The Siddha with a Thousand Faces: Non-Tantric and Tantric Elements in the Construction of the Buddhist Siddha in *Jñānākara’s Commentary to the Introduction to the [Path of] Mantra
1. *Mantrāvatāra: The Tantric Buddhist Manual
2. Mantrasādhana: Integrating Pāramitānaya and Mantranaya
If one were to ask, what will happen if one practices [mantrasādhana] in that way? It is said: “he becomes free from all great sins” [means] The sin that has been incurred having committed the five sins will be cleared. If one were to ask, is it all? [No]. “He becomes an equal to a bodhisattva who has practiced the pāramitānaya for many eons” [means] He becomes equal to bodhisattvas who have practiced the pāramitānaya for many eons in this lifetime.3
3. The Mantrin, the Five Superknowledges, and Travelling to the Buddha Fields
In this way, the mantrin who, in this lifetime, is endowed with excellent causes and conditions, completes all the bhūmis and plays with the five superknowledges; he is also able to travel, in this very lifetime, to the world of Akaniṣṭha or Abhirati, etc., which are utterly pure Buddha fields.6
4. The Agent and His Actions
[As for the question], he is similar to the agent and his actions—that should be known as three-fold: (1) he is endowed with a fervent effort, (2) one-pointed mind, and (3) he is endowed with the right view.27
5. Siddhis of the Siddha
If someone were to ask, what [kind of] siddhi is achieved by a siddha endowed with these actions? The body, place and enjoyments are superior to those of ordinary people, that is to say, he achieves lordship over his lifespan and is totally liberated from future rebirths of eight akṣaṇas (leisureless states). He meets, etc. with the Buddhas who have manifested in the world and he engages in the five sense objects; knowing [their essence] he is unfettered [by their afflictive power]. [Furthermore] he is capable of bringing benefit to oneself and to others.
“He achieves lordship over his lifespan” [means:] If he desires, he can stay even for eons; if he sees the benefit for sentient beings, he can take another body.49
“He is totally liberated from future rebirths, without leisure” [means:] Having seen the benefit for the sentient beings, he can take rebirth in those eight leisureless states, out of his own will, [but never] due to karma and disturbances (kleśas) of saṃsāra.50
“He meets with the Buddhas, etc. who have manifested in this world” [means:] He meets with the Buddhas, etc. who have manifested in all respects in this world, or he meets with the true dharma established by them. As for the word “etc.” included [in the pāda] [it means:] he is not to be separated from the friendship of the Bodhisattvas.51
“He engages in the five sense objects, but does not become fettered by them” [means:] He knows [the way] to enjoy them as rūpa-vajra, etc. which appears as his own mind in the aspect of the grasped. In the same way with aggregates (skandhas), elements (dhātus), and sense-bases (āyatanas), he knows them as Buddhas and Bodhisattvas, and worships them in accordance with this understanding. The places of worship, he also understands as having a single taste, which is the mind in its aspects of object-subject (grāhya-grāhaka). Even though he enjoys [them], since he knows their single taste, he does not become fettered [by them]; on the contrary, this [enjoyment] produces many great merits.52
“He is capable of bringing benefit to oneself and to others” [means:] he has the power to bring the pleasure of higher rebirth and liberation to oneself and to others in the far future.53
6. The Siddha and His Conduct
He takes delight in the pleasure of enjoyments in all places and at all times. Likewise, he also offers worship to the noble ones, in accordance with his means. Through display of [a wonderful] variety of magical powers [he benefits and refutes] those who are to be trained. He gives coolness and heat, etc. in an instant, to those who are in hell. Likewise, he teaches different doctrines to different sentient beings. Just like the medicinal properties of a great magical tree, [the siddha] brings benefit to all [beings] by being seen, heard, touched, and remembered.
