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Toxics, Volume 10, Issue 6 (June 2022) – 66 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Human biomonitoring provides the basis for real time-related risk estimations. The conceptual “HBM4EU approach” has been extended with two new features: a) using EU annual food monitoring data to conduct a comparative exposure assessment, and b) applying the Margin of Exposure approach to characterise the risk when a human biomonitoring guidance value cannot be established. The study presents the evolution of the risk assessment of the insecticide chlorpyrifos based on measured (and estimated) urinary levels of the metabolite 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy) and the influence of EU regulatory decisions on risk reduction. HBM4EU also include non-EU population groups, allowing additional comparisons. A “traffic light” colour code facilitates risk communication. View this paper
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17 pages, 592 KiB  
Article
Evaluating the Potential Health Risks of Selected Heavy Metals across Four Wastewater Treatment Water Works in Durban, South Africa
Toxics 2022, 10(6), 340; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10060340 - 20 Jun 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 4364
Abstract
Poor and inadequate sanitation systems have been considered not only a human health issue, but also an environmental threat that instigates climate change. Nine heavy metals—arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc [...] Read more.
Poor and inadequate sanitation systems have been considered not only a human health issue, but also an environmental threat that instigates climate change. Nine heavy metals—arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn)—were evaluated in influent and effluent water samples from four wastewater treatment plants in the Durban metropolis, KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. The results indicate that the mean concentrations of all the heavy metals in the influent samples ranged from 0.122 to 1.808 mg/L, while the effluent samples had a concentration ranging from 0.118 to 0.854 mg/L. Iron was found to be in the highest concentration and the concentration of Co was the lowest across the wastewater treatment plants. The levels for most of the heavy metals in this study were found to be above the recommended maximum concentrations in surface and effluent waters as stipulated by the World Health Organization, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Food and Agriculture Organization, and the Department of Water Affairs and Forestry of South Africa. According to the toxicity effect due to non-carcinogenic risks, As, Pb, Cr, and Cd are considered to be of medium risk in this study, indicating that a probable adverse health risk is very likely to occur. Additionally, the cancer risk (RI) values were lower than 10−3, which shows that cancer development is very likely in individuals who are exposed. Cancer development associated with dermal absorption is quite negligible; thereby, it does not raise any concerns. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fate of Metals Released from Wastewater Effluents)
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17 pages, 3369 KiB  
Article
The Inhibition of Microcystin Adsorption by Microplastics in the Presence of Algal Organic Matters
Toxics 2022, 10(6), 339; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10060339 - 20 Jun 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1872
Abstract
Microplastics (MPs) could act as vectors of synthetic chemicals; however, their influence on the adsorption of chemicals of natural origin (for example, MC-LR and intracellular organic matter (IOM), which could be concomitantly released by toxic Microcystis in water) is less understood. Here, we [...] Read more.
Microplastics (MPs) could act as vectors of synthetic chemicals; however, their influence on the adsorption of chemicals of natural origin (for example, MC-LR and intracellular organic matter (IOM), which could be concomitantly released by toxic Microcystis in water) is less understood. Here, we explored the adsorption of MC-LR by polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). The results showed that the MPs could adsorb both MC-LR and IOM, with the adsorption capability uniformly following the order of PS, PE, and PMMA. However, in the presence of IOM, the adsorption of MC-LR by PE, PS, and PMMA was reduced by 22.3%, 22.7% and 5.4%, respectively. This is because the benzene structure and the specific surface area of PS facilitate the adsorption of MC-LR and IOM, while the formation of Π-Π bonds favor its interaction with IOM. Consequently, the competition for binding sites between MC-LR and IOM hindered MC-LR adsorption. The C=O in PMMA benefits its conjunction with hydroxyl and carboxyl in the IOM through hydrogen bonding; thus, the adsorption of MC-LR is also inhibited. These findings highlight that the adsorption of chemicals of natural origin by MPs is likely overestimated in the presence of metabolites from the same biota. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Environmental Chemistry)
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20 pages, 3596 KiB  
Article
Effects of Chronic Inhalation of Electronic Cigarette Vapor Containing Nicotine on Neurobehaviors and Pre/Postsynaptic Neuron Markers
Toxics 2022, 10(6), 338; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10060338 - 20 Jun 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 4045
Abstract
Nicotine-exposed animal models exhibit neurobehavioral changes linked to impaired synaptic plasticity. Previous studies highlighted alterations in neurotransmitter levels following nicotine exposure. Vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT1) and vesicular gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporter (VGAT) are essential for the transport and release of glutamate and GABA, [...] Read more.
Nicotine-exposed animal models exhibit neurobehavioral changes linked to impaired synaptic plasticity. Previous studies highlighted alterations in neurotransmitter levels following nicotine exposure. Vesicular glutamate transporter (VGLUT1) and vesicular gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transporter (VGAT) are essential for the transport and release of glutamate and GABA, respectively, from presynaptic neurons into synapses. In our work, an e-cigarette device was used to deliver vapor containing nicotine to C57BL/6J mice for four weeks. Novel object recognition, locomotion, and Y-maze tests were performed to investigate the behavioral parameters. Protein studies were conducted to study the hippocampal expression of VGLUT1, VGAT, and postsynaptic density protein 95 (PSD95) as well as brain cytokine markers. Long-term memory and locomotion tests revealed that e-cigarette aerosols containing nicotine modulated recognition memory and motor behaviors. We found that vapor exposure increased VGLUT1 expression and decreased VGAT expression in the hippocampus. No alterations were found in PSD95 expression. We observed that vapor-containing nicotine exposure altered certain brain cytokines such as IFNβ-1 and MCP-5. Our work provides evidence of an association between neurobehavioral changes and altered hippocampal VGLUT1 and VGAT expression in mice exposed to e-cigarette vapors containing nicotine. Such exposure was also associated with altered neurobehaviors, which might affect neurodegenerative diseases. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poisoning Caused by Medicines and Drugs of Abuse)
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9 pages, 887 KiB  
Article
Fasting Enhances the Acute Toxicity of Acrylonitrile in Mice via Induction of CYP2E1
Toxics 2022, 10(6), 337; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10060337 - 19 Jun 2022
Viewed by 1660
Abstract
Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) plays an essential role in the susceptibility to acute acrylonitrile (AN)-induced toxicity. Here, we investigated the toxicity and mechanism of AN in fasting mice and potential underlying mechanisms. Convulsions, loss of righting reflex, and death 4 h after AN [...] Read more.
Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) plays an essential role in the susceptibility to acute acrylonitrile (AN)-induced toxicity. Here, we investigated the toxicity and mechanism of AN in fasting mice and potential underlying mechanisms. Convulsions, loss of righting reflex, and death 4 h after AN treatment were observed and recorded for each group of mice. Relative to ad lib-fed mice, 48 h fasting significantly increased the acute toxicity of AN, as noted by a more rapid onset of convulsions and death. In addition, fasting significantly enhanced CYP2E1-mediated oxidative metabolism of AN, resulting in increased formation of CN- (one of the end-metabolites of AN). Moreover, fasting decreased hepatic GSH content, abrogating the detoxification of GSH. However, trans-1,2-dichloroethylene (DCE), a CYP2E1 inhibitor, altered the level of hepatic CYP2E1 activity in response to fasting, reduced the acute toxic symptoms of AN and the content of CN- in AN-treated mice. These data establish that fasting predisposes to AN toxicity, attributable to induced CYP2E1 and reduced hepatic GSH. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Toxicology)
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14 pages, 2375 KiB  
Article
Lanthanides Toxicity in Zebrafish Embryos Are Correlated to Their Atomic Number
Toxics 2022, 10(6), 336; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10060336 - 19 Jun 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1994
Abstract
Rare earth elements (REEs) are critical metallic materials with a broad application in industry and biomedicine. The exponential increase in REEs utilization might elevate the toxicity to aquatic animals if they are released into the water due to uncareful handling. The specific objective [...] Read more.
Rare earth elements (REEs) are critical metallic materials with a broad application in industry and biomedicine. The exponential increase in REEs utilization might elevate the toxicity to aquatic animals if they are released into the water due to uncareful handling. The specific objective of our study is to explore comprehensively the critical factor of a model Lanthanide complex electronic structures for the acute toxicity of REEs based on utilizing zebrafish as a model animal. Based on the 96 h LC50 test, we found that the majority of light REEs display lower LC50 values (4.19–25.17 ppm) than heavy REEs (10.30–41.83 ppm); indicating that they are atomic number dependent. Later, linear regression analyses further show that the average carbon charge on the aromatic ring (aromatic Cavg charge) can be the most significant electronic structural factor responsible for the Lanthanides’ toxicity in zebrafish embryos. Our results confirm a very strong correlation of LC50 to Lanthanide’s atomic numbers (r = 0.72), Milliken charge (r = 0.70), and aromatic Cavg charge (r = −0.85). This most significant correlation suggests a possible toxicity mechanism that the Lanthanide cation’s capability to stably bind to the aromatic ring on the residue of targeted proteins via a covalent chelating bond. Instead, the increasing ionic bond character can reduce REEs’ toxicity. In addition, Lanthanide toxicity was also evaluated by observing the disruption of photo motor response (PMR) activity in zebrafish embryos. Our study provides the first in vivo evidence to demonstrate the correlation between an atomic number of Lanthanide ions and the Lanthanide toxicity to zebrafish embryos. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Toxicology)
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23 pages, 13718 KiB  
Review
Exposure Routes and Health Risks Associated with Pesticide Application
Toxics 2022, 10(6), 335; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10060335 - 19 Jun 2022
Cited by 54 | Viewed by 6822
Abstract
Pesticides play an important role in agricultural development. However, pesticide application can result in both acute and chronic human toxicities, and the adverse effects of pesticides on the environment and human health remain a serious problem. There is therefore a need to discuss [...] Read more.
Pesticides play an important role in agricultural development. However, pesticide application can result in both acute and chronic human toxicities, and the adverse effects of pesticides on the environment and human health remain a serious problem. There is therefore a need to discuss the application methods for pesticides, the routes of pesticide exposure, and the health risks posed by pesticide application. The health problems related to pesticide application and exposure in developing countries are of particular concern. The purpose of this paper is to provide scientific information for policymakers in order to allow the development of proper pesticide application technics and methods to minimize pesticide exposure and the adverse health effects on both applicators and communities. Studies indicate that there are four main pesticide application methods, including hydraulic spraying, backpack spraying, basal trunk spraying, and aerial spraying. Pesticide application methods are mainly selected by considering the habits of target pests, the characteristics of target sites, and the properties of pesticides. Humans are directly exposed to pesticides in occupational, agricultural, and household activities and are indirectly exposed to pesticides via environmental media, including air, water, soil, and food. Human exposure to pesticides occurs mainly through dermal, oral, and respiratory routes. People who are directly and/or indirectly exposed to pesticides may contract acute toxicity effects and chronic diseases. Although no segment of the general population is completely protected against exposure to pesticides and their potentially serious health effects, a disproportionate burden is shouldered by people in developing countries. Both deterministic and probabilistic human health risk assessments have their advantages and disadvantages and both types of methods should be comprehensively implemented in research on exposure and human health risk assessment. Equipment for appropriate pesticide application is important for application efficiency to minimize the loss of spray solution as well as reduce pesticide residuals in the environment and adverse human health effects due to over-spraying and residues. Policymakers should implement various useful measures, such as integrated pest management (IPM) laws that prohibit the use of pesticides with high risks and the development of a national implementation plan (NIP) to reduce the adverse effects of pesticides on the environment and on human health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Human Toxicology and Epidemiology)
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25 pages, 1304 KiB  
Article
Multi- and Transgenerational Effects of Developmental Exposure to Environmental Levels of PFAS and PFAS Mixture in Zebrafish (Danio rerio)
Toxics 2022, 10(6), 334; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10060334 - 18 Jun 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3125
Abstract
Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are ubiquitous in the environment and are tied to myriad health effects. Despite the phasing out of the manufacturing of two types of PFASs (perfluorosulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA)), chemical composition renders them effectively indestructible by [...] Read more.
Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are ubiquitous in the environment and are tied to myriad health effects. Despite the phasing out of the manufacturing of two types of PFASs (perfluorosulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA)), chemical composition renders them effectively indestructible by ambient environmental processes, where they thus remain in water. Exposure via water can affect both human and aquatic wildlife. PFASs easily cross the placenta, exposing the fetus at critical windows of development. Little is known about the effects of low-level exposure during this period; even less is known about the potential for multi- and transgenerational effects. We examined the effects of ultra-low, very low, and low-level PFAS exposure (7, 70, and 700 ng/L PFOA; 24, 240, 2400 ng/L PFOS; and stepwise mixtures) from 0–5 days post-fertilization (dpf) on larval zebrafish (Danio rerio) mortality, morphology, behavior and gene expression and fecundity in adult F0 and F1 fish. As expected, environmentally relevant PFAS levels did not affect survival. Morphological abnormalities were not observed until the F1 and F2 generations. Behavior was affected differentially by each chemical and generation. Gene expression was increasingly perturbed in each generation but consistently showed lipid pathway disruption across all generations. Dysregulation of behavior and gene expression is heritable, even in larvae with no direct or indirect exposure. This is the first report of the transgenerational effects of PFOA, PFOS, and their mixture in terms of zebrafish behavior and untargeted gene expression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Developmental Exposure to Environmental Contaminants)
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11 pages, 769 KiB  
Article
Short-Term Associations between PM10 and Respiratory Health Effects in Visby, Sweden
Toxics 2022, 10(6), 333; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10060333 - 17 Jun 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1711
Abstract
The old Swedish city Visby, located on the island Gotland, has, for several years, reported higher PM10 concentrations than any other city in Sweden. In Visby, local limestone is used, both in road paving and as sand used for anti-slip measures, resulting [...] Read more.
