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ChemEngineering, Volume 7, Issue 6 (December 2023) – 17 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): The current study presents a computational fluid dynamics (CFDs) model designed to simulate the microfiltration of 2D materials using hollow fiber membranes from their dispersion. Microfiltration has recently been proposed as a cost-effective strategy for 2D material production, involving a dispersion containing a permeating solute (graphene), a fouling material (non-exfoliated graphite), and the solvent. The objective of the model is to investigate the effects of fouling of flat layered structure material (graphite) on the transmembrane pressure (TMP) of the system and the filtration of the permeating solute. View this paper
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17 pages, 4022 KiB  
Article
Microwave-Assisted Synthesis of Titanosilicates Using a Precursor Produced from Titanium Ore Concentrate
ChemEngineering 2023, 7(6), 118; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemengineering7060118 - 15 Dec 2023
Viewed by 997
Abstract
Titanosilicates comprise a broad class of materials with promising technological applications. The typical obstacle that restricts their industrial applicability is the high manufacturing cost due to the use of specific organotitanium precursors. We herein report a new approach to the synthesis of titanosilicates [...] Read more.
Titanosilicates comprise a broad class of materials with promising technological applications. The typical obstacle that restricts their industrial applicability is the high manufacturing cost due to the use of specific organotitanium precursors. We herein report a new approach to the synthesis of titanosilicates using an inexpensive inorganic precursor, ammonium titanyl sulfate (ATS or STA), (NH4)2TiO(SO4)2∙H2O. The latter is an intermediate in the processing of titanium-bearing concentrates produced from apatite-nepheline ores. In this paper, the new synthetic approach is exemplified by the microwave-assisted synthesis of IONSIVE-911, one of the most effective Cs-ion scavengers. The method can be modified to synthesize various titanosilicate compounds. Full article
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16 pages, 3263 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of Stabilization and Physical–Chemical Properties of CNT Antifreeze Nanofluid Prepared in 50:50 EG/Water by Modified Strategy
ChemEngineering 2023, 7(6), 117; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemengineering7060117 - 06 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1109
Abstract
This article proposes a better alternative method to prepare CNT antifreeze nanofluid in EG/water by modifying the conventional method that requires long hours of sonication. Sonicating a sample for long hours is time and energy consuming and may deform the structure of CNT. [...] Read more.
This article proposes a better alternative method to prepare CNT antifreeze nanofluid in EG/water by modifying the conventional method that requires long hours of sonication. Sonicating a sample for long hours is time and energy consuming and may deform the structure of CNT. In the modified method, the nanofluid preparation was carried out by dispersion of CNT in EG via sonication followed by adding water and again sonication. The study shows that nanofluid could be prepared in less sonication time of 1.5 h compared to the 5 h required in the conventional method. FTIR spectroscopy revealed that interaction of EG with CNT occurs via trans conformation resulting in greater stabilization and better interaction of nanofluid prepared by this method (85 days) as compared to nanofluid prepared by the conventional method (50 days). The nanofluid prepared by this method has better physical–chemical properties compared to nanofluid prepared by the conventional method. The nanofluid prepared by this method showed higher stability and better physical–chemical properties at a lower sonication time. Hence it is a more effective and cost efficient technique for preparing CNT (EG/water) nanofluid. Full article
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14 pages, 1266 KiB  
Review
Exploring Strategies for Copper Removal from Nickel Anolytes: A Review
ChemEngineering 2023, 7(6), 116; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemengineering7060116 - 05 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1107
Abstract
Various methods, such as electrochemical purification, chemical precipitation, solvent extraction, and ion-exchange resins, have been extensively employed for the removal of copper from nickel anolytes. However, these methods exhibit several significant drawbacks when applied in industrial settings. For instance, electrochemical purification fails to [...] Read more.
