Second Language Acquisition and Language Education – Bridging the Interface

A special issue of Education Sciences (ISSN 2227-7102).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 July 2023) | Viewed by 25688

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Guest Editor
Department of French, University College Cork, T12 K8AF Cork, Ireland
Interests: second language acquisition; additional language education; linguistic development; (socio) linguistic variation; motivation; advanced language learner; international student mobility; study abroad
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Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Emerging in the 1970s, second language acquisition (SLA) research is now a long-established field, illuminating the complexity of the language learning process among learners in different learning contexts, of different age groups, and at different developmental stages of proficiency from diverse perspectives. Reflecting its status as an independent field of inquiry within Applied Linguistics and drawing on a range cognate fields reflecting its significant interdisciplinary underpinnings, from linguistics to psychology and sociology, the field offers a diverse range of potential insights for language education practitioners. The latter naturally includes language instructors but also extends to other relevant stakeholders such as language education policy makers, those involved in language testing, and learners themselves and their parents. While language acquisition and language education are often confounded by non-specialists as one and the same area, the specificity of their focus is altogether different. Notwithstanding, there is a natural interface between an acquisition approach and an education focus to learning a second language. That interface extends beyond instructed second language acquisition (ISLA) as a significant sub-field within SLA, where there is a strong focus on classroom input exposure conditions in diverse forms (see, for example, Housen and Pierrard 2005).

This Special Issue seeks to include but also critically to go beyond ISLA in itself to consider the interface between SLA and language education as a means of exploring the range of insights that SLA can provide on the learning process of direct relevance to language practitioners and other stakeholders. The presentation showcases the scope for SLA and language education practitioners and stakeholders to engage in a way that does not happen very often as the two fields, SLA and language education, are often seen to co-exist as independent fields, with little attention paid to how each can inform the other in a mutually beneficial dialogue. Notable exceptions are volumes by Trévisiol-Okamura and Komur-Thilloy (2011) and Watorek et al. (2021).

Against this background, article submissions with an explicit focus on the interface between SLA and language education as a means of illuminating the insights that SLA can provide on language education practices are invited. Submissions should genuinely be situated within an SLA framework while providing a clear outline of how the acquisition insights can inform and shape educational practices. A key question underlying each article should thus be how SLA empirical results can be used by practitioners and learners in a meaningful way to enhance learner development and outcomes and pedagogical practices. Given the scope and breath of SLA research, it is hoped that the collection of articles will exemplify the rich diversity of areas that SLA research casts its lamp on within its multidimensional prism in their entirety, from the nature of linguistic development to input and interaction matters, along with individual differences and the wide range of personal, social, and environmental factors that underpin such individual variability. Such areas complement the more explicit focus on ISLA matters, where article submissions are also welcome.

Submissions can take the form of articles based on empirical studies but may also include opinion, viewpoint, and commentary pieces, which should offer an extensive treatment of and reflection on the theme from a specific thematic angle. It is intended that the Special Issue reflect a range of languages, among learners in different learning and educational contexts, and at different proficiency levels while also drawing on empirical studies from a range of theoretical paradigms, approaches, and methods.

References

Housen, A. & M. Pierrard (eds.) (2005). Investigations in instructed second language acquisition. Berlin / New York, Mouton deGruyter [Studies on Language Acquisition 25]

Trévisiol-Okamura, P. & G. Komur-Thilloy (eds.) (2011). Discours, acquisition et didactique des langues. Les termes d’un dialogue. Paris: Orizons.

Watorek, M., R. Rast & A. Arslangul (eds.) Premières étapes dans l’acquisition des langues étrangères: Dialogue entre acquisition et didactique des langues. Paris: Presses de l’INACLO

Dr. Martin Howard
Guest Editor

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a double-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Education Sciences is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • language pedagogy
  • didactics
  • instructed second language acquisition
  • pedagogical linguistics
  • foreign language learning
  • plurilingualism
  • multilingualism
  • classroom learning
  • language learning beyond the classroom
  • child language learning
  • adult language learning
  • immersion education
  • language testing
  • language proficiency

Published Papers (15 papers)

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Editorial

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7 pages, 185 KiB  
Editorial
Second Language Acquisition and Language Education—Bidirectional Synergies between Research and Practice
by Martin Howard
Educ. Sci. 2024, 14(4), 345; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci14040345 - 25 Mar 2024
Viewed by 456
Abstract
This Special Issue brings together the fields of second language acquisition (SLA) and language education in an attempt to offer a venue for exploring mutual insights into classroom language learning [...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial

27 pages, 381 KiB  
Article
The Effects of Orthography on the Pronunciation of Nasal Vowels by L1 Japanese Learners of L3 French: Evidence from a Longitudinal Study of Speech in Interaction
by Cyrille Granget, Cecilia Gunnarsson, Inès Saddour, Clara Solier, Vera Serrau and Charlotte Alazard
Educ. Sci. 2024, 14(3), 234; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci14030234 - 23 Feb 2024
Viewed by 700
Abstract
In recent decades, a vast literature has documented crosslinguistic influences on the acquisition of L2 phonology and in particular the effects of spelling on pronunciation. However, articulating these research findings in terms of taking into account the effects of L1 phonology and spelling [...] Read more.
In recent decades, a vast literature has documented crosslinguistic influences on the acquisition of L2 phonology and in particular the effects of spelling on pronunciation. However, articulating these research findings in terms of taking into account the effects of L1 phonology and spelling on L2 pronunciation in language teaching remains to be examined. These studies are based on experimental cross-sectional methods and mainly focus on L2 English learning by speakers of languages with an alphabetic system. In French, there are few studies on crosslinguistic influences on the acquisition of the nasal vowels (//, // and /ε~/) and few experimental studies that point to a possible effect of orthography on the pronunciation of these phonemes. The results of experimental studies are difficult to transpose to the language classroom because they are based on word or sentence reading and writing activities, which are quite far-removed from the conversational activities practised in the classroom in interaction with peers and the teacher. Hence, we opted here for a case study of the effect of spelling on the production of nasal vowels in interaction tasks. We conducted a longitudinal study during the first year of extensive learning of French (4 h 30 per week). The results of a perceptive analysis by expert listeners show that (i) learners spell nasal vowels with an <n> or <m> in 98% of the obligatory contexts; (ii) most nasal vowels are perceived as nasal vowels in speech (72%), the others being perceived as vowels followed by a nasal consonant (19.5%) or as oral vowels (8.5%); (iii) consonantisation is stronger when the learner spontaneously produces a word than when (s)he repeats it, (iv) which decreases with time (learning effect) and varies (v) according to the consonant, /ε~/ being less consonantised than // and //. Finaly, we propose a didactic discussion in the light of intelligibility and influence of orthography. Full article
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15 pages, 565 KiB  
Article
Video Observation of Kindergarten Teachers’ Use of Questions in Picture-Book Reading with Quiet Multilingual Children: A Pilot Study
by Marit M. Bredesen and Kari-Anne B. Næss
Educ. Sci. 2023, 13(10), 1066; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13101066 - 23 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1030
Abstract
Teacher questions asked during picture-book reading may stimulate the child’s practice of new vocabulary. However, there is great variation in children’s amount of verbal expression, and little knowledge exists about what level of openness in the questions elicits a response. We use video [...] Read more.
Teacher questions asked during picture-book reading may stimulate the child’s practice of new vocabulary. However, there is great variation in children’s amount of verbal expression, and little knowledge exists about what level of openness in the questions elicits a response. We use video observation and pilot a set of digital picture-book dialog materials that are under development. The analysis included 234 questions asked during picture-book reading in the Norwegian language between three quiet multilingual children and their kindergarten teachers. The analysis was partly qualitative evaluating the types of questions and subsequent responses and partly quantitative in summarizing the occurrence of the types of questions and responses. The results show that between 75% and 97% of the half-open questions, between 60% and 80% of the closed questions, and between 14% and 60% of the open-ended questions elicited a response from the children. Overall, the results indicated that the frequency of responses varied both within and between question types. The fact that open-ended questions generated a limited number of responses among multilingual children may challenge the use of such questions as the gold standard in adult–child dialogs, regardless of child factors and context. Full article
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21 pages, 1540 KiB  
Article
From Research in the Lab to Pedagogical Practices in the EFL Classroom: The Case of Task-Based Pronunciation Teaching
by Joan C. Mora and Ingrid Mora-Plaza
Educ. Sci. 2023, 13(10), 1042; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13101042 - 17 Oct 2023
Viewed by 1376
Abstract
Input and context-related factors identified by research as key success variables in L2 pronunciation development in immersion contexts play a very modest role in instructed foreign language (FL) learning environments. Scarce L2 exposure and use and L1-accented input make pronunciation learning extremely challenging. [...] Read more.