“In all places and at all times” [means:] The Completely pure Buddha fields, or the realm of gods, etc. here and there.67
“He takes delight in the pleasure of enjoyments” [means:] He himself enjoys sublime forms of enjoyments, etc. that are superior to that of ordinary people.68
“Likewise, he also offers worship to the noble ones, in accordance with his means” [means:] Just like his practice, in the same way to the Noble Ones as well, he offers the innumerable clouds of offerings to the Buddhas and Bodhisattvas, and Arhats, and also Pratyekabuddhas. As for pleasing his chosen deity, [here] too, he introduces [these enjoyments] in such form at each time, becoming more and more noble.69
“He benefits and refutes those who are to be trained” [means:] To those who suffer from various kinds of illnesses and troubles, he increases things like enjoyments, lifespan, etc. and pacifies different kinds of sufferings. To those who are exceedingly cruel, and wrathful, and who inflict suffering on others, he tames them after having emanated a wrathful form of the deity, fond of killing, holding in his hand various weapons. Moreover, in accordance with [inclinations] of sentient beings, he tames them by displaying various kinds of magical feasts: going in the sky, emitting blazing fire (from his upper body) and bringing down water (from his lower part), etc.70
“He gives coolness and heat, etc. in an instant, to those who are in hell” [means:] To those beings who are in hot hells, he gives coolness by bringing down a cool breeze or a fragrant rain, etc. As for those beings who are in cold hells, he gives [them] heat, having emanated the heap of fire, etc.71
“Likewise, he teaches different doctrines to different sentient beings” [means:] He gives different dharma teachings to sentient beings: gods, humans, demigods, etc. [who have various] interests, and to those who speak different languages, in accordance with [their specific] interests, through [the use of their] respective languages.72
“Just like the medicinal properties of a great magical tree, he brings benefit to all [beings] by being seen, heard, touched and remembered” [means:] For example, [just like] the great medicinal tree, regardless of whether it is cut by hatred or love, it brings benefit either way, similar with the siddha, whatever the sentient beings’ state of mind, whether it is the state of attachment or anger, [if the siddha] is either seen by the eye, or heard by the ear, or touched by the body, or being remembered, in all cases, the benefit will manifest.73
O Dṛḍhamati, it is like the great king of medicaments (mahābhaiṣajyarāja) tree called Darśanīya, ‘Pleasant to behold’: persons who see it find the cure for their sickness (vyādhi). So it is with the bodhisattva in Śūraṃgamasamādhi: beings who see him find the cure for craving (rāga), hatred (dveṣa) and delusion (moha).
O Dṛḍhamati, it is like the medicament tree (bhaiṣajyavṛkṣa) called Saṃpanna, ‘Complete’: those who use its root (mūla) find the cure to their sickness (vyādhi); its trunk (gaṇḍa), knots (saṃdhi), pith (sāra), bark (tvac), branches (śākhā), leaves (pattra), flowers (puṣpa) and fruit (phala) can also cure sickness; whether it is standing (samucchirta), dried out (śuṣka) or cut into pieces (khaṇḍaśaś chinna), it can cure all the sicknesses of beings. So it is with the bodhisattva in Śuraṃgamasamādhi: there is not one moment when he is not benefitting beings; he always dispels their torment (upadrava); he expounds the Dharma to them and practices the four means of winning over (saṃgrahavastu) and the perfections (pāramitā) so that they can obtain liberation. Whether people respect him or not, whether they benefit him or not, the bodhisattva uses every means to bring them to security (kṣema) […].
Conflicts of Interest
de ltar spyad pas cir ’gyur zhe na/sdig chen kun las grol nas ni zhes bya ba smros te/mtshams med pa lnga la sogs pa byas pa’i sdig rnams byang bar ’gyur ro/de tsam du zad dam zhe na/bskal pa du mar spyad pa yi/byang chub sems dpa’ dang mtshungs ’gyur zhes bya ba la/pha rol tu phyin pa’i tshul la zhugs pa’i byang chub sems dpa’ rnams kyis bskal pa mang por ’bad pa byas pa dang/tshe ’di nyid la mtshungs par ’gyur ro/Comm. Derge, p. 396.
yongs ’gyur rung ba’i rkyen zhes bya ba ni ming dang/rus dang/rigs dang/bdag ’dzin la sogs pa dang ldan pa’i sems can gyi rgyu ’di la sangs rgyas dang byang chub sems dpa’i sku dang/yon tan dpag tu med par ’gyur du rung ba’i rkyen gyis sbyor ba’i spyod pa yin pas yongs ’gyur du rung ba’i rkyen zhes bya ba’o/Comm. Derge, p. 396.
de ltar rgyu rkyen phun sum tshogs pa dang ldan pa’i sngags pas ’bras bu ci zhig ’thob par ’gyur zhe na/Comm. Derge, p. 398.
de ltar rgyu rkyen phun sum tshogs pa dang ldan pa’i sngags pa de ni skye ba ’di la sa rnams rab tu gnon cing mngon par shes pa lngas rtse zhing ’og min gyi ’jig rten nam/mngon par dga’ ba la sogs pa’i sangs rgyas kyi zhing yongs su dag pa rnams su yang tshe ’di nyid la ’gro bar nus par ’gyur ro/Comm. Derge, p. 398.
abhijñāvikrīḍanatā yābhir abhijñābhir vikrīḍan buddhakṣetrād buddhakṣetraṃ saṃkrāmati […] (Lamotte 2001, vol. 5, p. 2018).