Various methods, such as electrochemical purification, chemical precipitation, solvent extraction, and ion-exchange resins, have been extensively employed for the removal of copper from nickel anolytes. However, these methods exhibit several significant drawbacks when applied in industrial settings. For instance, electrochemical purification fails to efficiently manage nickel anolyte solutions with low copper content. Chemical precipitation presents challenges in residue management and incurs high production costs for precipitants. Solvent extraction raises concerns related to toxicity, while the use of ion-exchange resins demands meticulous selection of suitable materials. In this review, we present a comprehensive review of the nickel removal methods used for nickel anolyte purification, electrochemical purification, chemical precipitation, solvent extraction, and ion-exchange resins. We also examine the suitability and benefits of each technique in industrial settings. The ion-exchange method has drawn significant attention due to its strong selectivity and small adsorption quantity. The ion-exchange separation process does not generate any slag, and the ion-exchange resin can be recycled and reused; this method has great potential in a wide range of applications. Full article
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27 pages, 6795 KiB  
Article
Experimental and Kinetic Study of the Catalytic Behavior of Sulfate-Treated Nanostructured Bifunctional Zirconium Oxide Catalysts in n-Heptane Hydroisomerization Reactions
ChemEngineering 2023, 7(6), 115; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemengineering7060115 - 01 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1059
Abstract
In this study, a mono-functional ZrO2 nanomaterial was treated with sulfur and loaded with two different percentages of platinum metals (i.e., 0.5 and 1 wt%) to generate an acidic bi-functional Pt/SZrO2 nanocatalyst for the purpose of increasing the catalytic activity and [...] Read more.
In this study, a mono-functional ZrO2 nanomaterial was treated with sulfur and loaded with two different percentages of platinum metals (i.e., 0.5 and 1 wt%) to generate an acidic bi-functional Pt/SZrO2 nanocatalyst for the purpose of increasing the catalytic activity and selectivity together. This work aims to determine the least amount of the costly platinum metal that can be added to the catalyst to achieve the appropriate balance between the acidic and metallic sites. Both rapid deactivation of the super-acid nanaocatalyst and fast cleavage of the zero-octane n-heptane chain can consequently be prevented throughout the reaction. This can be achieved by accelerating the hydroisomerization reactions at a pressure of 5 bar to reach the highest selectivity towards producing the desired multi-branched compound in fuel. Several characterization techniques, including XRD, SEM, EDX, BET, and FTIR, have been used to evaluate the physical properties of the catalysts. The best reaction product was obtained at 230 °C compared to the other tested temperatures. The conversion, selectivity, and yield of reaction products over the surfaces of the prepared catalysts followed this order: 0.5 wt% Pt/SZrO2 > 1 wt% Pt/SZrO2 > 0.5 wt% Pt/ZrO2 > 1 wt% Pt/ZrO2 > SZrO2 > ZrO2. The highest conversion, selectivity, and yield values were obtained on the surface of the 0.5 wt% Pt/SZrO2 catalyst, which are 69.64, 81.4 and 56.68 wt%, respectively, while the lowest values were obtained on the surface of the parent ZrO2 catalyst, which are 43.9, 61.1 and 26.82, respectively. The kinetic model and apparent activation energies were also implemented for each of the hydroisomerization, hydrogenation/dehydrogenation, and hydrocracking reactions, which track the following order: hydroisomerization < hydrogenation/dehydrogenation < hydrocracking. The lowest apparent activation energy value of 123.39 kJ/mol was found on the surface of the most active and selective 0.5% Pt/SZrO2 nanocatalyst. Full article
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18 pages, 3836 KiB  
Article
Methyl Orange Adsorption on Biochar Obtained from Prosopis juliflora Waste: Thermodynamic and Kinetic Study
ChemEngineering 2023, 7(6), 114; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemengineering7060114 - 01 Dec 2023
Viewed by 1078
Abstract
In the information contained herein, we fabricated biochar by means of a pyrolysis process; it used Prosopis juliflora waste (PJW) as a biomass source. The physical and chemical material characterization was carried out through FTIR, thermogravimetric, BET-N2 isotherm, and SEM-EDX assays. We [...] Read more.