The old Swedish city Visby, located on the island Gotland, has, for several years, reported higher PM10 concentrations than any other city in Sweden. In Visby, local limestone is used, both in road paving and as sand used for anti-slip measures, resulting in a clear annual pattern of PM10 with the highest concentrations during winter/spring when studded tires are allowed. This study analyzes the short-term associations between PM10 and daily number of patients with acute respiratory problems (ICD–10 diagnoses: J00–J99) seeking care at the hospital or primary healthcare units in Visby during the period of 2013–2019. The daily mean of PM10 was on average 45 µg m−3 during winter/spring and 18 µg m−3 during summer/autumn. Four outcome categories were analyzed using quasi-Poisson regression models, stratifying for period and adjusting for calendar variables and weather. An increase in respiratory visits was associated with increasing concentrations in PM10 during the summer/autumn period, most prominent among children, where asthma visits increased by 5% (95% CI: 2–9%) per 10 µg m−3 increase in PM10. For the winter/spring period, no significant effects were observed, except for the diagnose group ‘upper airways’ in adults, where respiratory visits increased by 1% (95% CI: 0.1–1.9%) per 10 µg m−3 increase. According to the results, limestone in particles seem to be relatively harmless at the exposure concentrations observed in Visby, and this is in line with the results from a few experimental and occupational studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis, Exposure and Health Risk of Atmospheric Pollution)
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18 pages, 3726 KiB  
Article
Significant Mobility of Novel Heteroaggregates of Montmorillonite Microparticles with Nanoscale Zerovalent Irons in Saturated Porous Media
Toxics 2022, 10(6), 332; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10060332 - 17 Jun 2022
Viewed by 1395
Abstract
This study conducted laboratory column experiments to systematically examine the transport of novel heteroaggregates of montmorillonite (Mt) microparticles with nanoscale zerovalent irons (nZVIs) in saturated sand at solution ionic strengths (ISs) ranging from 0.001 to 0.2 M. Spherical nZVIs were synthesized using the [...] Read more.
This study conducted laboratory column experiments to systematically examine the transport of novel heteroaggregates of montmorillonite (Mt) microparticles with nanoscale zerovalent irons (nZVIs) in saturated sand at solution ionic strengths (ISs) ranging from 0.001 to 0.2 M. Spherical nZVIs were synthesized using the liquid phase reduction method and were attached on the plate-shaped Mt surfaces in monolayer. While complete deposition occurred for nZVIs in sand, significant transport was observed for Mt-nZVI heteroaggregates at IS ≤ 0.01 M despite the transport decrease with an increasing loading concentration of nZVIs on Mt. The increased mobility of Mt-nZVI heteroaggregates was because the attractions between nZVIs and sand collectors were reduced by the electrostatic repulsions between the Mt and the collector surfaces, which led to a decreased deposition in the sand columns. Complete deposition occurred for the Mt-nZVI heteroaggregates at IS ≥ 0.1 M due to a favorable deposition at Derjaguin–Landau–Verwey–Overbeek (DLVO) primary energy minima. Interestingly, a large fraction of the deposited heteroaggregates was released by reducing IS because of a monotonic decrease of interaction energy with separation distance for the heteroaggregates at low ISs (resulting in repulsive forces), in contrast to the irreversible deposition of nZVIs. Therefore, the fabricated heteroaggregates could also have high mobility in subsurfaces with saline pore water through continuous capture and release using multiple injections of water with low ISs. Our study was the first to examine the transport of heteroaggregates of a plate-like particle with spherical nanoparticles in porous media; the results have important implications in the use of nanoscale zerovalent iron for in situ soil and groundwater remediation. Full article
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14 pages, 3098 KiB  
Article
Worldwide Evaluation of CAMS-EGG4 CO2 Data Re-Analysis at the Surface Level
Toxics 2022, 10(6), 331; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10060331 - 17 Jun 2022
Viewed by 1614
Abstract
This study systematically examines the global uncertainties and biases in the carbon dioxide (CO2) mixing ratio provided by the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS). The global greenhouse gas re-analysis (EGG4) data product from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) [...] Read more.
This study systematically examines the global uncertainties and biases in the carbon dioxide (CO2) mixing ratio provided by the Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service (CAMS). The global greenhouse gas re-analysis (EGG4) data product from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) was evaluated against ground-based in situ measurements from more than 160 of stations across the world. The evaluation shows that CO2 re-analysis can capture the general features in the tracer distributions, including the CO2 seasonal cycle and its strength at different latitudes, as well as the global CO2 trend. The emissions and natural fluxes of CO2 at the surface are evaluated on a wide range of scales, from diurnal to interannual. The results highlight re-analysis compliance, reproducing biogenic fluxes as well the observed CO2 patterns in remote environments. CAMS consistently reproduces observations at marine and remote regions with low CO2 fluxes and smooth variability. However, the model’s weaknesses were observed in continental areas, regions with complex sources, transport circulations and large CO2 fluxes. A strong variation in the accuracy and bias are displayed among those stations with different flux profiles, with the largest uncertainties in the continental regions with high CO2 anthropogenic fluxes. Displaying biased estimation and root-mean-square error (RMSE) ranging from values below one ppmv up to 70 ppmv, the results reveal a poor response from re-analysis to high CO2 mixing ratio, showing larger uncertainty of the product in the boundaries where the CAMS system misses solving sharp flux variability. The mismatch at regions with high fluxes of anthropogenic emission indicate large uncertainties in inventories and constrained physical parameterizations in the CO2 at boundary conditions. The current study provides a broad uncertainty assessment for the CAMS CO2 product worldwide, suggesting deficiencies and methods that can be used in the future to overcome failures and uncertainties in regional CO2 mixing ratio and flux estimates. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling & Impacts Assessments of Air Quality)
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4 pages, 220 KiB  
Editorial
Phthalate Exposure: From Quantification to Risk Assessment
Toxics 2022, 10(6), 330; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10060330 - 16 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1319
Abstract
Phthalates (di-esters of phthalic acid) are a group of synthetic organic compounds present in the environment because of their wide use in a multitude of important industrial products (e [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Phthalate Exposure: From Quantification to Risk Assessment)
12 pages, 977 KiB  
Article
Pharmacokinetics and the Dermal Absorption of Bromochlorophene, a Cosmetic Preservative Ingredient, in Rats
Toxics 2022, 10(6), 329; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10060329 - 16 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1899
Abstract
The cosmetic industry has flourished in recent years. Accordingly, the safety of cosmetic ingredients is increasing. Bromochlorophene (BCP) is a commonly used cosmetic preservative. To evaluate the effects of BCP exposure, in vitro dermal absorption and in vivo pharmacokinetic (PK) studies were conducted [...] Read more.