(Lamotte 2001, vol. 5, pp. 2018–20). The ability to play with superknowledges “without making any mental effort” (cittānābhogena) is also one of the features that distinguishes the bodhisattva on the eighth bhūmi from the ordinary Śrāvaka ascetic, who although has purified his mind through various dhyānas and samāpattis, still has to “give an impulse to his mind and directs his mind towards the abhijñās (abhiññāya cittaṃ abhinīharati abhininnāmeti)”, see Lamotte (2003, p. 29).
(Lamotte 2001, vol. 5, p. 2019). In the Bodhisattvabhūmi (I.5.1.1 in (Engle 2016, p. 319)), the ability to travel to the infinite universes in the trisāhasramahāsāhasra-lokadhātu such as Brahmāloka or the realm of Akaniṣṭha in the coarse body and returning back is part of a bodhisattva’s miraculous power, called ṛddhi, which is one of the abhijñās.
The five abhijñās were subsumed under the mundane path (laukikamārga), while the sixth abhijñā belonged to the transmundane path (lokottaramārga), since it was identical to the liberating insight (nirvāṇa) (Deleanu 2006, pp. 31–34; Clough 2012, pp. 77–78; Fiordalis 2012, p. 107). In the post-canonical Theravāda literature, the sixth abhijñā was discarded from the list of abhijñās (see Clough 2010, p. 411). In the Mahāyāna texts, such as the Vimalakīrtinirdeśa or the Śrāvakabhūmi, the distinction between the mundane and the transmundane abhijñās is still attested (Fiordalis 2012, p. 108).
In the Bodhisattvabhūmi (chap. 5), the attainment of abhijñās by a bodhisattva is a sign of his power (prabhāva) and gives him ability to traverse all the infinite realms. The correlation between the possession of the abhijñās and the ability to reach innumerable universes is what distinguishes him from the Śrāvakas and Pratyekabuddhas who, although endowed with the abhijñās, can only reach two or three thousand realms (1.5.4. in Engle 2016, pp. 353–54; see also Katz (2010, p. 266)).
(Lamotte 2001, vol. 1, pp. 268–271; vol. 4, pp. 1486–509) gives an extensive bibliography on the abhijñās in original sources of Pāli and Mahāyāna Buddhism.
(Wallis 2002, p. 76). Sarbacker (2012, pp. 203–4), following Larson, states that the powers of Patañjali’s Yogasūtras can be categorized into two groups. The first group consists of knowledges that include the powers of abhijñā, such as knowledge of the past and future, sounds of beings, previous births, and the minds of others.
Bodhisattvabhūmi 1.5.1 in (Engle 2016, p. 1373).
Asaṅga’s Abhidharmasamuccaya (chap. 3, section 1 in Rahula and Boin-Webb 2001, p. 234) gives the following explanation: “What does one do by means of superknowledge (abhijñā)? One wins over [beings] to the Teaching (śāsana) by means of physical and vocal actions and reading thoughts (cittādeśanā), and one duly exhorts beings [to aim] for release (niḥsaraṇa), having understood their character, and their comings and goings (āgatigati) [in saṃsāra]”. The same explanation is given in Asaṅga’s Mahāyānasaṃgraha (X.27), where the six abhijñās form the twenty-one qualities of the dharma-body (see Brunnhölzl 2018, p. 90). See also the explanation given in Sthiramati’s Sūtrālaṃkāravṛttibhāṣya (Tg. vol. 215, f. 82a–82b), where the display of abhijñās is to ripen sentient beings: see (Engle 2016, p. 333).