In the information contained herein, we fabricated biochar by means of a pyrolysis process; it used Prosopis juliflora waste (PJW) as a biomass source. The physical and chemical material characterization was carried out through FTIR, thermogravimetric, BET-N2 isotherm, and SEM-EDX assays. We studied the methylene orange (MO) adsorption onto PWJ biochar. The PJW biochar displayed a maximum percentage of MO removal of 64%. The results of the adsorption study indicated that Temkin isotherm was suitable to describe the MO adsorption process on PJW biochar; it suggests that the MO adsorption on PJW biochar could be a multi-layer adsorption process. Results showed that the pseudo-second-order model was accurate in demonstrating the MO adsorption on PJW (k2 = 0.295 g mg−1min−1; qe = 8.31 mg g−1). Furthermore, the results made known that the MO removal by PJW biochar was endothermic (ΔH = 12.7 kJ/mol) and a spontaneous process (ΔG = −0.954 kJ/mol). The reusability test disclosed that after four consecutive adsorption/desorption cycles, the PWJ biochar reduced its MO removal by only 4.3%. Full article
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17 pages, 5840 KiB  
Article
Swift Removal of the Heavy Metals Cadmium and Lead from an Aqueous Solution by a CAN-Zeolite Synthesized from Natural Clay
ChemEngineering 2023, 7(6), 113; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemengineering7060113 - 30 Nov 2023
Viewed by 890
Abstract
CAN-zeolite was synthesized with a high purity from natural kaolinite via alkali fusion by hydrothermal treatment at a pressure of 1 kbar H2O. It was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), infrared spectroscopy and nitrogen adsorption at 77 [...] Read more.
CAN-zeolite was synthesized with a high purity from natural kaolinite via alkali fusion by hydrothermal treatment at a pressure of 1 kbar H2O. It was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), infrared spectroscopy and nitrogen adsorption at 77 K. The results show that after AK hydrothermal treatment (under specific conditions), the SBET increases from 5.8 m2g−1 to 30.07 m2g−1 which is six times greater. The AK which was a non-porous or macroporous solid (the nitrogen adsorption/desorption of AK is of type II) became mesoporous (N2 adsorption–desorption isotherms exhibit typical hysteresis of type IV) with a pore size of 5.9 Å. XRD of AK shows the presence of quartz (Q) as impurities, and illite and kaolinite as major fractions; after hydrothermal treatment, the XRD diffractogram shows only fine pics related to CAN-zeolite (with a good crystallinity), confirming the success of the synthesized process. These results suggest that the synthesized CAN-zeolite has the potential to be tested in the removal of heavy metals from waste water as part of a remediation process. Batch reactors were used to evaluate the adsorption isotherms and kinetic studies of heavy metals, cadmium, and lead, by natural kaolinite clay (AK) and synthesized cancrinite zeolite (CAN-zeolite). The results show that the adsorption kinetics of the bivalent heavy metals cadmium and lead are extremely fast with either AK or CAN-zeolite. Equilibrium was reached within 2 min. Adsorption isotherms show that the synthesized CAN-zeolite has a higher adsorption capacity; the retention capacity of lead and cadmium was three times greater than that presented by the natural clay mineral. According to the findings, CAN-zeolite has a higher affinity for PbII (192 mg/g) compared to CdII (68 mg/g). The negative reactive surface sites interacting with these cationic heavy metals resulted in a higher amount of heavy metals adsorption than the cation exchange capacity (CEC). The adsorption information was analyzed using the Langmuir and Freundlich equations. The Langmuir model provided a good fit to the equilibrium data, indicating a monolayer adsorption mechanism. Full article
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16 pages, 6731 KiB  
Article
Integrated Process for High Phenol Removal from Wastewater Employing a ZnO Nanocatalyst in an Ozonation Reaction in a Packed Bubble Column Reactor
ChemEngineering 2023, 7(6), 112; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemengineering7060112 - 28 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1038
Abstract
The use of an ozonized bubble column reactor (OBCR) in wastewater treatment is advantageous due to its efficient mixing and mass transfer characteristics. Among all high-performance features, the ozonation reaction in a BCR undergoes a low dissolution of O3 in the reactor [...] Read more.