The cosmetic industry has flourished in recent years. Accordingly, the safety of cosmetic ingredients is increasing. Bromochlorophene (BCP) is a commonly used cosmetic preservative. To evaluate the effects of BCP exposure, in vitro dermal absorption and in vivo pharmacokinetic (PK) studies were conducted using gel and cream formulations. The Franz diffusion cell system and rat dorsal skin were used for tests according to the Korea Ministry of Food and Drug Safety guidelines for in vitro skin absorption methods. After the dermal application (1.13 mg/cm2) of BCP in the gel and cream formulations, liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) was used to evaluate the amount of BCP that remained unabsorbed on the skin (WASH), and that was present in the receptor fluid (RF), stratum corneum (SC), and (epi)dermis (SKIN). The total dermal absorption rate of BCP was 7.42 ± 0.74% for the gel formulation and 1.5 ± 0.9% for the cream formulation. Total recovery in an in vitro dermal absorption study was 109.12 ± 8.79% and 105.43 ± 11.07% for the gel and cream formulations, respectively. In vivo PK and dermal absorption studies of BCP were performed following the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development guidelines 417 and 427, respectively. When intravenous (i.v.) pharmacokinetics was performed, BCP was dissolved in glycerol formal and injected into the tail vein (n = 3) of the rats at doses of 1 and 0.2 mg/kg. Dermal PK parameters were estimated by the application of the gel and cream formulations (2.34 mg/kg of BCP as an active ingredient) to the dorsal skin of the rats. Intravenous and dermal PK parameters were analyzed using a non-compartmental method. The dermal bioavailability of BCP was determined as 12.20 ± 2.63% and 4.65 ± 0.60% for the gel and cream formulations, respectively. The representative dermal absorption of BCP was evaluated to be 12.20 ± 2.63% based on the results of the in vivo PK study. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxicokinetics of Chemicals in Consumer Products)
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14 pages, 2855 KiB  
Article
Exposure to the Dioxin-like Pollutant PCB 126 Afflicts Coronary Endothelial Cells via Increasing 4-Hydroxy-2 Nonenal: A Role for Aldehyde Dehydrogenase 2
Toxics 2022, 10(6), 328; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10060328 - 16 Jun 2022
Viewed by 1697
Abstract
Exposure to environmental pollutants, including dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), play an important role in vascular inflammation and cardiometabolic diseases (CMDs) by inducing oxidative stress. Earlier, we demonstrated that oxidative stress-mediated lipid peroxidation derived 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4HNE) contributes to CMDs by decreasing the angiogenesis of [...] Read more.
Exposure to environmental pollutants, including dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), play an important role in vascular inflammation and cardiometabolic diseases (CMDs) by inducing oxidative stress. Earlier, we demonstrated that oxidative stress-mediated lipid peroxidation derived 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4HNE) contributes to CMDs by decreasing the angiogenesis of coronary endothelial cells (CECs). By detoxifying 4HNE, aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2), a mitochondrial enzyme, enhances CEC angiogenesis. Therefore, we hypothesize that ALDH2 activation attenuates a PCB 126-mediated 4HNE-induced decrease in CEC angiogenesis. To test our hypothesis, we treated cultured mouse CECs with 4.4 µM PCB 126 and performed spheroid and aortic ring sprouting assays, the ALDH2 activity assay, and Western blotting for the 4HNE adduct levels and real-time qPCR to determine the expression levels of Cyp1b1 and oxidative stress-related genes. PCB 126 increased the gene expression and 4HNE adduct levels, whereas it decreased the ALDH2 activity and angiogenesis significantly in MCECs. However, pretreatment with 2.5 µM disulfiram (DSF), an ALDH2 inhibitor, or 10 µM Alda 1, an ALDH2 activator, before the PCB 126 challenge exacerbated and rescued the PCB 126-mediated decrease in coronary angiogenesis by modulating the 4HNE adduct levels respectively. Finally, we conclude that ALDH2 can be a therapeutic target to alleviate environmental pollutant-induced CMDs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Toxicology)
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12 pages, 1315 KiB  
Article
Cytotoxicity of 9,10-Phenanthrenequinone Impairs Mitotic Progression and Spindle Assembly Independent of ROS Production in HeLa Cells
Toxics 2022, 10(6), 327; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10060327 - 16 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1472
Abstract
The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon quinone derivative 9,10-phenanthrenequinone (9,10-PQ) is one of the most abundant and toxic components found in diesel exhaust particles (DEPs). These DEPs are created during diesel fuel combustion and are considered the main source of urban air pollution. As 9,10-PQ [...] Read more.
The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon quinone derivative 9,10-phenanthrenequinone (9,10-PQ) is one of the most abundant and toxic components found in diesel exhaust particles (DEPs). These DEPs are created during diesel fuel combustion and are considered the main source of urban air pollution. As 9,10-PQ can produce excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) through redox cycling, it has been shown to exert potent cytotoxic effects against various cell types. However, the mechanisms underlying this cytotoxicity remain unclear. In this study, we showed that 9,10-PQ exerts cytotoxicity by impairing mitotic progression and spindle assembly in HeLa cells. Exposure to 9,10-PQ impaired spindle assembly and chromosome alignment, resulting in delayed mitotic entry and progression in HeLa cells. Furthermore, 9,10-PQ exposure decreased the CEP192 and p-Aurora A levels at the spindle poles. Notably, these mitotic defects induced by 9,10-PQ were not rescued by scavenging ROS, implying the ROS-independent activity of 9,10-PQ. Therefore, our results provide the first evidence that 9,10-PQ exerts its cytotoxicity through specific inhibition of mitotic progression and spindle assembly, independent of ROS. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Early Life Exposure, Biological Response and Molecular Mechanisms)
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30 pages, 2058 KiB  
Review
Nanoplastics in Aquatic Environments: Impacts on Aquatic Species and Interactions with Environmental Factors and Pollutants
Toxics 2022, 10(6), 326; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10060326 - 15 Jun 2022
Cited by 28 | Viewed by 6775
Abstract
Plastic production began in the early 1900s and it has transformed our way of life. Despite the many advantages of plastics, a massive amount of plastic waste is generated each year, threatening the environment and human health. Because of their pervasiveness and potential [...] Read more.