In the early kriyātantras, such as the Mañjuśriyamūlakalpa and the Susiddhikarasūtra, the five abhijñās often appear in the set of other categories that betray their Mahāyānist origins, such as the ascent of the bodhisattva through the bhūmis, travel to different buddhakṣetras, and perceiving the bodhisattvas ‘face to face’ (see e.g., MMK (1964) 10.9; 11.57; 11.159; 14.103). In the Susiddhikara (Giebel 2001, p. 191), accomplishing the five abhijñās, and realizing the stages of a bodhisattva, belong to the highest siddhis. A similar classification is attested in the second ṣaṭka of the early Śākta tantra Jayadrathayāmala (2015, 2.3.49–54, f. 13r9–13v3), which mentions by name three of the five abhijñās (without, however, referring to them as abhijñās), namely, clairvoyance, clairaudience, and mind reading as the highest (uttamā) type of siddhi. In the caryātantra Mahāvairocanābhisaṃbodhi (Hodge 2003, p. 58), the attainment of five superknowledges is part of the method called “the gate of pure bodhicitta”, which is described as a samādhi by which all the obscurations are dissolved. Buddhaguhya in his commentary on the Mahāvairocanābhisaṃbodhi (Hodge 2003, p. 58) clarifies that “with the divine eye, distant forms can be seen, without being obstructed even by mountains and walls and so on. With divine ear, distant sounds can be heard without being obstructed by mountains and walls and so on. One will know whether the minds of others have attachments or are free from attachments and so forth. One will recollect what one did and where one dwelt in former lives. One will attain the bases of supernatural powers (ṛddhipāda)”. In another passage of the same text (Hodge 2003, p. 209), the five abhijñās are obtained through samādhi without perceptual forms. The pañcabhijñā features in chapter 23 of the yogatantra Sarvatathāgatatattvasaṃgraha, where the lord Ākāśagarbha describes the method of attaining the pañcābhijñā of all the Tathāgata families abiding in the Vajrasattva-samādhi while meditating on the tathāgatas and bodhisattvas abiding in one’s own body (Kwon 2002, p. 282). In another section of the same chapter, the STTS describes the method of attaining siddhis, such as Buddhahood, “by means of generating and realizing the five supernatural knowledges of all the families of the Tathāgatas through the yogas of the deities of all the families” (Kwon 2002, p. 285).
Note that the reference to the five abhijñās is absent in the proto-yoginītantra Sarvabuddhasamāyogaḍākinījālasaṃvara (See Negī 2018).
See (Wenta 2018, p. 535) for the image of a feeble person or an ox-drawn cart to draw an analogy between the limitations encountered by practitioners pursuing the non-tantric paths that require a period of the three incalculable eons to reach the enlightenment, and the tantric path, known for its fastness.
In the Mahānāyasaṃgraha (V.6) by Asaṅga we read that bodhisattvas complete their ascent through all the ten bhūmis during three incalculable eons: see (Brunnhölzl 2018, p. 218).
The Guhyasamāja (12.49ab–59ab, ed. Matsunaga 1978, p. 42) gives the following list of pañcābhijñās: vajra-eye (vajracakṣus), giving the ability to see the Buddhas abiding in the three vajras; vajra-ear (vajraśrotra), enabling to hear whatever sounds are uttered as if they were in your ear; vajra-mind (vajracitta), making it possible to know the thoughts of all beings; vajra-recollection (vajranivāsa), enabling to remember one’s past lives; and vajra-miraculous powers (vajraṛddhi), enabling to expand the eons with ornaments made of clouds of the Buddhas. For the six abhijñās in the Bodhisattvabhūmi (chap. 5), see (Engle 2016, p. 312–41).
According to semantic analysis, kāraka is derived from the Sanskrit root √kṛ ‘to act’.
Quoting from an unidentified tantra, he says: “Moreover, it is said in a tantra: ‘If you enter the practice of mantra-sādhana that causes the ripening of one’s own [mind] stream, you should abandon these things: ill-suited places, ill-suited companions, ill-suited material objects, and ill-suited thoughts’”, de yang rgyud las rang rgyud rab tu smin par bya ba’i sngags pa bsgrub pa’i spyod pa la ’jug pa na/gnas mi mthun pa dang/grogs ma yin pa dang rdzas (N: rnams) ma yin pa dang/bsam pa ma yin pa gnas spang (D: spyad) bar bya’o zhes gsungs pa yin no/Comm. Derge, p. 397.
For the Tibetan text, see (Wenta 2018, p. 539).
de la brtson pa ’grus shin tu ’bar ba ni mgo la me ’bar ba gsad pa la shin tu brtson pa ltar dge ba’i phyogs la gcig tu brtson pa’o/Comm. Derge, folio 399.