Input and context-related factors identified by research as key success variables in L2 pronunciation development in immersion contexts play a very modest role in instructed foreign language (FL) learning environments. Scarce L2 exposure and use and L1-accented input make pronunciation learning extremely challenging. Current L2 speech learning models attribute difficulties in L2 speech acquisition to L2-to-L1 perceptual sound mappings guided by L1-based perception and poor phonological awareness and noticing of cross-language phonetic differences, which are typically not adequately addressed in instruction through pedagogic tasks. Explicit and incidental pronunciation teaching methods have been found effective at improving learners’ pronunciation, but ways to integrate them into communicative approaches to language teaching are still largely unexplored. Thus, language education practices currently lack a research-informed pedagogical approach that incorporates principles of L2 speech learning and task-based language teaching (TBLT) into pronunciation instruction. This article (1) presents an outline of new avenues for research and practice in L2 pronunciation instruction and (2) reports on the findings of an empirical study that implemented a task-based pronunciation teaching (TBPT) approach to teaching a difficult L2 vowel contrast through computerized collaborative map tasks that could be easily integrated into communicative FL classrooms. Full article
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13 pages, 272 KiB  
Article
Where SLA and Language Education Meet: The Transfer from Task-Based Needs Analysis to Task Design
by Roger Gilabert
Educ. Sci. 2023, 13(10), 1015; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13101015 - 08 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1271
Abstract
This theoretical article sets a goal to investigate how task-based needs analysis (TBNA) as part of instructed second language acquisition (ISLA) may mediate between constructs and concepts in second language acquisition (SLA) and task-based design. It is claimed that as an instantiation of [...] Read more.
This theoretical article sets a goal to investigate how task-based needs analysis (TBNA) as part of instructed second language acquisition (ISLA) may mediate between constructs and concepts in second language acquisition (SLA) and task-based design. It is claimed that as an instantiation of instructed second language acquisition (ISLA), TBNA in task-based language teaching (TBLT) may bring together decision-making during task design and what is known about SLA products and processes. The article then explores some of the key SLA concepts in ISLA around the constructs of input, intake, knowledge, and output and relates them to task-based research. Thirdly, TBNA is defined and analyzed in terms of how it may inform task and syllabus design. Finally, SLA constructs are directly associated with pedagogic task design that springs from TBNA. After a close inspection of all dimensions of TBNA, the article concludes that task design based on detailed TBNA has indeed the potential to bring reality into instruction through thorough task descriptions and methods, as well as to trigger well-known and specific processes that bring SLA and language education closer. Full article
16 pages, 275 KiB  
Article
Interactive Alignment in L2 Learning: The Link between Social Interaction and Psycholinguistic Phenomena
by Nadia Mifka-Profozic
Educ. Sci. 2023, 13(8), 792; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13080792 - 03 Aug 2023
Viewed by 1027
Abstract
To engage successfully in conversational activities, participants need to coordinate and synchronise their talk with the talk of their interlocutors. Apart from a set of social strategies and natural routines involved in sequence organisation, a significant contributor to this goal is a psycholinguistic [...] Read more.
To engage successfully in conversational activities, participants need to coordinate and synchronise their talk with the talk of their interlocutors. Apart from a set of social strategies and natural routines involved in sequence organisation, a significant contributor to this goal is a psycholinguistic mechanism identified as interactive alignment. The present study set out to examine whether interactive alignment occurs in L2 speech of upper intermediate second language users who have been learning English at school for around 11 years. The participants were a group of twenty Croatian students in their second year of university study, majoring in English. They worked on two collaborative tasks: one carried out in dialogues and the other one in groups of four. Their interactions were analysed both quantitatively and qualitatively, to closely examine how interaction evolves in unscripted task-based L2 production. With a significantly larger number of alignment occurrences recorded in dialogues than in groups of four, both between speaker and within speaker, this study demonstrates that processes in L2 learning and use are interconnected and interdependent at all levels, involving cognitive, psychological, psycholinguistic, and social dimensions. Full article
15 pages, 286 KiB  
Article
Receptive Vocabulary and Listening Narrative Comprehension of Italian–English Bilingual Children between 5 to 7 Years
by Maja Roch, Raffaele Dicataldo and Maria Chiara Levorato
Educ. Sci. 2023, 13(8), 780; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13080780 - 01 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 715
Abstract
Vocabulary is the key component of listening narrative comprehension, but its contribution has been scarcely investigated in bilingual children. This study aimed to examine (a) listening narrative comprehension and receptive vocabulary in L1 (Italian) and L2 (English) in preschool and first grade children; [...] Read more.
