An Analysis of the Type of Questions Posed by Teachers in English-Medium Instruction at University Level
2. Questioning Practices in EMI in Higher Education
3. Research Questions
- Are there any general tendencies in the types of questions posed by the EMI history teachers?
- Are the questioning tendencies subject to individual differences among the lecturers?
4. The Study
4.1. The Participants and the Courses
4.2. Data Collection and Coding Process
- T1: what is an audiencia in # in Spanish # eh # system? There were audiencias in Spain # there were were one in Valladolid # there were one in Granada.
- T1: what ## which is an audiencia?
- T1: in Spain # it was # and it is # a xxx tribunal # a high court.
5.1. First Research Question: Are There Any General Tendencies in the Types of Questions Posed by the EMI History Teachers?
- T1: We can assume that in Spain # or all the provinces # or the diputaciones # are # the same ## they have the same basic eh competences # even in # I don’t know # in eh # Andalusia # or Cataluña # or whatever # we can assume that.
- T1: yes # yes # or not? [con] mm? [con]
- T4: bombing of the civil # of the Spanish civil war and probably one of the most famous: in spite of that # however # the bombing of Guernica is the most famous # in the world. Okay? [con] Why? [dis] (two students answer at the same time)
- T4: okay # wait wait wait.
- T4: well # first (pointing at S2) # because? [dis]
- S2: it was the first civil bombing.
- T4: no # Durango was first.
- T3: and # in this kind of system # the peasants # or the farmers # had to provide the government with? [dis]
- S2: labour work? [con]
- T3: labour services.
- S: eh.
- T3: okay. Labour services.
- T2: What happened with # eeeh # England? [dis]
- T2: When was England # the major power in Europe? [dis]
- T2: when? [dis]
- S: Seventeen # eighteen.
- T2: Seventeen # seventeen century # from the seventeen century # as a result of the first # civil war # remember eeeeh # Cromwell # okay? [con]
- T2: and # as a result of the # various # revolution in 1688 # okay? [con]
- T1: So # which was the decision? [dis]
- S: Vicekingdoms.
- T1: Vicekingdoms.
- T1: So # to create # two figures # of alter egos of the king ### whose seat will be # two American cities # and they will # be # at the top # of that system # eh in # in in in a America.
- T2: Why is important the public debt? [dis]
- T2: What do you think it’s important? [ref]
- T3: And the problem is # what would happen # if # once you have invested # a lot # of your work # of your human effort # and even of your money in the improvement of your plot # […] at the end of the year # the emperor tells # perfect # now # we are going to distribute # the land # for the next year # which is going to begin # right now # what would happen then? [dis]
- T3: What would you feel? [ref]
- T3: What would you think in that case? [ref]
- T3: Wouldn’t you feel cheated? [ref]
- T3: What would you think? [ref]
- T3: Would you like that? [ref]
- T3: So # what do you think # rural industries mean? [ref]
- S: eh # a (??) industry that provides # em ### xxx to the # to the # rural world.
- T3: Not really.
- T3: Where do you come from # xxx? [ref]
- T3: Have you ever heard # the expression (writing on the board) paddy fields [ref]?
- T3: Have you seen # the movies about Vietnam? [ref]
- T3: eh? [con]
- T3: Have you ever seen # movies such as “Rambo” # “Apocalypse now” # and so on? [ref]
- T3: Do you know the # theee # history of the discoveries # no # Ana? [ref]
- T3: Why they say that Columbus was probably a xxx idiot? [dis]
- S: Because # er # he thought he found # India.
- T3: Yeah but is more # is even more interesting than that.
- T3: You know the # you know # the problems Columbus had with the Portuguese crown? [ref]
- T3: You know the history? [ref]
- T3: Is really interesting # because Columbus thought…
- T1: Eh # what is the astrolabe? [sel]
- T1: This is an astrolabe. (showing a picture)
- T1: xxx device made of xxx metal # eeeeeh # xxx # xxx # object (??) # but # always # have these features # with different # eeeh # eh # elements # that are used for what? [sel]
- T1: Well # basically # for measuring the time.
- T3: What I am trying # to tell you with this? [sel]
- T3: We are # at the end # of # an economy # of a (¿?) # kind of Chinese economy # based # in the closely # in the close involvement # of the state # in the economic affairs
- T1: so as you can see # changes in technology # some of them imported from # outside Europe # others # created in Europe # that led to what? [sel]
- T1: to huge development # during the fourteenth and sixteenth centuries # in # the art # of ship making # mm? [con]
- T1: to a certain extent # the main # element # of contact # not only contact # of control # to the different empires in the Americas was made at the beginning # through # the activity of piracy.
- T1: why? [sel]
- T1: because something interesting is that # no # European # country # had # a permanent army # in the Americas # up to the eighteenth century.
- T3: Let’s see the economics students.
- S: the consumers # eeeh # xxx better # but # in contrast # eh another countries # eh # thee they can lost their # their own # mm # economy system # like Argentina is a # very good # country # but
- T3: very? [rep]
- S: is a very # good country.
- T3: very? # sorry? [rep]
- S: good.
- T3: well # yeah.
- T4: and # eeeem # well # mm # remember the # the scene # in which # the camera ## lingers # on the # on the # plates? [ret]
- T4: Watch # the movie? [pro]
- T4: and you? [pro]
- T4: okay.