The use of an ozonized bubble column reactor (OBCR) in wastewater treatment is advantageous due to its efficient mixing and mass transfer characteristics. Among all high-performance features, the ozonation reaction in a BCR undergoes a low dissolution of O3 in the reactor with a limited reaction rate. In this study, the ozonation reaction of phenol in an OBCR was tested using a ZnO nanocatalyst and alumina balls as packing material. Three concentrations of O3 were evaluated (i.e., 10, 15, and 20 ppm), and 20 ppm was found to be the optimum concentration for phenol degradation. Also, two doses (i.e., 0.05 and 0.1 g/L) of ZnO nanocatalysts were applied in the reaction mixture, with the optimal dose found to be 0.1 g/L. Accordingly, three phenol concentrations were investigated in the OBCR (i.e., 15, 20, and 25 ppm) using four treatment methods (i.e., O3 alone, O3/Al2O3, O3/ZnO nanocatalyst, and O3/Al2O3/ZnO nanocatalyst). At a contact time of 60 min and phenol concentration of 15 ppm, the removal rate was 66.2, 73.1, 74.5, and 86.8% for each treatment method, respectively. The treatment experiment that applied the O3/Al2O3/ZnO nanocatalyst produced the highest phenol conversion into CO2 and H2O in the shortest contact time for all phenol concentrations. Thus, the OBCR employed with a ZnO nanocatalyst plus packing material is a promising technology for the rapid and active removal of phenol because it enhances the number of hydroxyl radicals (•OH) generated, which ultimately increases the oxidation activity in the OBCR. Also, the results showed efficient flow characteristics in the OBCR, with channeling problems averted due to appropriate gas movement resulting from the use of packing materials. Finally, it was found that the ozonation process in an OBCR is an efficient method for phenol conversion with good economic feasibility. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Engineering in Wastewater Treatment)
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25 pages, 13487 KiB  
Article
Flow Analysis and Structural Optimization of Double-Chamber Parallel Flexible Valve Micropumps
ChemEngineering 2023, 7(6), 111; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemengineering7060111 - 16 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1058
Abstract
In the current study, a two-dimensional numerical study is carried out to investigate the performance of a novel Double-Chamber Parallel Flexible Valve micropump, which utilized the electrowetting-on-dielectrics (EWOD) effect to drive the microfluid flow. By observing the flow fields, the internal circulations are [...] Read more.
In the current study, a two-dimensional numerical study is carried out to investigate the performance of a novel Double-Chamber Parallel Flexible Valve micropump, which utilized the electrowetting-on-dielectrics (EWOD) effect to drive the microfluid flow. By observing the flow fields, the internal circulations are seen on both the left and right sides of the pump. The generation of the backflow is discussed as well by tracking the movement of the vortices. Only slight flow fluctuations are seen in the micropump. Based on the simulation results, the structural parameters including the width of the inlet and the outlet, the width of the pumping channel and the diverging angle in the micropump are analyzed, and the influence of these parameters on the pumping volume and the maximum pressure are discussed. Eventually, a group of optimal parameter combinations is given according to the simulation results to extend the operating potential of the micropump. Full article
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13 pages, 2739 KiB  
Article
Thermochemical Treatment of Nigerian Raw Clays for Oil and Gas Drilling Operations
ChemEngineering 2023, 7(6), 110; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemengineering7060110 - 12 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1454
Abstract
Sodium-based bentonite is used for drilling operations because of its high swelling capacity. This type of bentonite clay is not sourced locally in many oil- and gas-producing nations. However, low-swelling clays (calcium- and potassium-based) are in abundant quantities in most of these countries. [...] Read more.
Sodium-based bentonite is used for drilling operations because of its high swelling capacity. This type of bentonite clay is not sourced locally in many oil- and gas-producing nations. However, low-swelling clays (calcium- and potassium-based) are in abundant quantities in most of these countries. Hence, there is a need to convert low-swelling bentonite clays to sodium-based bentonite. The method used to convert low-swelling clays is more applicable to calcium-based bentonite. This research investigated a thermochemical treatment method that converted potassium-based bentonite to sodium-based bentonite. The raw clay materials were sourced from Pindinga (P) and Ubakala (U) clay deposits in Nigeria. An X-ray diffractometer (XRD), an energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), and a scanning electron microscope (SEM) were used to characterize the raw clay samples. Mud slurry was prepared by mixing 22 g of the local raw clays, 3 wt.% soda ash, and MgO at concentrations between 1 and 3 wt.% and heating at 90 °C. The result showed that the viscosities of samples P and U increased from 6 to 26 and 8 to 35.5 cP before and after thermochemical treatment, respectively. Also, due to the thermochemical treatment, the samples’ yield point, consistency factor, consistency index, and thixotropy behavior were all significantly improved. Full article
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17 pages, 10819 KiB  
Article
Development of Synthesis Strategy of Ferric and Clayey Flat Ceramic Membranes
ChemEngineering 2023, 7(6), 109; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemengineering7060109 - 10 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1077
Abstract
Ceramic membranes prepared with flat sheet configuration using local materials, iron ore and bentonite, are reported in this investigation. The feedstocks used were fully characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and laser [...] Read more.