Vocabulary is the key component of listening narrative comprehension, but its contribution has been scarcely investigated in bilingual children. This study aimed to examine (a) listening narrative comprehension and receptive vocabulary in L1 (Italian) and L2 (English) in preschool and first grade children; (b) the specific contribution of receptive vocabulary to listening narrative comprehension in both languages. Participants were 30 preschoolers and 32 first graders, who are all Italian children attending an international school in English. In both languages, receptive vocabulary was assessed through PPVT-R and listening narrative comprehension through TOR 3-8. The results showed that listening narrative comprehension was age appropriate in both languages but higher in L1. Lower vocabulary in L1 than L2 was found, and this difference is higher for preschoolers than for first grades; finally, two regressions performed on listening narrative comprehension in each language showed that only vocabulary in the same language accounted for listening narrative comprehension. Children obtain higher performance in L1; however, after a few years of L2 exposure in the educational context, language skills fall within the normal range, with some weakness in vocabulary. Vocabulary contribution to listening narrative comprehension is similar in both languages and specific for each. Full article
15 pages, 410 KiB  
Article
Extensive Reading and Science Vocabulary Learning in L2: Comparing Reading-Only and Reading-While-Listening
by Raquel Serrano
Educ. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 493; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13050493 - 13 May 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1547
Abstract
This paper presents a study analyzing second language vocabulary gains after an extensive reading program that included non-fiction graded readers of scientific content in English. The study was conducted in a Spanish primary school (N = 96) and implemented in two different [...] Read more.
This paper presents a study analyzing second language vocabulary gains after an extensive reading program that included non-fiction graded readers of scientific content in English. The study was conducted in a Spanish primary school (N = 96) and implemented in two different modalities: reading-only and reading-while-listening, which included audiobooks. The study lasted one school year and involved 39 science graded readers, making it unique in its duration and scope. The findings indicate that the practice of extensive reading resulted in notable improvements in vocabulary acquisition during the first half of the school year; however, the advantages were less evident in the second half. Different factors intrinsic to the program but also related to students’ motivation will be discussed in order to explain the findings. Full article
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24 pages, 734 KiB  
Article
Teachers’ Perceptions and Appropriation of EFL Educational Reforms: Insights from Generalist Teachers Teaching English in Mexican Rural Schools
by Miguel Hernández Hernández and Jesús Izquierdo
Educ. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 482; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13050482 - 10 May 2023
Viewed by 1806
Abstract
Educational reforms and educational policy changes have favored the learning of English as a foreign language (EFL) in public education. Empirical research has examined how EFL specialist teachers in urban public schools perceive these changes or the extent to which they adopt a [...] Read more.
Educational reforms and educational policy changes have favored the learning of English as a foreign language (EFL) in public education. Empirical research has examined how EFL specialist teachers in urban public schools perceive these changes or the extent to which they adopt a new curriculum. Nonetheless, the new EFL policies have also had an impact on rural schools where generalist teachers are forced to teach English along with other areas of the curriculum. In this context, little research has explored teachers’ perceptions and appropriation of ongoing curricular changes. The present study explored this issue among generalist rural secondary school teachers in the southeast of Mexico. To this end, an explanatory sequential mixed method was adopted with a sample of 216 generalist teachers. During the quantitative phase, the participants completed two Likert scale questionnaires. Then, a semi-structured interview was conducted with a sub-sample of participants who obtained high (n = 7) or low (n = 7) results in the perceptions and appropriation questionnaires. The statistical analyses showed a weak but positive correlation between perceptions and appropriation. The qualitative data provide some insights that explain the weakness of the correlation. Full article
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17 pages, 1063 KiB  
Article
The Development of Receptive Language Skills from Captioned Video Viewing in Primary School EFL Learners
by Daniela Avello and Carmen Muñoz
Educ. Sci. 2023, 13(5), 479; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13050479 - 09 May 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2779
Abstract
The evidence obtained to date supports the use of captioned videos for L2 learning purposes, such as vocabulary acquisition and the development of L2 listening skills. However, little research has been conducted with primary school learners, and even less so on the extent [...] Read more.