- T4: have you # written a # paragraph or something # or not? [pro]
- S: no.
- T4: just # no.
- T4: okay only Ricardo? [pro]
- T3: but we will deal with that # eh # in the third part of the lesson # okay? [con]
- T3: so # what about a little break? [pro]
- T1: and actually we are going to start # a long long weekend. […] Do you # do you have any # any class # any lesson tomorrow? [off]
- S: yes.
- T1: yes # ah # all right. What time? [off] what time? [off]
- S: three o’clock.
- T1: is like …actually # who is the best # what is the best # way # of stopping # the activity # of # such a powerful man # that can ## create # the whole army # and the whole ## navy # not not not army # but navy # against you in the Caribbean? [dis]
- T1: well # kill him? [ind]
- T3: so why did Britain remain committed # eeeh # to free trade? [rhe]
- T3: why did Britain remain # focused # on the promotion of free trade # until 1931? [rhe]
- T3: and this is what we are going to address right now.
- T3: okay? [con]
- T3: and to do that ## we will have to take a glance ## sorry (going through slides) ## to this lovely table (going through slides) ### which is probably the Capilla Sixtina [Sistine Chapel] # of the # economic history temples.
- T4: Not to # eh how do you say this # to paños calientes? (the English equivalent to “not to go in for half measures”) [lan]
5.2. Second Research Question: Are the Questioning Tendencies Subject to Individual Differences among the Lecturers?
more sophisticated, extensive and lengthy contributions would be expected, precisely because these questions address students’ personally and allow more assorted and tailor-made replies promoting on many occasions out-of-the-box critical thinking. Surprisingly, students’ output remains stagnant concerning referential enquiries and do not entail any observable change in terms of length or verbal complexity.
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
|[…]||some part of the transcription is skipped for the sake of space|
|[lang]||language question type|
|[con]||confirmation question type|
|[ret]||retrospective question type|
|[self]||self-answered question type|
|[rhet ]||rhetorical question type|
|[ind]||indirect question type|
|[proc]||procedural question type|
|[off]||off-task question type|
|( )||translation of Spanish terms/words into English|
|In bold||our emphasis|
|S||Student (since the students were not the focus of this study, all the students were referred to as S)|
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|Subject||Years of Teaching Experience||Years of Teaching in EMI||Lectures Observed and Recorded||Number of Words Recorded|
|T1||America in the modern age||25||7||1, 4, 16||27,105|
|T2||Early modern history I||16||2||2, 8, 9||21,027|
|T3||World economic history||21||5||3, 6, 10||27,155|
|T4||Contemporary history of the Basque Country||30||2||11, 13, 15||16,617|
|Instructional Questions (Related to Content)|
|Display||Those to which the answer is known by the teacher.|
|Referential||Those to which the answer is not known by the teacher.|
|Repetition||Those seeking repetition of the last word, idea, utterance, etc.|
|Language||Those seeking assistance as regards language matters.|
|Confirmation Checks||Those aimed at ensuring understanding of the topic/lecture.|
|Retrospective||Those which require the students to recall previous information.|
|Self-answered||Those which are immediately answered by the teacher.|
|Rhetorical||Those to which no answer is expected.|
|Indirect||Those which are not uttered to get a response but to exemplify some situation.|
|Regulative questions (related to classroom procedures)|
|Procedural||Those which refer to the development of the lesson and do not focus on the content/language, but on the lecture itself or a particular activity.|
|Off-task||Those which refer to a topic that departs from the main subject.|
|Total Number of Words:|
|‰||Number of Questions|
|Confirmation check||10.77 (292)||50.83 (1069)||13.40 (364)||9.26 (154)|
|Display||3.06 (83)||4.04 (85)||6.59 (179)||1.86 (31)|
|Referential||0.81 (22)||0.99 (21)||5.81 (158)||2.16 (36)|
|Self-answered||1.62 (44)||1.23 (26)||1.32 (36)||1.02 (17)|
|Repetition||0.07 (2)||0.23 (5)||0.92 (25)||0.54 (9)|
|Retrospective||0.18 (5)||0.38 (8)||0.18 (5)||0.84 (14)|
|Procedural||0.03 (1)||0.14 (3)||0.33 (9)||0.30 (5)|
|Off-task||2.58 (7)||0.09 (2)||0.18 (5)||0.18 (3)|
|Indirect||0.11 (3)||0.04 (1)||0.11 (3)||0.18 (3)|
|TOTAL||16.93 (459)||57. 87 (1220)||28.94 (786)||16.42 (273)|
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Doiz, A.; Lasagabaster, D. An Analysis of the Type of Questions Posed by Teachers in English-Medium Instruction at University Level. Educ. Sci. 2023, 13, 82. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13010082
Doiz A, Lasagabaster D. An Analysis of the Type of Questions Posed by Teachers in English-Medium Instruction at University Level. Education Sciences. 2023; 13(1):82. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13010082Chicago/Turabian Style
Doiz, Aintzane, and David Lasagabaster. 2023. "An Analysis of the Type of Questions Posed by Teachers in English-Medium Instruction at University Level" Education Sciences 13, no. 1: 82. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13010082