Ceramic membranes prepared with flat sheet configuration using local materials, iron ore and bentonite, are reported in this investigation. The feedstocks used were fully characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and laser diffraction/light scattering. In order to optimize the preparation conditions, the effect of sintering temperature on the microstructure of ferric and clayey membranes was assessed. Results obtained with SEM, confirmed by optical microscopy, indicate that the optimized sintering temperature was in the vicinity of 900 °C. The properties of the fabricated membranes were characterized in terms of mass and thickness loss throughout a determined period of time. The experimental results present a negligible variation in the rate of mass change, which suggested the stability of the synthesized membranes. Both the ferric and clayey membranes exhibit a prevalence of mesopores in their pore distribution. These results suggest that these specific membranes could be employed as cost-effective and environmentally friendly materials. Furthermore, they hold promise for potential applications in gas treatment processes. Full article
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17 pages, 4617 KiB  
Article
Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of the Filtration of 2D Materials Using Hollow Fiber Membranes
ChemEngineering 2023, 7(6), 108; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemengineering7060108 - 09 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1327
Abstract
The current study presents a computational fluid dynamics (CFDs) model designed to simulate the microfiltration of 2D materials using hollow fiber membranes from their dispersion. Microfiltration has recently been proposed as a cost-effective strategy for 2D material production, involving a dispersion containing a [...] Read more.
The current study presents a computational fluid dynamics (CFDs) model designed to simulate the microfiltration of 2D materials using hollow fiber membranes from their dispersion. Microfiltration has recently been proposed as a cost-effective strategy for 2D material production, involving a dispersion containing a permeating solute (graphene), a fouling material (non-exfoliated graphite), and the solvent. The objective of the model is to investigate the effects of fouling of flat layered structure material (graphite) on the transmembrane pressure (TMP) of the system and the filtration of the permeating solute. COMSOL Multiphysics software was used to numerically solve the coupled Navier–Stokes and mass conservation equations to simulate the flow and mass transfer in the two-dimensional domain. For the TMP calculations, we used the resistance-in-series approach to link the fouling of the foulants to the TMP behavior. The foulant particles were assumed to form a polarization layer and cake on the membrane surface, leading to the increment of the TMP of the system. We also assumed the wettability of the polymeric membrane’s inner wall increases upon fouling due to the flat layered structure of the foulant, which results in the reduction in the TMP. This approach accurately reproduced the experimental TMP behavior with a Mean Absolute Error (MAE) of 0.007 psi. Furthermore, the permeation of the permeating solute was computed by incorporating a fouling-dependent membrane partition coefficient for these particles. The effects of the concentration polarization and cake formation fouling stages on the membrane partition coefficient were encapsulated into our defined model parameters, denoted as α and β, respectively. This formulation of the partition coefficient yielded permeate concentration profiles, which are in excellent agreement with the experiments. For three feed concentrations of 0.05, 0.1, and 0.3 g/L, our model reproduced the experimental permeate concentration profiles with MAEs of 0.0002, 0.0003, and 0.0022 g/L, respectively. The flexibility of this model enables the users to utilize the size and concentration-dependent α and β parameters and optimize their experimental microfiltration setups effectively. Full article
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12 pages, 2579 KiB  
Article
Catalytic Performance of Bimetallic Cobalt–Nickel/Graphene Oxide for Carbon Dioxide Reforming of Methane
ChemEngineering 2023, 7(6), 107; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemengineering7060107 - 07 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1250
Abstract
The design of economical and robust catalysts is a substantial challenge for the dry reforming of methane (DRM). Monometallic nickel-based catalysts used for DRM reactions had comparable activity to noble metals. However, they turned out to be less stable during the reactions. As [...] Read more.