Asaṅga’s Abhidharmasamuccaya (chap. 1. 10 in Rahula and Boin-Webb 2001, p. 10).
sems dmigs pa la rtse gcig pa ni dmigs pa la mnyam par gzhag pa’i tshe char dang nyi ma dang rlung dang rnga dang dung gi sgra la sogs pas kyang ma g.yo ba’o/Comm. Derge, p. 399.
dmigs pa’i don la rtse gcig gzhag ces bya ba ni mnyam par gzhag pa’i tshe ni bdag gi de nyid dam/lha’i de nyid la rtse gcig tu byas la/langs pa’i tshe ni thams cad sgyu ma lta bur mos pas spyod pas so/Comm. Derge, pp. 397–398.
’jig rten pa’i las kyi mtha’ ngan pa rnam par gyengs pa’i rgyu thams cad spangs nas rang gi ’dod pa’i lha’i ras bris la sogs pa bris nas/dang por sva bhA va śu ddha H zhes bya ba la sogs pa’i sngags bzlas la/Comm. Derge, pp. 395–396.
stong pa nyid du sgom zhing/byams pa la sogs pa tshad med pa rnams bsgom pa dang/rang gi ’dod pa’i lha dba’ bo gcig pu ’am/dkyil ’khor gyi lha yang rung cho ga bzhin du/Comm. Derge, p. 396.
gnas ma yin pa ni byang chub chen po la sogs pa sgrub pa’i gnas bstan pa las gzhan pa mu stegs byed kyi gnas dang/tshong ‘dus skye bo mang po ’dus ba’i sa rnams spangs pa’o/Comm. Derge, p. 397.
grogs ma yin pa ni ’dod pa dang gnyid dang/rmugs pa la dga’ ba dang/zhe sdang dang phrag dog che ba dang/dbang ma bskur ba dang/gsang sngags la dad pa med pa rnams spangs la/bdag pas yon tan lhag par gyur pa ’am/bdag dang mnyam pa dang lhan cig gnas pa’o/Comm. Derge, p. 397.
longs spyod ma yin pa ni sngags pa sems rnam par g.yeng bar byed pa’i rgyu bud med dang/chang la sogs pa lhag par zhen pa skye ba’i gnas su gyur pa rnams spangs pa’o/Comm. Derge, p. 397.
bsam pa ma yin pa ni ’dod chags dang zhe sdang dang gti mug dang nga rgyal dang phrag dog la sogs pa sngon du song ba’i sems kyi ’jug pa spang ba’o/Comm. Derge, p. 397.
yang dag pa’i lta ba dang ldan pa ni rgyu dang ’bras bu la skur pa mi ’debs shing rnam par smin pa la yid ches pa’o/Comm. Derge, p. 399.
Bodhisattvabhūmi, in (Engle 2016, p. 478–79).
See note 26 above.
For the Tibetan text and translation of this passage, see (Wenta 2018, pp. 538–39).
The epithet vidyādhara, given to the person who has mastered the execution of tantric rituals and gained various supernatural powers (siddhis), seems to belong to the early stratum of tantric literature. It is often found in esoteric Buddhist texts, but rarely in the Śaiva tantras, except for the Niśvāsatattvasaṃhitā, where it appears as the most common goal of sādhana (Goodall and Isaacson 2016). In 673 C.E., Chinese monk Yijing, on his sojourn in India, reports the existence of a corpus of Buddhist tantric scriptures referred to as the vidyādharapiṭaka, the “Basket of Spell-holders” (see Hodge 1992, p. 10; Gray 2009, pp. 2–3; Davidson 2002, p. 24). This is perhaps the earliest and the only attested reference to a large corpus of esoteric Buddhist texts with clear links with the world of wizardry. Nevertheless, the theme of vidyādhara and the magical powers associated with gaining its status was part of the matrix of Indian non-sectarian literature, predating the emergence of tantric sects. The most famous example is perhaps the lost Prakrit text known as the Bṛhatkathā of Guṇāḍhya, which narrates the journey of the prince gradually becoming a vidyādhara (Hatley 2007, p. 99). As far as the sectarian literature is concerned, Jaina and Vaiṣṇava sources also attest to the importance of becoming a vidyādhara as the goal of sādhana (Goodall and Isaacson 2016, p. 60).