The evidence obtained to date supports the use of captioned videos for L2 learning purposes, such as vocabulary acquisition and the development of L2 listening skills. However, little research has been conducted with primary school learners, and even less so on the extent to which L2-captioned videos foster the development of L2 reading skills. Thus, the present investigation aimed to determine the extent to which five groups of primary school EFL learners from Chile (n = 96, 9–11 years old, years 4 and 5) benefited from their viewing experience (11 captioned videos) as regards the development of L2 listening skills and L2 reading efficacy (measured at pretest, posttest, and delayed-posttest). In addition, we assessed the influence of L1- and L2-related factors on learners’ performance over time (L1 and L2 reading efficacy, L2 vocabulary knowledge, and L2 listening skills). Overall, the results revealed that the treatment led to significant gains in English listening skills and reading efficacy in fourth and fifth graders. However, learners’ performance was also found to be predicted by language-related factors, especially L2 vocabulary knowledge. On the whole, the findings of this investigation support the use of age-appropriate captioned videos at primary school to increase children’s exposure to the target language and enhance the development of receptive language skills. Full article
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17 pages, 346 KiB  
Article
Language Learning Investment in Higher Education: Validation and Implementation of a Likert-Scale Questionnaire in the Context of Compulsory EFL Learning
by Leonor Dauzón-Ledesma and Jesús Izquierdo
Educ. Sci. 2023, 13(4), 370; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13040370 - 04 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2664
Abstract
Second language learning investment relates to the willingness and effort of learners to develop language competencies which will give them a good return in terms of personal or professional benefits. Research has often explored learning investment through learners in the target language context [...] Read more.
Second language learning investment relates to the willingness and effort of learners to develop language competencies which will give them a good return in terms of personal or professional benefits. Research has often explored learning investment through learners in the target language context or language teachers. This study, however, explores learning investment with undergraduate learners who are obligated to learn English as a foreign language, regardless of their future profession. To this end, a Likert-scale questionnaire was first designed to examine four investment dimensions which have been identified in previous qualitative research: motivation, necessity, engagement and agency. For validity and reliability purposes, the questionnaire was administered to six second language research professors and 41 students who completed three compulsory English courses in a BA in Inclusive Education. Content, construct and convergent validity procedures were implemented to test the investment dimensions. Regarding reliability, equivalent forms were used to check the stability of answers and to avoid primacy and fatigue effects. In addition, internal consistency and inter-item correlations were checked through Cronbach Alpha coefficients. After the validity and reliability procedures, the four dimensions of learning investment were explored among the language learners. The statistical analyses revealed favorable motivation and engagement results. Nonetheless, they raised some concerns regarding necessity and agency. Full article
17 pages, 5187 KiB  
Article
Developing Second Language Learners’ Sociolinguistic Competence: How Teachers’ CEFR-Related Professional Learning Aligns with Learner-Identified Needs
by Katherine Rehner and Ivan Lasan
Educ. Sci. 2023, 13(3), 282; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13030282 - 07 Mar 2023
Viewed by 2263
Abstract
This article explores how teachers’ professional learning about the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR) can re-orient their reported teaching practices to meet learner-identified sociolinguistic needs. To this end, the article first examines learners’ sociolinguistic needs by exploring the extent to which post-secondary [...] Read more.
This article explores how teachers’ professional learning about the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR) can re-orient their reported teaching practices to meet learner-identified sociolinguistic needs. To this end, the article first examines learners’ sociolinguistic needs by exploring the extent to which post-secondary French-as-a-second-language (FSL) learners, who completed their elementary and secondary schooling in Ontario, Canada, believe that they have successfully developed sociolinguistic competence in their target language. Specifically, it considers the learners’ assessment of their sociolinguistic abilities, the types of sociolinguistic skills they wish to develop further, a comparison with their actual sociolinguistic performance, and the ways in which they hope to develop the sociolinguistic skills they feel they lack. Second, the article explores Ontario elementary- and secondary-school FSL teachers’ reported focus on sociolinguistic competence in their teaching after having engaged in intensive and extensive CEFR-oriented professional learning. Specifically, it considers how the teachers’ professional learning influences the sociolinguistic relevance of their planning, classroom practice, and assessment and evaluation. The article concludes by considering whether the degree of “fit” between the learners’ self-identified needs and the teachers’ reports of their re-oriented practices is poised to improve the sociolinguistic outcomes of Ontario FSL learners. Full article
