# Experimental Investigation of Plow-Chopping Unit

^{1}

^{2}

^{3}

^{4}

^{5}

^{6}

^{*}

## Abstract

**:**

^{2}), changing aperiodically in the frequency range of 0–2.5 Hz, is not accidentally less than the variance of irregularities vibrations of the longitudinal field profile (2.75 cm

^{2}). The plough draft resistant oscillations of the plow-chopping unit had the least impaction at the plowing depth oscillations. The proof of this is the small value of the cross correlation function; for such oscillating processes as ‘plough draft resistance—plowing depth’, it was equal to 0.22, which is 3.4 times less than for oscillating processes ‘surface’s longitudinal profile—plowing depth’. The number of chopped particles less than 15 cm in length increased by 1.5 times, and the number of particles longer than 30 cm decreased by 3 times. With the complete incorporation of plant residues into the soil, their non-chopped part did not exceed 1%.

## 1. Introduction

^{−1}, the range of this indicator oscillations can reach ±30% [9].

^{−1}and even more.

## 2. Material and Method

#### 2.1. Brief Plow-Chopping Unit Performance

#### 2.2. Starting Torque Determination of the Chopper Working Devices

#### 2.3. Main Mode Operation of the Plow-Chopping Unit

^{−1}) and a working range from ±2 g to ±16 g. In this case, the electrical signal enters the Arduino Uno’s analog input and then is transferred to the laptop with a subsequent conversion for processing in the Microsoft Excel environment.

^{−1}).

^{2}and a ruler with a measuring accuracy of ±0.5 cm.

_{1}and the cross-section of the process Y1 (t) when t = t

_{2}.

## 3. Results and Discussion

#### 3.1. Determination of the Operating Mode of the Chopper Plant Residues

#### 3.2. Field Studies of the Plow-Chopping Unit

^{−1}(Figure 10).

^{−1}or 0–2.5 Hz when the operating speed of the plow-chopping unit is 2.0 m·s

^{−1}. Such frequency levels are typical for low-frequency processes, that, in our case, are highly desirable.

^{2}; for fluctuations of the plowing depth, its value is 1.44 cm

^{2}. The difference between these variance values is substantial and nonrandom because, according to the Fisher F-test, the null hypothesis about their equality does not reject a significance level 0.05.

^{2}(Figure 11).

^{2}. The ratio of these variances shows that the true value of the F-test is equal to 1.21. It is less than the F-test’s table value, which for the significance level 0.05, is equal to 1.39. Hence, the null hypothesis of equality of the compared variances is not rejected and both represent the same general sample. Moreover, as follows from the analysis of Figure 11, the frequency composition of vertical oscillations of the tractor’s front axle, both with and without PRR-1.5, is practically the same.

## 4. Conclusions

^{2}, this gain is statistically random and insignificant.

^{2}) is not randomly less than the variance of oscillations of the longitudinal field profile (2.75 cm

^{2}). Even smaller oscillations in the plowing depth depend on fluctuations in the arable-chopping unit’s plow draft resistance.

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

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**Figure 7.**Dynamics torque ${\mathrm{M}}_{\mathrm{pto}}$ at the various operating modes of the tractor’s front PTO: 1–540 rpm; 2–1000 rpm.

**Figure 8.**Speed change of torque ${\mathrm{M}}_{\mathrm{pto}}$ at the various operating modes of the tractor’s front PTO: 1–540 rpm; 2–1000 rpm.

**Figure 9.**Normalized correlation functions of the surface’s longitudinal profile (1) and plowing depth (2) oscillations.

**Figure 10.**Normalized spectral densities of oscillations of the surface’s longitudinal profile (1) and plowing depth (2).

**Figure 11.**Normalized spectral densities of vertical oscillations of tractor’s front axle with (1) and without (2) chopper.

**Figure 12.**Cross correlation functions of plowing depth oscillations from the influence of the surface’s longitudinal profile and plough draft resistance.

Tractor HTZ-16131: Power Engine (kW) | 132.4 |
---|---|

operating mass (kg) | 7800 |

front wheels track (mm) | 2100 |

rear wheels track (mm) | 2100 |

front wheels: tire size | 16.9R38 |

air pressure (bar) | 1.3 |

rear wheels: tire size | 16.9R38 |

air pressure (bar) | 1.1 |

PTO operating mode (rpm) | 540 1000 |

Chopper PRR-1.5: | |

operating mass (kg) | 400 |

working width (m) | 1.70 |

Plough PLN-5-35: | - |

operating mass (kg) | 800 |

plough bottoms number | 5 |

working width (m) | 1.75 |

Index | Value |
---|---|

Soil humidity (%) | 19.9 |

Soil bulk density (g cm^{−3}) | 1.39 |

Height of sunflower stubble (cm) | 43 ± 2 |

Working speed of plow-chopping unit (m s^{−1}) | 2.0 |

Working width of plow-chopping unit (m) | 1.76 |

Plowing depth: mean (cm) | 25.0 |

confidence interval (95%, cm) | 25.0 ± 0.3 |

variance (cm^{2}) | 1.44 |

standard deviation (±cm) | 1.20 |

coefficient of variation (%) | 4.8 |

Plough draft resistance: mean (kN) | 25.2 |

confidence interval (95%, kN) | 25.2 ± 0.6 |

variance (kN^{2}) | 3.61 |

standard deviation (±kN) | 1.90 |

coefficient of variation (%) | 7.5 |

Rpm | Number of Stubble Residues (%) | Total Chopping (%) | ||
---|---|---|---|---|

<15 cm | 15–30 cm | >30 cm | ||

540 | 41.3 | 43.4 | 15.3 | 95.5 |

1000 | 63.5 | 32.7 | 3.8 | 99.0 |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Bulgakov, V.; Aboltins, A.; Beloev, H.; Nadykto, V.; Kyurchev, V.; Adamchuk, V.; Kaminskiy, V.
Experimental Investigation of Plow-Chopping Unit. *Agriculture* **2021**, *11*, 30.
https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture11010030

**AMA Style**

Bulgakov V, Aboltins A, Beloev H, Nadykto V, Kyurchev V, Adamchuk V, Kaminskiy V.
Experimental Investigation of Plow-Chopping Unit. *Agriculture*. 2021; 11(1):30.
https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture11010030

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Bulgakov, Volodymyr, Aivars Aboltins, Hristo Beloev, Volodymyr Nadykto, Volodymyr Kyurchev, Valerii Adamchuk, and Viktor Kaminskiy.
2021. "Experimental Investigation of Plow-Chopping Unit" *Agriculture* 11, no. 1: 30.
https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture11010030