Culinary Education Programs for Children in Low-Income Households: A Scoping Review
2.1. Data Sources
2.2. Study Selection
2.3. Data Extraction
6. Implications for Research and Practice
Conflicts of Interest
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|Author (Year)||Study Name||Research Design||Data Collection Schedule||Recruitment Focus||Sample Size||Income/SES Criterion||Participant Race/Ethnicity||Recruitment Location||Geographic Location||Data Collection Method||Results|
|Bell et al.  (2018)||Virtual Sprouts||two group design; quasi-experimental; pilot intervention||pre+post (child only)||child (predominantly minority, underserved; 3–5 grades)||180 (control = 64, intervention = 116)||public elementary charter schools in LA; participants: 92% treatment/73% control eligible to receive free lunch||Latino 9.5% tx/11.3% control; White 0% tx/1.6% control; Black 63% tx/58.1% control; Native American 0.9% tx/0% control; Mixed Race 25.9% tx/29% control; Other. 9% tx/0% control||School (n = 2)||Los Angeles, CA||survey||+ self-efficacy to eat FV; + self-efficacy to cook FV|
|Chen et al.  (2014)||Cooking up Diversity||two group design; quasi-experimental; mixed methods||pre+post (child + parent); post-intervention focus groups (parent only)||both (K-2 students)||1204 (control = 600; intervention = 604)||low-income schools where majority of students were eligible to receive free/reduced price meals program; participants: nearly 80% qualified for free/reduced price meals||Latino/Hispanic 32.4%; Hmong 9.1%; White 42.3%; Other 16.2%||School (n = 6)||Northern California||survey; focus group discussions||+ familiarity, preferences, and consumption of vegetables and increased involvement with food prep at home; + parental appreciation of new foods/recipes|
|Cunningham-Sabo et al.  (2014)||Cooking with Kids||(2 cohorts); 3 group design; quasi-experimental||pre+post (child only)||child (4th grade)||961 (completed both pre and post-survey)||schools had to have ≥50% of students eligible for free/reduced price school meals; participants: SES not provided||Hispanic 84.1%; White 10.1%; American Indian 2.8%; American Indian 2.8%; Black 1.1%; Asian 0.6%; NA 1.3%||School (n = 11)||Santa Fe, NM||survey||+FV preferences +cooking self-efficacy and attitudes in students without cooking experience (mostly males)|
|D’Adamo et al.  (2016)||Spice MyPlate||quasi-experimental; two group design||baseline, 3, 6, and 10 weeks after baseline (child only)||child||110||School—free/reduced price meal participation (School A = 75%; School B = 74%); participants—SES not provided||African American 87.3% tx/63.6% control; White 1.8% tx/12.7% control; Hispanic 0% tx/3.6% control; Asian/Pacific Islander 0% tx/3.6% control; Native American 3.6% tx/0% control; Other 1.8% tx/9.1% control||school (n = 2) (grades 9–12)||East Baltimore, MD||3-day food record, survey||Spice MyPlate intervention was feasible; + whole grains, and protein foods intake; + attitudes towards eating vegetables, whole grains, lean protein, and low-fat dairy|
|Davis et al.  (2016)||LA Sprouts||RCT||pre+post (child only)||child (3rd–5th grade)||304 (control = 137; intervention = 167)||school eligibility: ≥75% received free/reduced price lunches; participants—89% control/91% treatment eligible for free/reduced price lunch||Hispanic 88.8% control/88.6% tx; Asian 1.5% control /0.6% tx; Non-Hispanic Black 0% control/2.4% tx; Non-Hispanic White 1.5% control/1.2% tx; Other 8.2% control/7.2% tx||after-school program (n = 4)—LA’s Better Educated Students for Tomorrow||Los Angeles, CA||Questionnaire||+ Scores for identification of vegetables, and nutrition and gardening knowledge for LA Sprouts participants; + More likely for LA Sprouts participants to garden at home|
|Gatto et al.  (2017)||LA Sprouts||2 group RCT||pre+post (child only)||child (3–5 grades)||319 (control = 147; intervention = 172)||school eligibility: ≥75% received free lunch program; participants—89% control/91% treatment eligible for free/reduced price lunch||Hispanic/Latino 89% tx/88.8% control||after-school program n = 4)—LA’s Better Educated Students for Tomorrow||Los Angeles, CA||food frequency questionnaire, anthropo-metrics, optional fasting blood sample||LA Sprouts participants had greater reduction in BMI z-scores, and waist circumference; − Number of LA Sprouts participants with metabolic syndrome; + Dietary fiber intake for LA Sprouts participants; − Decreased vegetable intake for all study participants, but LA Sprouts participants had smaller decreases|