The place of the siddha is a fabulous palace of gods, etc. and his enjoyments comprise of the dharma teachings, etc. (gnas dang longs spyod ni lha’i gzhal yas khang la sogs pa dang/chos gyi longs spyod pa la sogs pa dag go/Comm. Derge, p. 399).
tshe la dbang sgyur ba ni ’dod na bskal par yang gnas shing sems can gyi don mthong na lus gzhan len pa’o/Comm. Derge, p. 399.
mi khom par skye ba las gtan du grolzhes bya ba/mi khom pa brgyad po de dag tu sems can gyi don mthong nas rang gi ’dod pa’i dbang gis skye ba len pa ni srid kyi/las dang nyon mongs pa’i rgyus de dag tu mi skye ba’o/Comm. Derge, p. 399.
sangs rgyas ’byung dang phrad sogs dang zhes bya ba ni tshe rabs thams cad du sangs rgyas ’byung ba dang phrad pa ’am/de’i dam pa’i chos gnas pa dang phrad pa’o/sogs pas bsdu ba ni byang chub sems dpa’ rnams dang ’grogs pa dang mi ’bral pa’o/Comm. Derge, p. 399.
’dod yon lnga po shes bzhin du spyod la ’ching bar mi ’gyur dang zhes bya ba la/‘dod pa’i yon tan lnga po rang gi sems gzung byar (D: bar) snang ba nyid gzung rdo rje la sogs pa longs spyod du shes shing/phung po dang/khams dang/skye mched rnams sangs rgyas dang byang chub sems dpar rtogs pas mchod pa dang/mchod pa’i gnas rnams sems gzung ’dzin gyi rnam pa can du ro gcig par shes pas longs spyod kyang ’ching bar yang mi ’gyur la bsod nams chen por yang ’gyur ba’o/Comm. Derge, pp. 399–400.
bdag gzhan phan skyed nus pa’o zhes bya ba ni/ma ’ongs pa’i dus ring po dag tu bdag dang gzhan gyi mtho ris dang thar pa’i bde ba skyed nus pa’o/Comm. Derge, p. 400.
lus mi las khyad par du ’phags pa ni gser kyi kha dog dang/mtshan dang dpe byad kyis brgyan pa la sogs pa la’o/Comm. Derge, p. 399.
See Mahayānasūtrālaṃkāra Chap. 2, transl. in (Jamspal et al. 2004, p. 19).
In this regard, the Bodhisattvabhūmi (III.5.3, see Engle 2016, pp. 1327–31) provides a detailed description of the thirty-two marks and eighty signs correlating each virtuous deed with a corresponding physical mark. For example, the imprint of a wheel on bodhisattva’s hands and feet is acquired through traveling here and there in order to protect sentient beings from various calamities, etc., while the mark of having an upper part of the body like that of a lion is because bodhisattva acts courageously in relation to the interests of sentient beings.
Abhidharmakośabhāṣya v. 2, 690, quoted in (Mrozik 2007, p. 71).
According to Makransky (1997, pp. 106–7), the earliest correlation between the thirty-two marks and eighty signs of the great man with the enjoyment body is attested in Chapter eight of the Abhisamāyalaṃkāra. For the discussion of various Mahāyāna texts that lack the formal classification of the Buddha’s body under the saṃbhogikakāya, see (Makransky 1997, pp. 176–79).
Guhyasamājatantra 7.7ab–14cd (ed. Matsunaga 1978, p. 21–22): The five objects of the sense organs correspond to the five Buddhas, namely, sight to Vairocana, sound to Ratnaketu, smell to Amitāyus, taste to Amoghavajra, and touch to Akṣobhya.
The concept of “single taste” (sāmarasya) in its cognitive aspect as the transcendence of subject–object duality resulting in the experience of ‘fusion’ is also attested the Śākta tradition of the Krama. See, e.g., the Mahānāyaprakāśa of Śitikaṇṭha with Commentary (1918, 8.6), which describes union as the equal taste of the perceived object and the perceiving subject (vedyavedakasāmarasyaṃ melāpasiddhānāṃ melāpaḥ). The concept of samarāsaya is also attested in the following passage of the Paramārthasāra of Abhinavagupta (kārikās 10–11 in Bansat-Boudon and Tripathi 2011, p. 110): “the ultimate principle is of an undelimited nature (aparicchinnasvabhāva), inasmuch as it is free of all mental constructs, which are themselves delimiting factors. Therefore, the master says: ‘it is pure’, free of stain, due to the absence of the soot-like impurity found in thought construct. Similarly, [the master says: that the ultimate principle is] serene (śānta), reposing [ever] in its absolute nature, in unison (sāmarasya) with its śakti, for there is no disturbance (kṣobha) arising from the dichotomy between the knower and the known”.