Plastic production began in the early 1900s and it has transformed our way of life. Despite the many advantages of plastics, a massive amount of plastic waste is generated each year, threatening the environment and human health. Because of their pervasiveness and potential for health consequences, small plastic residues produced by the breakdown of larger particles have recently received considerable attention. Plastic particles at the nanometer scale (nanoplastics) are more easily absorbed, ingested, or inhaled and translocated to other tissues and organs than larger particles. Nanoplastics can also be transferred through the food web and between generations, have an influence on cellular function and physiology, and increase infections and disease susceptibility. This review will focus on current research on the toxicity of nanoplastics to aquatic species, taking into account their interactive effects with complex environmental mixtures and multiple stressors. It intends to summarize the cellular and molecular effects of nanoplastics on aquatic species; discuss the carrier effect of nanoplastics in the presence of single or complex environmental pollutants, pathogens, and weathering/aging processes; and include environmental stressors, such as temperature, salinity, pH, organic matter, and food availability, as factors influencing nanoplastic toxicity. Microplastics studies were also included in the discussion when the data with NPs were limited. Finally, this review will address knowledge gaps and critical questions in plastics’ ecotoxicity to contribute to future research in the field. Full article
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23 pages, 26317 KiB  
Article
Gene Expression Analysis of the Stress Response to Lithium, Nickel, and Zinc in Paracentrotus lividus Embryos
Toxics 2022, 10(6), 325; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10060325 - 14 Jun 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1711
Abstract
Many anthropogenic pollutants such as metals are discharged into the marine environment through modern sources. Among these, lithium (Li), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) can interfere with biological processes in many organisms when their concentration rises. These metals are toxic to sea urchin [...] Read more.
Many anthropogenic pollutants such as metals are discharged into the marine environment through modern sources. Among these, lithium (Li), nickel (Ni), and zinc (Zn) can interfere with biological processes in many organisms when their concentration rises. These metals are toxic to sea urchin embryos, affecting their development. Indeed, animal/vegetal and dorso/ventral embryonic axes are differently perturbed: Li is a vegetalizing agent, Ni can disrupt dorso-ventral axis, Zn can be animalizing. To address the molecular response adopted by embryos to cope with these metals or involved in the gene networks regulating embryogenesis, and to detect new biomarkers for evaluating hazards in polluted environments in a well-known in vivo model, we applied a high-throughput screening approach to sea urchin embryos. After fertilization, Paracentrotus lividus embryos were exposed to Li, Ni, and Zn for 24/48 h. At both endpoints, RNAs were analyzed by NanoString nCounter technology. By in silico analyses, we selected a panel of 127 transcripts encoding for regulatory and structural proteins, ranked in categories: Apoptosis, Defense, Immune, Nervous, Development, and Biomineralization. The data analysis highlighted the dysregulation of many genes in a metal-dependent manner. A functional annotation analysis was performed by the KEEG Orthology database. This study provides a platform for research on metals biomarkers in sea urchins. Full article
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11 pages, 1207 KiB  
Communication
Bioaccumulation and Biomagnification of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane in Biota from Qilianyu Island, South China Sea
Toxics 2022, 10(6), 324; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10060324 - 14 Jun 2022
Viewed by 1292
Abstract
Six biota species were collected from Qilianyu Island, South China Sea to determine the bioaccumulation and biomagnification of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs). Concentrations of ΣPCBs and ΣDDTs in biota from Qilianyu Island ranged from 6.88 to 519.1 ng/g [...] Read more.
Six biota species were collected from Qilianyu Island, South China Sea to determine the bioaccumulation and biomagnification of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs). Concentrations of ΣPCBs and ΣDDTs in biota from Qilianyu Island ranged from 6.88 to 519.1 ng/g lipid weight (lw) and 7.0 to 19,413 ng/g lw, respectively. Significant differences for PCBs and DDTs concentrations were found among the six biota species from Qilianyu Island. The levels of PCBs and DDTs in intermediate egret were significantly higher than the other five biota species, which can be attributed to their different feeding and living habits. Significantly negative relationships between concentrations of PCBs and DDTs and δ13C values in the six biota species confirmed that dietary source is an important factor to determine the levels of PCBs and DDTs in biota species. ΣPCBs, ΣDDTs, PCB 28/31, PCB 52, and p,p′-DDE were biomagnified in the biota species from Qilianyu Island, and native species are suitable for studying the biomagnification of the contaminants. The toxic equivalent concentrations in birds from Qilianyu Island were significantly and positively correlated with PCBs concentrations, indicating that high concentrations of non- and mono-ortho-PCB congeners may induce adverse effects on bird species. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Occurrence, Fate and Transport of Marine Pollutants)
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18 pages, 2982 KiB  
Article
Dioxin Congener Patterns in Breast Milk Samples from Areas Sprayed with Herbicide during the Vietnam War 40 Years after the War Ended
Toxics 2022, 10(6), 323; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10060323 - 13 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1755
Abstract
Large amounts of herbicides containing polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzo-furans (PCDD/Fs) were sprayed in South Vietnam during the Vietnam War. Levels of PCDD/Fs in the environment of South Vietnam remained high even 40 years later. A total of 861 breast milk samples (597 from [...] Read more.
Large amounts of herbicides containing polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzo-furans (PCDD/Fs) were sprayed in South Vietnam during the Vietnam War. Levels of PCDD/Fs in the environment of South Vietnam remained high even 40 years later. A total of 861 breast milk samples (597 from three areas sprayed with herbicides, Quang Tri, Da Nang, and Bien Hoa, and 264 from three unsprayed areas in North Vietnam) were collected between 2007 and 2015 and the PCDD/F concentrations in the samples were determined. Levels of TEQ-PCDD/Fs and 17 PCDD/F congeners were higher in the sprayed area samples than the unsprayed area samples. We found particular PCDD/F congener patterns for different areas. High tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) concentrations were found in Bien Hoa, high TCDD and 1,2,3,6,7,8-hexadibenzo-p-dioxin concentrations were found in Da Nang, and high 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptadibenzo-p-dioxin concentrations were found in Quan Tri. High 1,2,3,4,7,8-hexadibenzofuran and 1,2,3,4,6,7,8-heptadibenzofuran concentrations were also found in Da Nang and Quang Tri. However, breast feeding may have caused associations between the TCDD and polychlorinated dibenzofuran congener concentrations. Advanced statistical analysis will need to be performed in future to assess the characteristic PCDD/F congener profiles in breast milk samples from areas of Vietnam previously sprayed with herbicides. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dioxin and Dioxin-Like Compounds and Human Health)
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7 pages, 725 KiB  
Article
Carbamazepine Overdose after Psychiatric Conditions: A Case Study for Postmortem Analysis in Human Bone
Toxics 2022, 10(6), 322; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10060322 - 13 Jun 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1714
Abstract
Carbamazepine is the main option used as a preventive medication to treat bipolar disorder when there is no response to lithium. Carbamazepine toxicity is defined as serum levels greater than 12 μg/mL, with severe toxicity occurring over 40 μg/mL, reduced to 30 μg/mL [...] Read more.