|Jarpe-Ratner et al.  (2016)||Common Threads||quasi-experimental||pre+post (child + parent)||child (grades 3–8)||271||≥80% of students eligible for free/reduced price lunch; participants—94% eligible for free/reduced price lunch||(analyzed sample) African American 44%; Hispanic 42%; White 7%; Other 7%||School (n = 18)||Chicago, IL||survey||+ FV consumption, nutrition knowledge, cooking self-efficacy, exposure to new foods, and cooking at home for students; + Family conversations about healthy foods, frequency children prepared dinner, parent perception on ability to prepare health meal, and importance parents place on family meal; sustained effect at post 2|
|Liquori et al.  (1998)||The Cookshop Program||quasi-experimental design||pre+post (child only)||child (K-6 grades)||590||schools: low-income school district; participant SES not provided||not provided for participants; however, recruited from schools that were 85% African American and 15% Hispanic||School (n = 2)||Central Harlem community of NYC||survey; visual inspection of plate waste||+ (CS) preferences, knowledge, and plate waste in both younger and older children and on behavioral intention in younger children and cooking self-efficacy in older children; + (FEL) knowledge for both age groups|
|Overcash et al.  (2018)||Cooking Matters for Families||one group; quasi-experimental||pre+post (child + parent)||both||89||family qualified for public assistance; participants—61% had low/very low food security||White 12%; Black/African American 34%; Asian/Pacific Islander/American Indian 4%; Other 41%; Mixed race 9%; Hispanic ethnicity 43%||Subsidized housing, churches, schools, and community centers (# of participating organizations not identified)||Minneapolis-St Paul, MN||survey||+ Parental cooking confidence, healthy food prep, child self-efficacy, vegetable variety and home vegetable availability|
|Author (Year)||Theoretical Framework (s)||Stakeholder Involvement||Adaptation for Low SES|
|Bell et al.  (2018)||Self Determination Theory, Social Cognitive Theory||formative research with stakeholders to develop the program||extension of previous nutrition/cooking/gardening program for urban Latino upper elementary aged children; formative work with stakeholders (observation, focus groups, surveys, prototyping, concept testing)|
|Chen et al.  (2014)||none described||parents, bicultural staff members who had experience providing cooking classes to Hmong/Latino adults participated in recipe development||Local, ethnic produce items were featured. Ingredients were affordable and provided to students. Equipment such as cutting boards and aprons were provided|
|Cunningham-Sabo et al.  (2014)||none described||none described||bilingual curriculum, affordable ingredients; focus on diverse cultural traditions|
|D’Adamo et al.  (2016)||none described||students, teachers, community-based health professionals involved in curriculum development||spices selected based on accessibility, cultural acceptability, affordability, palatability, versatility, health benefits, familiarity, novelty|
|Davis et al.  (2016)||Social Cognitive Theory and Self Determination Theory||pilot tested with 4th and 5th grade students; tested again in cluster RCT with predominantly low-income Hispanic 3rd–5th grade students||lessons were culturally tailored|
|Gatto et al.  (2017)||self-efficacy||pilot tested with predominantly low-income Hispanic students prior to finalizing program||none described although developed for urban Latino upper elementary aged children|
|Jarpe-Ratner et al.  (2016)||none described||none described||recipes designed to be affordable, flexible, and consistent with dietary guidelines (2010)|
|Liquori et al.  (1998)||Social Cognitive Theory||pilot tested classroom and lunchroom components—adjusted based on results and feedback||pilot tested classroom and lunchroom components—adjusted based on results and feedback|
|Overcash et al.  (2018)||Social Cognitive Theory||none described||designed for low-income families (no information provided on how this was accomplished)|
|Author (Year)||Components||Primary Intervention Focus||Delivery Mode||Parent Involve-ment *||# of Sessions||Session Length||Program Duration||Program Leader(s)||Leader Training||Delivery Location(s)|
|Bell et al.  (2018)||program focus—nutrition education, cooking, gardening; Game: cooking and gardening; classroom curriculum: nutrition education; cooking demonstrations; practice; reflection; family home activities—materials provided||child||game (played in class on tablet), in-class lessons, in-home activities||+++||3 game sessions, 3 class lessons, 3 in-home activities||Games and lessons were each an hour long, and in-home activities spanned the course of 3 days per week||3 weeks||game (independent); teacher (classroom); home (family)||Teachers were trained||Games played and lesson taught in classroom. The in-home activities were at home|