Paramārthasāra kārikā 43 (Bansat-Boudon and Tripathi 2011, p. 204): “brahman is an equal essence (sarvasamarasīkaraṇa) consequent upon the experience: ‘I am all this’ (ahaṃ idaṃ sarvaṃ)”. This passage resembles the Hevajratantra’s discussion (I. 8. 39–41 in Snellgrove 1959, p. 77) of a single-flavour as the aspect of the state of sahaja: “Whatever things there are, moving and motionless, all these things I am. They are accepted as being equal and the same by those who have realized the truth and find everywhere the same flavour. To be equal is to be the same, and of this the manifestation is the flavour. There is a single substance of the one same flavor, and in this sense, it is said that
See also Mahāvairocanābhisaṃbodhi (Hodge 2003, pp. 52–53) “On sole-taste of tathāgata’s liberation, abandonment of the obscurations of the emotional afflictions and wrong understanding and the complete transcendence of the basis of habitual tendencies to selective conceptualization. They are all of one state”. And Jayaratha’s commentary on Abhinavagupta’s Tantrāloka (Tantrāloka of Abhinavagupta 1918–1922, 4. 172): “So in this way, here—in the transcendent abode whose nature is I-awareness—all this, namely, object, instrument of knowledge, subject and knowledge expanding in the diversity of forms is nothing but consciousness, it shines as one-flavour” (tadevam atra—ahaṃparāmarśātmany akule dhāmni, prameyaṃ pramāṇṃ pramātā pramā ca ity etatsarvaṃ nānārūpatayojjṛmbhamāṇaṃ cinmātrameva—tadekarasatayāvabhāsateḥ).
The Mahānāyaprajñāpāramitā (Lamotte 2001, vol. II, p. 366): “dharmakāya of the buddhas consists of white dharmas (śukladharmasvabhāvalakṣaṇa) because it has attained ten masteries (vaśitā), one of them is mastery of life (āyurvaśitā), which has been acquired by means of fulfilling the virtue of generosity (dānapāramitāparipūri), and (utpattivaśitā) acquired by the fulfillment of the virtue of morality (śīlapāramitāparipūri)”.
yul dang dus ni de dang der zhes bya ba la sogs pa smos te/sangs rgyas kyi zhing yongs su dag pa rnams sam lha’i gnas la sogs pa de dang der ro/Comm. Derge, p. 400.
’byor pa’i bde ba la spyod cing zhes bya ba la/mi las khyad par du ’phags pa’i gzugs la sogs pa’i longs spyod kyi bde ba gya nom pa la bdag nyid spyod pa’o/Comm. Derge, p. 400.
de bzhin ’phags pa rnams la yang ci nus par ni mchod pa dang zhes bya ba la/bdag spyod pa de bzhin du ’phags pa rnams la yang ste/sangs rgyas dang byang chub sems dpa’ rnams dang dgra bcom pa dang rang sangs rgyas rnams la yang mchod pa’i sprin rab ’byam dpag tu med pa dbul zhing/rang ’dod pa’i lha mnyes par byed pa la yang skad cig re res kyang gong nas gong du khyad par du ’phags par ’jug pa’o/Comm. Derge, p. 400.
phan gdags tshar gcod kyis ’dul ba’i zhes bya ba la sogs pa la/nad dang ’tshe ba sna tshogs kyi gnod pa rnams la ni/sdug bsngal sna tshogs zhi bar byed cing tshe/dang longs spyod la sogs pa rgyas par byed do/shin tu gdug cing gtum la rang bzhin ngan pa gzhan la ‘tshe ba rnams la ni kro bo shin tu mi bzad pa lag na mtshon cha sna tshogs ’dzin cing gsod pa la dga’ ba lta bur sprul nas ’dul bar byed do/gzhan yang sems can rnams dang rjes su mthun par nam mkha’ la ‘gro ba dang/me ’bar ba dang/chu ’bebs pa la sogs pa rdzu ’phrul sna tshogs bstan pas ’dul bar byed do/Comm. Derge, p. 400.
dmyal la sogs par yud tsam la ’ang bsil dang drod sogs sbyin pa dang zhes bya ba na/tsha ba ’di dmyal ba rnams su ser bu’i bsil ba dang spos kyi char la sogs pa ’bebs pas bsil ba sbyin par byed do/grang ba’i dmyal ba rnams la ni me’i phung po la sogs pa sprul nas dro ba sbyin par byed do/Comm. Derge, pp. 400–401.