Carbamazepine is the main option used as a preventive medication to treat bipolar disorder when there is no response to lithium. Carbamazepine toxicity is defined as serum levels greater than 12 μg/mL, with severe toxicity occurring over 40 μg/mL, reduced to 30 μg/mL when combined with pharmacological treatment, i.e., benzodiazepines or antidepressants. For these reasons, it is necessary to find a validated tool to determine carbamazepine levels in an autopsy to rule out suicide or to know if the death was a consequence of an adverse drug reaction (ADR), especially when only bones can be accessed. We have validated a tool to detect and quantify drug concentration in bone. Our results showed a peak for carbamazepine at minute 12 and a mass fragment of 193 m/z. This case study is the first time in the literature that carbamazepine has been detected and quantified in bone. These results demonstrate that carbamazepine can be detected in bone tissue from forensic cases, but almost more importantly, that the method proposed is valid, reliable, and trustworthy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Identification of Drug Abuse)
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14 pages, 304 KiB  
Review
Glyphosate, Roundup and the Failures of Regulatory Assessment
Toxics 2022, 10(6), 321; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10060321 - 13 Jun 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 5899
Abstract
Roundup is the most widely used herbicide in agriculture. It contains glyphosate as the ‘active ingredient’, together with formulants. There are various versions of Roundup, with somewhat different effects depending on the formulants. Most genetically-modified crops are designed to tolerate Roundup, thus allowing [...] Read more.
Roundup is the most widely used herbicide in agriculture. It contains glyphosate as the ‘active ingredient’, together with formulants. There are various versions of Roundup, with somewhat different effects depending on the formulants. Most genetically-modified crops are designed to tolerate Roundup, thus allowing spraying against weeds during the growing season of the crop without destroying it. Having been so heavily used, this herbicide is now found in the soil, water, air, and even in humans worldwide. Roundup may also remain as a residue on edible crops. Many studies have found harm to the environment and to health, making it imperative to regulate the use of Roundup and to ensure that its various formulations pose no danger when used in the long-term. Unfortunately, regulators may only assess the ‘active ingredient’, glyphosate, and ignore the toxicity of the formulants, which can be far more toxic than the active ingredient. This omission is in violation of a ruling by the Court of Justice of the European Union. There are close ties between the regulators and the industry they are supposed to regulate. Objectionable practices include ‘revolving doors’ between the regulators and the industry, heavy reliance on unpublished papers produced by the industry while dismissing papers published by independent scientists, and strong covert influence on the regulatory process by industry. Although this paper focuses on the European Union (EU), the situation is much the same in the United States. Full article
13 pages, 1040 KiB  
Article
The Survival Response of Earthworm (Eisenia fetida L.) to Individual and Binary Mixtures of Herbicides
Toxics 2022, 10(6), 320; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10060320 - 12 Jun 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1414
Abstract
Frequent use of herbicides may impose a risk on non-target species. The objective was to test the combined toxic effect of binary herbicide mixtures—metribuzin:halosulfuron and metribuzin:flumioxazin—on non-target earthworms in two test systems: filter paper and a soil toxicity test system. The joint action [...] Read more.
Frequent use of herbicides may impose a risk on non-target species. The objective was to test the combined toxic effect of binary herbicide mixtures—metribuzin:halosulfuron and metribuzin:flumioxazin—on non-target earthworms in two test systems: filter paper and a soil toxicity test system. The joint action experiments were independently run twice to substantiate the findings. The most potent individual herbicide was metribuzin, with a 50% lethal concentration (LC50) of 17.17 µg ai. cm−2 at 48 h in the filter paper test. The toxicity of the individual herbicides on the filter paper test was ranked as metribuzin>halosulfuron>flumioxazin. In the soil test, metribuzin and halosulfuron had high toxicity with an LC50 of 8.48 and 10.08 mg ai. kg−1, respectively, on day 14. Thus, the individual herbicide ranking did not change between the filter paper and artificial soil tests. The herbicide’s mixed effect in both test systems showed a consistent antagonistic effect relative to a Concentration Addition reference model. It indicates that the mixtures retracted the herbicide’s action in the earthworms. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Earthworm Model to Study the Effects of Environmental Pollutants)
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17 pages, 2097 KiB  
Article
Suicidal Behavior and Its Relationship with Postmortem Forensic Toxicological Findings
Toxics 2022, 10(6), 319; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10060319 - 11 Jun 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2414
Abstract
Suicide affects all sociodemographic levels, age groups, and populations worldwide. The factors that can increase the risk of suicidal tendencies are widely studied. The aim of this study was to analyze the types and combinations of toxics found in fatal suicide victims with [...] Read more.
Suicide affects all sociodemographic levels, age groups, and populations worldwide. The factors that can increase the risk of suicidal tendencies are widely studied. The aim of this study was to analyze the types and combinations of toxics found in fatal suicide victims with different suicide mechanisms. A total of 355 autopsies were retrospectively studied, and 26 toxics were determined and related to mechanisms of suicide. Hanging (55%), drug overdose (22.7%), and jumping from a height (17.8%) were most represented suicide mechanisms with positive toxicology. Hanging was the most represented in men (50.3%; p = 0.019), while jumping from a height was more represented in women (29.7%, p = 0.028). Drugs of abuse were the most frequent toxics found in men (55.5%; p < 0.001), while medicines were the most frequent type found in women (70.3%, p < 0.001). Alcohol, nordiazepam, cocaine, and venlafaxine were the most consumed toxics. Benzodiazepines and venlafaxine were found in suicides involving drug overdose, hanging, and jumping from a height. In conclusion, most suicides were associated with drug abuse in men. Hanging was more represented in men and jumping from a height in women. Alcohol was present in combination with other toxics and medicines. The toxicological analysis is fundamental to understanding consumption patterns and establishing strategies and protocols for detecting and preventing suicide. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Poisoning Caused by Medicines and Drugs of Abuse)
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11 pages, 15059 KiB  
Review
Associations between Polyfluoroalkyl Substances Exposure and Breast Cancer: A Meta-Analysis
Toxics 2022, 10(6), 318; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10060318 - 11 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2216
Abstract
Polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are persistent pollutants that may cause breast cancer. However, associations between exposure to PFASs and the risk of breast cancer are controversial. We retrieved studies on the association between PFASs—perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), and [...] Read more.
Polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) are persistent pollutants that may cause breast cancer. However, associations between exposure to PFASs and the risk of breast cancer are controversial. We retrieved studies on the association between PFASs—perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA), perfluorohexane sulfonic acid (PFHxS), and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS)—and breast cancer risk in women from PubMed, Embase, and the Web of Science. The pooled odds ratios (ORs) or relative risks (RRs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were extracted or calculated from provided data. Moreover, subgroup and metaregression analyses were performed to distinguish the potential sources of heterogeneity between studies. Lastly, eight original studies were included in the meta-analysis. PFOA and PFHxS were positively correlated with breast cancer risk, and the pooled ORs (and 95% CIs) were 1.32 (1.19 and 1.46) and 1.79 (1.51 and 2.11), respectively. PFNA was negatively correlated with breast cancer risk and the pooled OR (and 95% CIs) was 0.76 (0.6 and 0.96), and PFOS was shown to have no correlation with breast cancer risk and the pooled OR (and 95% CIs) was 1.01 (0.87 and 1.17). All results were merged in a random-effects model with significant heterogeneities (I2 > 90%, p < 0.001). The results demonstrated that PFASs might be potential risk factors for breast cancer, and the compounds in low exposure levels could have a more harmful impact on human health. Full article
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15 pages, 1017 KiB  
Article
Lead and Cadmium Bioaccumulation in Fresh Cow’s Milk in an Intermediate Area of the Central Andes of Peru and Risk to Human Health
Toxics 2022, 10(6), 317; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10060317 - 11 Jun 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2187
Abstract
The dairy basin of the Mantaro River located in the centre of Peru faces serious anthropogenic disturbances as it receives emissions and discharges from the metallurgical mining activity located in the headwaters of the basin and milk contaminated with lead (Pb) and cadmium [...] Read more.
The dairy basin of the Mantaro River located in the centre of Peru faces serious anthropogenic disturbances as it receives emissions and discharges from the metallurgical mining activity located in the headwaters of the basin and milk contaminated with lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) endangers the environmental and human health, especially children. To measure the concentrations of Pb and Cd in milk and the dangers of their consumption in the Peruvian population, 40 milk samples were collected and quantified by atomic absorption spectrometry. The mean concentration of Pb in milk was 15 ± 2.6 µg/kg, which represented 75% of the Maximum Limit (ML), and that of Cd was 505 ± 123 µg/kg, which exceeded the ML by more than 194 times. The estimated weekly intake of Pb for people aged 2–85 years was below the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) references, determining risk coefficients (CRD) < 1. Weekly Cd intake was much higher than the PTWIs and CRDs were between 14 and 34, indicating that consumers would experience carcinogenic health effects, with children being at higher risk than adults, therefore, milk from the area is not safe for consumption. Cd would be transferred mainly through the soil (water)-grass-milk pathway, due to its presence in irrigation water and in fertilizers that contain Cd. The main pathway for Pb entry would be air-soil (water)-milk grass, from the fine particles emitted into the air by the mining-metallurgical activity, developed approximately 90 km from the study area. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heavy Metal Contamination in Soil and Health Risks)
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15 pages, 27519 KiB  
Article
Simultaneous Removal of Cu2+, Cd2+ and Pb2+ by Modified Wheat Straw Biochar from Aqueous Solution: Preparation, Characterization and Adsorption Mechanism
Toxics 2022, 10(6), 316; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10060316 - 10 Jun 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1613
Abstract
As an eco-friendly and efficient adsorbent for removal of potential toxic metals from aqueous solution, biochar has received widespread attention. In the present study, wheat straw biochar (BC) and corresponding modified biochar (HNC) were used to remove Cu2+, Cd2+ and [...] Read more.
As an eco-friendly and efficient adsorbent for removal of potential toxic metals from aqueous solution, biochar has received widespread attention. In the present study, wheat straw biochar (BC) and corresponding modified biochar (HNC) were used to remove Cu2+, Cd2+ and Pb2+ from an aqueous solution. The influence of the environment factors on metals adsorption and adsorption mechanism were discussed in detail. The results showed that the HNC had porous structures and owned ample functional groups (−OH, −COOH and C−N groups) compared with the BC. In the single system, the adsorption capacities of HNC for Cu2+, Cd2+ and Pb2+ at a pH of 5.5 were 18.36, 22.83 and 49.38 mg/g, which were 76.89%, 164.36% and 22.75% higher than that of the BC, respectively. In addition, the adsorption process of Cu2+ and Cd2+ on BC and HNC fitted to the Langmuir isotherm model and pseudo-second-order kinetics, but the adsorption of Pb2+ on BC and HNC fitted to the Langmuir isotherm model and pseudo-first-order kinetics. Adsorption isotherms indicated that the adsorption of Cu2+, Cd2+ and Pb2+ by BC and HNC was a spontaneous endothermic process. The competitive adsorption of mixed metal ions (Cu2+, Cd2+ and Pb2+) revealed that HNC was more preferential to adsorb Cu2+ compared with Cd2+ and Pb2+. Furthermore, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses revealed that the main adsorption mechanisms were surface complexation and precipitation, and the adsorbed Cu2+, Cd2+ and Pb2+ on HNC mainly exist as CuO, Cd(OH)2, Pb3O4 and Pb(OH)2. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Toxicity Reduction and Environmental Remediation)
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12 pages, 751 KiB  
Article
Histopathological Alterations in the Livers of Chronic Hepatitis Patients Exposed to Agent Orange/Dioxin in Vietnam
Toxics 2022, 10(6), 315; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10060315 - 10 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1939
Abstract
We investigated changes in some laboratory indices and the liver histology of chronic hepatitis patients who were exposed to dioxin. In 2014, we collected liver biopsy samples for histopathological examination from 33 chronic hepatitis patients living around the Da Nang Airbase, which is [...] Read more.