|Chen et al.  (2014)||Recipe demonstrations, recipe card info lessons, tasting activities. Family food kits were given to students to take home (cooking equipment, spices). Backpack of equipment also provided||both||classroom, home||+++||1 session per month (1–2 recipes)||20 min to present in-class activities for one recipe||Feb–May||nutrition educator and teacher||none described||classroom and home|
|Cunningham-Sabo et al.  (2014)||cooking and/or tasting sessions||child||hands-on cooking classes and/or tasting sessions in classroom; classroom meals served in school cafeteria several times a month||+||1 introductory session; 5 cooking and/or FV tasting sessions||1 h introductory session; 2 h cooking sessions; 1 h tasting lessons||school year||Parents invited to volunteer. FV tastings led by classroom teachers. Cooking lessons led by Cooking with Kids food educators||none described||classroom; school cafeteria|
|D’Adamo et al.  (2016)||Spice MyPlate intervention was 6 weekly nutrition education sessions focused on using spices and herbs in a diet + a 1 h grocery tour + 2 h of cooking sessions||child||classroom lessons (health class), grocery tour, cooking sessions||−||1 h standard nutrition education, 6 sessions of My Plate curriculum, 1 grocery tour, 2 h of cooking sessions||nutrition lessons were 1 h long, grocery tour was 1 h, and there was a total of 2 h of cooking sessions||6 weeks||Chefs led the cooking sessions; Health Corps coordinator led the nutrition lessons||none mentioned||school (health class)|
|Davis et al.  (2016)||gardening, cooking, nutrition||child||hands-on, instructional||−||12||90 min||12 weeks||nutrition and garden educators with strong backgrounds in cooking, nutrition, gardening||none described||school (after-school program)|
|Gatto et al.  (2017)||gardening, cooking, nutrition||child||hands-on, demonstration||+++ (parallel program for parents)||12||90 min||12 weeks||educators with nutrition or gardening backgrounds||none described||school (school garden)|
|Jarpe-Ratner et al.  (2016)||nutrition education, culinary skills, and meal preparation, meal sharing, and discussion||child||hands-on, instructional||+||10 per semester||30-min lectures, 75-min instruction on culinary skills and prep, 15-min of meal sharing, conversation||10 weeks in a school semester||chef-instructors||chef-instructors went through 2 h training by Common Threads staff||school (after-school program)|
|Liquori et al.  (1998)||school lunch component; classroom component (cooking and tasting sessions OR participatory activities without cooking and tasting); parent and community component||child||hands-on, instructional||+++||−||60-90 min for cook shop; 45 min for food and environment lessons||school year||food service staff led cafeteria component; classroom teachers, parents, and college students were Cook Shop instructors||Cook Shop instructors had two 3-h training sessions; food service staff had one 3 h training session; program staff met with parent assistants and volunteer college students before and after each session for training support||school|
|Overcash et al.  (2018)||demonstration, food preparation, nutrition education lessons, and a meal. Families were given a bag of groceries needed to prepare the meal at home||both||hands-on, instructional||+++||6||2 h||September 2014–June 2016||chefs, nutrition educators||chefs and nutrition educators went through training sessions||11 different host sites|
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Li, P.P.; Mackey, G.; Callender, C.; Dave, J.M.; Olvera, N.; Alford, S.; Thompson, D. Culinary Education Programs for Children in Low-Income Households: A Scoping Review. Children 2020, 7, 47. https://doi.org/10.3390/children7050047
Li PP, Mackey G, Callender C, Dave JM, Olvera N, Alford S, Thompson D. Culinary Education Programs for Children in Low-Income Households: A Scoping Review. Children. 2020; 7(5):47. https://doi.org/10.3390/children7050047Chicago/Turabian Style
Li, Priscilla P., Guisela Mackey, Chishinga Callender, Jayna M. Dave, Norma Olvera, Shana Alford, and Debbe Thompson. 2020. "Culinary Education Programs for Children in Low-Income Households: A Scoping Review" Children 7, no. 5: 47. https://doi.org/10.3390/children7050047