de bzhin sems can sna tshogs la chos rnams sna tshogs ston pa ste zhes bya ba la/lha dang mi dang lha ma yin la sogs pa sems can mos pa dang/skad sna tshogs can rnams la so so’i skad kyis mos pa bzhin du chos sna tshogs ston pa’o/Comm. Derge, p. 401.
sman gyi ljon shing chen po ltar/mthong dang thos dang reg pa dang/dran pas kun la phan ’gyur ba’o/zhes bya ba la/dper na sman gyi ljon shing chen po la zhe sdang gis gcad dam dga’ bas bcad kyang rung ji ltar yang phan ’dogs par byed pa yin pa ltar grub pa’i skyes bu de la yang sems can rnams kyi chags pa’i sems sam/sdang ba’i sems kyis kyang rung/mig gis mthong dam/rna bas thos sam/lus kyis reg gam/sems kyis dran yang rung/ci nas kyang phan pa ’byung ba yin no/Comm. Derge, p. 401.
*Akṣobhya describes this process as follows: “First, one visualizes Mañjuśrī in a peaceful form; then, one realizes that with a peaceful body one cannot train the wrathful beings. [Having reached this understanding], one has to visualize him with the sun in his heart, the ray of which will intimidate those wrathful ones. Then, one realizes that those very wrathful ones are not tamed, and one merges himself with Mañjuśrī and with the sun that is presided over by the blazing vajras at the end. They shot out and go above the head of those very wrathful ones and they are tamed. But even though the extremely wrathful ones are intimidated, they are not tamed by these vajras either; it is then that one assumes the body of Mahā[vajra]bhairava, and this form will cut them down. The yogin [who visualizes himself as Vajrabhairava] also tames the saṃgraha-devatās, because they are merely servants. As for those extremely wrathful ones, these are Brahmā, Indra, Īśvara (=Śiva), and Kumāra. They are said to be devoured, as will be explained below”. dang por ’jam pa’i dpal de nyid kyis bdag nyid kyi zhi ba’i skus ldang ba rnams ’dul ba ma yin par gzigs te/thugs kar nyi ma gnas par bya ste/de’i ’od zer gyis sdang ba rnams bsdigs te/. ’on kyang rab tu sdang ba dag mi ’dul bar gzigs nas/yang bdag nyid dang nyi mar bcas pa/rdo rje ’bar bar byin gyis brlabs shing de’i sprul pa rnams ’dul ba de dag gi spyi bo’i steng du/gnas te bsdigs pa na yang shin tu rab tu sdang ba rnams ’dul ba ma yin no/de nas ni yang ’jigs byed chen po’i sku ’dzin par gyur pas/de dag tshar bcad de/. de dag rnal ’byor pa des rkang [em.; kyang ed.] rjes su spyod pa tsam yin pas na/bsdu ba’i lha rnams kyang ’dul ba yin la/shin tu rab tu sdang ba de rnams ni/tshangs pa dang/brgya byin dang/dbang phyug dang/gzhon nu rnams gsol bar mdzad pa zhes ’chad par ’gyur ba’o/. *Akṣobhya’s pañjikā, pp. 380–382.
See note 81 above.
For the metaphor of medicine-tree in the Mahāyāna-sūtras researched by Demiéville, see (Tatz 1985, p. 47).
See note 85 above.
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Wenta, A. The Siddha with a Thousand Faces: Non-Tantric and Tantric Elements in the Construction of the Buddhist Siddha in *Jñānākara’s Commentary to the Introduction to the [Path of] Mantra. Religions 2023, 14, 792. https://doi.org/10.3390/rel14060792
Wenta A. The Siddha with a Thousand Faces: Non-Tantric and Tantric Elements in the Construction of the Buddhist Siddha in *Jñānākara’s Commentary to the Introduction to the [Path of] Mantra. Religions. 2023; 14(6):792. https://doi.org/10.3390/rel14060792Chicago/Turabian Style
Wenta, Aleksandra. 2023. "The Siddha with a Thousand Faces: Non-Tantric and Tantric Elements in the Construction of the Buddhist Siddha in *Jñānākara’s Commentary to the Introduction to the [Path of] Mantra" Religions 14, no. 6: 792. https://doi.org/10.3390/rel14060792