We investigated changes in some laboratory indices and the liver histology of chronic hepatitis patients who were exposed to dioxin. In 2014, we collected liver biopsy samples for histopathological examination from 33 chronic hepatitis patients living around the Da Nang Airbase, which is a dioxin-contaminated area due to the herbicide spraying in Vietnam. Dioxin exposure was measured by its levels in the blood. METAVIR classification was used to clarify the liver fibrosis stage. Laboratory tests included ten biochemical and six hematological indices that were measured in the blood. A regression linear model and binary logistic regression were used for data analysis. The observed alterations in the liver at the histological level mainly comprised hydropic degenerative hepatocytes, lymphocytes and polynuclear leukocytes surrounding the liver cells and granular and lipoic degeneration. In addition, increased TCDD levels were associated with increasing aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase, protein and total bilirubin levels and liver fibrosis stage. Similarly, increased TEQ-PCDD/Fs levels were associated with higher levels of AST and protein and liver fibrosis stage. In conclusion, dioxin exposure altered the liver histology and increased some biochemical marker indices and the liver fibrosis stage of chronic hepatitis patients living in dioxin-contaminated areas in Da Nang, Vietnam. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Dioxin and Dioxin-Like Compounds and Human Health)
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4 pages, 230 KiB  
Editorial
Environmental Chemicals: Integrative Approach to Human Biomonitoring and Health Effects
Toxics 2022, 10(6), 314; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10060314 - 10 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1530
Abstract
In recent decades, citizen awareness of toxic chemicals has been a topic of interest, particularly concerning national and international policy decision makers, expert/scientific platforms, and health protection organizations (WHO, UNEP, CDC, EFSA, IPEN, etc [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Exposure to Toxic Chemicals and Human Health)
16 pages, 1791 KiB  
Article
Improving the Risk Assessment of Pesticides through the Integration of Human Biomonitoring and Food Monitoring Data: A Case Study for Chlorpyrifos
Toxics 2022, 10(6), 313; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10060313 - 09 Jun 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3409
Abstract
The risk assessment of pesticide residues in food is a key priority in the area of food safety. Most jurisdictions have implemented pre-marketing authorization processes, which are supported by prospective risk assessments. These prospective assessments estimate the expected residue levels in food combining [...] Read more.
The risk assessment of pesticide residues in food is a key priority in the area of food safety. Most jurisdictions have implemented pre-marketing authorization processes, which are supported by prospective risk assessments. These prospective assessments estimate the expected residue levels in food combining results from residue trials, resembling the pesticide use patterns, with food consumption patterns, according to internationally agreed procedures. In addition, jurisdictions such as the European Union (EU) have implemented large monitoring programs, measuring actual pesticide residue levels in food, and are supporting large-scale human biomonitoring programs for confirming the actual exposure levels and potential risk for consumers. The organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos offers an interesting case study, as in the last decade, its acceptable daily intake (ADI) has been reduced several times following risk assessments by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA). This process has been linked to significant reductions in the use authorized in the EU, reducing consumers’ exposure progressively, until the final ban in 2020, accompanied by setting all EU maximum residue levels (MRL) in food at the default value of 0.01 mg/kg. We present a comparison of estimates of the consumer’s internal exposure to chlorpyrifos based on the urinary marker 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy), using two sources of monitoring data: monitoring of the food chain from the EU program and biomonitoring of European citizens from the HB4EU project, supported by a literature search. Both methods confirmed a drastic reduction in exposure levels from 2016 onwards. The margin of exposure approach is then used for conducting retrospective risk assessments at different time points, considering the evolution of our understanding of chlorpyrifos toxicity, as well as of exposure levels in EU consumers following the regulatory decisions. Concerns are presented using a color code, and have been identified for almost all studies, particularly for the highest exposed group, but at different levels, reaching the maximum level, red code, for children in Cyprus and Israel. The assessment uncertainties are highlighted and integrated in the identification of levels of concern. Full article
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19 pages, 726 KiB  
Review
Impact of Particles on Pulmonary Endothelial Cells
Toxics 2022, 10(6), 312; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10060312 - 09 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1952
Abstract
According to the WHO, air quality affects around 40 million people, contributing to around 21,000 premature deaths per year. Severe respiratory diseases, such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, can be promoted by air pollution, which has already been documented; this is [...] Read more.
According to the WHO, air quality affects around 40 million people, contributing to around 21,000 premature deaths per year. Severe respiratory diseases, such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, can be promoted by air pollution, which has already been documented; this is one of the reasons why air quality is a very relevant factor for human health and well-being. Aerosols are an aggregation of solid or liquid particles dispersed in the air and can be found in the form of dust or fumes. Aerosols can be easily inhaled or absorbed by the skin, which can lead to adverse health effects according to their sizes that range from the nanometre to the millimetre scale. Based on the PRISMA methodology and using the Rayyan QCRI platform, it was possible to assess more than four hundred research articles. This systematic review study aimed to understand the impact of particles on pulmonary endothelial cells, namely particulate matter in different sizes, cigarette smoke, diesel exhaust particles and carbon black. The main conclusions were that particles induce multiple health effects on endothelial cells, namely endothelial dysfunction, which can lead to apoptosis and necrosis, and it may also cause necroptosis in lung structure. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Modelling & Impacts Assessments of Air Quality)
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9 pages, 2667 KiB  
Brief Report
The Bisphenols Found in the Ejaculate of Men Does Not Pass through the Testes
Toxics 2022, 10(6), 311; https://doi.org/10.3390/toxics10060311 - 09 Jun 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1803
Abstract
Exposure to bisphenols is related to negative effects on male reproduction. The bisphenols exposure is associated with several modes of action including negative impact on the blood–testis barrier (BTB) in testes or direct effect on spermatozoa. Bisphenols have been detected in human seminal [...] Read more.
Exposure to bisphenols is related to negative effects on male reproduction. The bisphenols exposure is associated with several modes of action including negative impact on the blood–testis barrier (BTB) in testes or direct effect on spermatozoa. Bisphenols have been detected in human seminal plasma, but the possible mechanism of seminal transfer of bisphenols is not clear. Some authors consider the transfer through the blood–testis barrier to be crucial. Therefore, in this work, we compared normozoospermic men and men after vasectomy who have interrupted vas deferens and their ejaculate does not contain testicular products. We measured the concentration of bisphenol A (BPA), bisphenol S (BPS) and bisphenol F (BPF) in the urine and seminal plasma of these men using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MSMS). We found that the ratio of urinary and seminal plasma content of bisphenols did not differ in normozoospermic men or men after vasectomy. From the obtained data, it can be concluded that the pathways of transport of bisphenols into seminal plasma are not primarily through the testicular tissue, but this pathway is applied similarly to other routes of transmission by a corresponding ejaculate volume ratio. To a much greater extent than through testicular tissue, bisphenols enter the seminal plasma mainly as part of the secretions of the accessory glands. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Plasticizer Exposure: Harmful Impact on Human Health)
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