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15 pages, 281 KiB  
Article
An Analysis of the Type of Questions Posed by Teachers in English-Medium Instruction at University Level
by Aintzane Doiz and David Lasagabaster
Educ. Sci. 2023, 13(1), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13010082 - 12 Jan 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1910
Abstract
Teacher-led questions not only guide meaning-making interactions but they also scaffold students’ learning, and this is especially important in English-medium instruction (EMI). Due to the scant literature on this topic in higher education, this article analyses what type of questions EMI history lecturers [...] Read more.
Teacher-led questions not only guide meaning-making interactions but they also scaffold students’ learning, and this is especially important in English-medium instruction (EMI). Due to the scant literature on this topic in higher education, this article analyses what type of questions EMI history lecturers pose and whether they are subject to individual differences. The study is based on 12 two-hour lectures whose transcriptions were analysed by three researchers. The results showed that instructional or content question types were much more commonplace than regulative questions (related to classroom procedures). Confirmation check, display and referential questions, which belong in the instructional category, were not posed to fulfil their intended pedagogic goals, a limitation accentuated by students’ trend to provide short responses. These results reveal the need to design teacher training courses aimed at developing teachers’ interactional abilities. Since questioning practices varied considerably between lecturers, customized training sessions should also be considered. Full article
11 pages, 295 KiB  
Article
Perspectives on the Effectiveness of Madrid’s Regional Bilingual Programme: Exploring the Correlation between English Proficiency Level and Pre-Service Teachers’ Beliefs
by Lidia Mañoso-Pacheco and Roberto Sánchez-Cabrero
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(8), 522; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci12080522 - 31 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1838
Abstract
This study aims to examine the opinions of prospective pre-primary and primary teachers about Madrid’s regional Bilingual Programme in Spain, assessing the correlations between their self-perceived level of English and their positioning concerning the effectiveness of the regional programme. Although there is a [...] Read more.
This study aims to examine the opinions of prospective pre-primary and primary teachers about Madrid’s regional Bilingual Programme in Spain, assessing the correlations between their self-perceived level of English and their positioning concerning the effectiveness of the regional programme. Although there is a growing body of research in the field of education on how CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning) provisions impact in-service teachers’ attitudes concerning bilingual education, there is a dearth of literature on the way student teachers depict the teaching reality. Thus, this paper explores pre-service teachers’ beliefs towards the Bilingual Programme via an ad hoc questionnaire, administered to a non-probabilistic sample of 170 undergraduate students at the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid. The data collected were explored using Chi-square and Somers’ D tests. The results show that the self-perceived English level, greatly determined by prior bilingual schooling, has a strong influence on their perceptions about the Bilingual Programme. The findings also indicate that, although the learning experience at the pre-primary stage is valued positively by students, the acquisition of curricular contents in primary education is seen as negatively affected due to English medium instruction. Full article
12 pages, 517 KiB  
Article
Is Flow Possible in the Emergency Remote Teaching Foreign Language Classroom?
by Jean-Marc Dewaele, Alfaf Albakistani and Iman Kamal Ahmed
Educ. Sci. 2022, 12(7), 444; https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci12070444 - 28 Jun 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2629
Abstract
The present study focuses on the experience of flow among 168 Arab and Kurdish English Foreign Language (EFL) learners in both in-person and emergency remote teaching (ERT) classes. Statistical analyses of questionnaire data revealed that learners did experience flow in their ERT classes [...] Read more.
The present study focuses on the experience of flow among 168 Arab and Kurdish English Foreign Language (EFL) learners in both in-person and emergency remote teaching (ERT) classes. Statistical analyses of questionnaire data revealed that learners did experience flow in their ERT classes but for a significantly shorter time than in the pre-pandemic in-person classes. Those who experienced flow in in-person classes were also more likely to experience it in ERT classes. In the in-person classes, the proportion of time in flow was linked to age, self-rated proficiency, attitudes toward English, attitudes toward the teacher, and the teacher frequency of use of English. In contrast, in ERT classes, the proportion of time in flow was only linked to attitude toward the teacher. This is interpreted as evidence that the ERT does not just cause physical and social isolation but also mental isolation. Full article
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