When a seismic load is applied horizontally or laterally on unreinforced masonry walls (URM), the walls behave in two different ways, viz., in-plane (IP) and out-of-plane (OoP). This review beneficially provides a literature overview of the most cited research papers on Scopus, and
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When a seismic load is applied horizontally or laterally on unreinforced masonry walls (URM), the walls behave in two different ways, viz., in-plane (IP) and out-of-plane (OoP). This review beneficially provides a literature overview of the most cited research papers on Scopus, and the database is evaluated with VOSviewer software for scientometric analysis. This review paper delves into the practical applications of various types of reinforcement for masonry walls, specifically focusing on four commonly used systems: externally bonded strengthening techniques using fiber-reinforced polymers (FRP), steel-reinforced grout (SRG), fabric-reinforced cementitious mortar (FRCM), and textile-reinforced mortars (TRM). The main objective of the paper is to explore the efficacy of these reinforcement techniques in strengthening masonry walls, and to provide a comprehensive overview of their respective advantages and limitations. A further detailed study of the extent of the literature is performed about the effect of the different strengthening systems on the mechanical properties of different categories of masonry walls like a cement block, stone, and clay brick are described and categorized. The efficiency of OoP strengthening can depend on various factors, such as the types of masonry units, the rendering mortar, the type of strengthening system, the bond between the different materials interfaces, the geometry of the wall, and the loading conditions. By utilizing the practical method of Dematel (Decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory) analysis, this review can delve deeply into the impact of various factors and precisely identify the crucial components of the cause-and-effect connection. The results indicate that the bond between material interfaces is the critical factor. This meticulous and structured review offers valuable perspectives for researchers and engineers, showcasing current research trends and presenting potential avenues for future exploration.