The design of economical and robust catalysts is a substantial challenge for the dry reforming of methane (DRM). Monometallic nickel-based catalysts used for DRM reactions had comparable activity to noble metals. However, they turned out to be less stable during the reactions. As a continuation of the interest in synthesizing catalysts for DRM, this paper evaluates the catalytic performance of bimetallic Co–Ni catalysts regarding their synergy effect, with graphene oxide (GO) as support for the first time. The synthesized bimetallic catalysts prepared via the wet-impregnation method were characterized using N2 physisorption analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The catalytic test was performed in a stainless-steel tubular reactor in atmospheric conditions with a reaction temperature of 800 °C, time-on-stream (TOS) of 300 min and CH4: CO2 being fed with a ratio of 1:1. The bimetallic 10 wt%Co–10 wt%Ni/GO and 20 wt%Co–10 wt%Ni/GO catalysts had a similar BET specific surface area in N2 physisorption analysis. The XRD pattern displayed a homogeneous distribution of the Co and Ni on the GO support, which was further validated through SEM–EDX. The conversion of CO2, CH4, and H2 yield decreased with reaction time due to the massive occurrence of side reactions. High conversions for CO2 and CH4 were 94.26% and 95.24%, respectively, attained by the bimetallic 20 wt%Co–10 wt%Ni/GO catalyst after 300 min TOS, meaning it displayed the best performance in terms of activity among all the tested catalysts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Chemical Engineering in Nanoparticles)
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19 pages, 6793 KiB  
Article
Synthesis and Application of MnO-Fe2O3 Nanocomposites for the Removal of 137Cs and 60Co Radionuclides from Artificial Radioactive Aqueous Waste
ChemEngineering 2023, 7(6), 106; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemengineering7060106 - 03 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1040
Abstract
For innovative application in wastewater treatment techniques, MnO-Fe2O3 nanocomposites were successfully synthesized using the sol–gel auto-combustion method at different temperatures for the adsorption of 137Cs and 60Co radionuclides from aqueous solution. The characterization of these nanocomposites was carried [...] Read more.
For innovative application in wastewater treatment techniques, MnO-Fe2O3 nanocomposites were successfully synthesized using the sol–gel auto-combustion method at different temperatures for the adsorption of 137Cs and 60Co radionuclides from aqueous solution. The characterization of these nanocomposites was carried out through FT-IR, SEM-EDX, and X-ray diffraction. These nanocomposites were employed as adsorbent materials for the removal of 137Cs and 60Co radionuclides from simulated radioactive waste solutions. The study involved a series of experiments aiming to demonstrate the MnO-Fe2O3 nanoparticles’ exceptional adsorption potential concerning 137Cs and 60Co. Additionally, the investigation delved into how variations in temperature, dose amount, contact time, and pH value influence the adsorption dynamics. Due to their high specific surface area, the synthesized MnO-Fe2O3 nanoparticles had high adsorption capacity of more than 60% and 90% for 137Cs and 60Co, respectively. By investigation of kinetics and adsorption isotherms, pseudo-second-order reaction and the Langmuir model turned out to fit well for the adsorption of 137Cs and 60Co onto the MnO-Fe2O3 nanocomposites. Moreover, a thermodynamic analysis revealed that the adsorption process was spontaneous for both target metals and the adsorption of 60Co was endothermic, whereas the adsorption of 137Cs was exothermic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Chemical Engineering in Wastewater Treatment)
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45 pages, 5960 KiB  
Review
Smart Poly(N-Isopropylacrylamide)-Based Microgels Supplemented with Nanomaterials for Catalytic Reduction Reactions—A Review
ChemEngineering 2023, 7(6), 105; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemengineering7060105 - 02 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1051
Abstract
The continuous and irresponsible addition of environmental pollutants into aqueous reservoirs due to excessive industrialization is a significant contemporary challenge. Nanomaterial-based catalytic reduction provides an effective way to convert these materials into environmentally useful products. Responsive polymeric assemblies, complemented with nanomaterials, represent advanced [...] Read more.
