KiB  
Article
Consistent Theories of Free Dirac Particle without Singular Predictions
by Giuseppe Nisticò
Particles 2023, 6(1), 1-16; https://doi.org/10.3390/particles6010001 - 20 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1062
Abstract
Dirac’s theory is not the unique theory consistent with the physical principles specific of a free spin-one-half particle. In fact, we derive classes of theories of an elementary free particle from the principle of Poincaré’s invariance and from the principle of the covariance [...] Read more.
Dirac’s theory is not the unique theory consistent with the physical principles specific of a free spin-one-half particle. In fact, we derive classes of theories of an elementary free particle from the principle of Poincaré’s invariance and from the principle of the covariance of the position. The theory of Dirac is just one of these theories, characterized by singular predictions, namely, the zitterbewegung. Yet, the class here derived contains families of consistent theories without singular predictions. For the time being, the experimental verifiability of these alternative theories is restricted to the predictions of free-particle theories for ideal experiments. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Particles: Feature Papers)
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