The continuous and irresponsible addition of environmental pollutants into aqueous reservoirs due to excessive industrialization is a significant contemporary challenge. Nanomaterial-based catalytic reduction provides an effective way to convert these materials into environmentally useful products. Responsive polymeric assemblies, complemented with nanomaterials, represent advanced nanocatalysts that are gaining interest within the scientific community. These assemblies exhibit reversible morphological transitions in response to variations induced by external factors such as temperature, pH, or electromagnetic irradiation treatment. The term hybrid microgels has been coined for assemblies that contain both nanomaterial and smart polymeric components. This review presents recent advancements in the field of hybrid microgels as nanocatalysts for conducting reduction reactions on pollutants present in aqueous media. Apart from placing detailed emphasis on the advancements documented for these assemblies, the fundamentals associated with hybrid microgels, as well as the typical catalytic reduction, are also emphasized to develop an understanding for new academicians looking to explore this field. The author hopes that this critical review of the most recent academic literature, including the years spanning 2020 to 2023, will serve as a tutorial for the identification of research gaps in this field, along with its prospective solutions. Full article
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36 pages, 3561 KiB  
Review
Polycaprolactone Composites/Blends and Their Applications Especially in Water Treatment
ChemEngineering 2023, 7(6), 104; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemengineering7060104 - 02 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1797
Abstract
Biodegradable poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) and its composites or blends have received a lot of attention in the last decade because of their potential applications in human life and environmental remediation. Greater efforts have been made to develop biodegradable chemical materials as adsorbents that do [...] Read more.
Biodegradable poly(ɛ-caprolactone) (PCL) and its composites or blends have received a lot of attention in the last decade because of their potential applications in human life and environmental remediation. Greater efforts have been made to develop biodegradable chemical materials as adsorbents that do not pollute the environment in order to replace traditional materials. Among the numerous types of degradable materials, PCL is currently the most promising, the most popular, and the best material to be developed, and it is referred to as a “green” eco-friendly material. Membranes and adsorbents for water treatment, packaging and compost bags, controlled drug carriers, and biomaterials for tissues such as bone, cartilage, ligament, skeletal muscle, skin, cardiovascular and nerve tissues are just some of the applications of this biodegradable polymer (PCL). The goal of this review is to present a brief overview of PCL, syntheses of PCL, its properties, PCL composites, and PCL blends and to provide a detailed investigation into the utility of PCL/PCL-based adsorbing agents in the removal of dyes/heavy metal ions. Overall, it can be confirmed that PCL blends and composites were found to be significant competitors to other well-known adsorbents in the treatment of wastewaters, necessitating a thorough investigation of their manufacture. Full article
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16 pages, 4258 KiB  
Article
Study of the Effect of Adding Nb2O5 on Calcium Titanate-Based Ferroelectric Ceramics
ChemEngineering 2023, 7(6), 103; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemengineering7060103 - 01 Nov 2023
Viewed by 1127
Abstract
This paper considers the effect of adding niobium oxide (Nb2O5) to ferroelectric ceramics based on calcium titanate (CaTiO3), and establishes a connection between the observed alterations in strength and dielectric properties and the variation in the Nb [...] Read more.
This paper considers the effect of adding niobium oxide (Nb2O5) to ferroelectric ceramics based on calcium titanate (CaTiO3), and establishes a connection between the observed alterations in strength and dielectric properties and the variation in the Nb2O5 dopant concentration in the ceramics’ composition. The method of mechanochemical solid-phase synthesis was used as the main method for obtaining the ceramics, followed by thermal sintering under specified conditions in order to form a stable phase composition of the ceramics, and to initialize phase transformations in the composition. Based on the assessment of the phase composition of the resulting ceramics, it was determined that a growth in the Nb2O5 dopant concentration beyond 0.10 mol results in the formation of an orthorhombic-phase CaNb2O4 of the Pbcm(57) spatial system, the weight contribution of which grows. A growth in the Nb2O5 additive concentration results in the formation of two-phase ceramics, the formation of which allows for an enhancement in the mechanical strength of ceramics and resistance to external influences. During the study of the dependence of the strength properties on the dopant concentration alteration, a three-stage change in hardness and crack resistance was established, regarding both structural ordering and phase transformations. The measurement of dielectric characteristics showed the direct dependence of dielectric losses and the dielectric constant on the phase composition of ceramics. Full article
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3 pages, 220 KiB  
Editorial
A Themed Issue in Honor of Prof. Dr. Vicente Rives
ChemEngineering 2023, 7(6), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/chemengineering7060102 - 31 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1015
Abstract
Professor Vicente Rives developed a very long and fruitful career as a teacher of Inorganic Chemistry and Materials Chemistry and has been a dedicated researcher in these and related fields [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue A Themed Issue in Honor of Prof. Dr. Vicente Rives)
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