Optimization of Ultrasonic Powder Coatings on the Surface of Treated Materials
2. Materials and Methods
- The obtained ratios show that the size of powder particles lies in the range from a few units to ten nanometers in the case when the frequency of ultrasound is in the operating range from 18 to 25 kHz, and the amplitude of the displacements of the walls of the resonance chamber does not exceed 15 μm. This means that for the operating parameters commonly used in standard ultrasonic equipment, the optimal size of coating particles is in the nanoscale range of values.
- The coating technology under consideration allows one to work with a surface of a very complex shape. It is necessary to take into account the fact that for high-quality processing of recesses, it is necessary to use working bodies, the size of which is less than the radius of curvature of the surface of this part of the product.
- The above expressions for the optimal values of the number of working bodies and the time of surface treatment give only approximate guidelines in the establishment of the technological process. Their exact values are determined in practice from the conditionsused toobtain the required quality of coverage.
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
- Suryanarayana, C. Mechanical alloying and milling. Prog. Mater. Sci. 2001, 46, 1–184. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Lü, L.; Lai, M.O. Mechanical Alloying; Kluwer Academic Publishers: Boston, MA, USA, 1998; p. 276. [Google Scholar]
- Grigorieva, T.F.; Barinova, A.P.; Lyakhov, N.Z. Mechanosynthesis of nanocomposites. J. Nanoparticle Res. 2003, 5, 439–453. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Abramov, V.O.; Abramov, O.V.; Sommer, F.; Gradov, O.M.; Smirnov, O.M. Surface hardening of metals by ultrasonically accelerated small metal balls. Ultrasonics 1998, 36, 1013–1019. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Abramov, O.V. Ultrasound in Liquid and Solid Metals; CRC Press, Inc.: Boca Raton, FL, USA, 1993; p. 493. [Google Scholar]
- Abramov, O.V. High-Intensity Ultrasonics: Theory and Industrial Applications; OPA: Singapore, 1998; p. 692. [Google Scholar]
- Komarov, S.V.; Son, S.H.; Hayashi, N.; Kasai, E.; Kaloshkin, S.D.; Abramov, O.V. Development of a novel method for mechanical plating using ultrasonic vibrations. Surf. Coat. Technol. 2007, 201, 6999–7006. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Lighthill, J. Acoustic Streaming. J. Sound Vib. 1978, 61, 391–418. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Bird, R.B.; Stewart, W.E.; Lightfoot, E.N. Transport Phenomena; John Willey &Sons, Inc.: New York, NY, USA, 2002; p. 895. [Google Scholar]
- Wu, X.; Tao, N.; Hong, Y.; Xu, B.; Lu, J.; Lu, K. An investigation of surface nanocrystallization mechanism in Fe induced by surface mechanical attrition treatment. Acta Mater. 2002, 50, 4603–4616. [Google Scholar]
- Tao, N.R.; Sui, M.L.; Lu, J.; Lu, K. Surface nanocrystallization of iron induced by ultrasonic shot peening. Nanostruct. Mater. 1999, 11, 433–440. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Kumar, P.; Mahobia, G.S.; Singh, V.; Chattopadhyay, K. LCF life improvement of biomedical Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloy through surface nanostructuring. Mater. Res. Express 2019, 6, 125413. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Soyama, H. Surface mechanics design of metallic materials on mechanical surface treatments. Mech. Eng. Rev. 2015, 2, 14-00192. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Chahine, G.L.; Kapahi, A.; Hsiao, C.T.; Choi, J.K. Coupling bubble and material dynamics to model cavitation peening and pitting. J. Fluid Sci. Technol. 2016, 11, JFST0023. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
Disclaimer/Publisher’s Note: The statements, opinions and data contained in all publications are solely those of the individual author(s) and contributor(s) and not of MDPI and/or the editor(s). MDPI and/or the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to people or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content.
© 2023 by the author. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Gradov, O.M. Optimization of Ultrasonic Powder Coatings on the Surface of Treated Materials. Appl. Sci. 2023, 13, 6034. https://doi.org/10.3390/app13106034
Gradov OM. Optimization of Ultrasonic Powder Coatings on the Surface of Treated Materials. Applied Sciences. 2023; 13(10):6034. https://doi.org/10.3390/app13106034Chicago/Turabian Style
Gradov, Oleg M. 2023. "Optimization of Ultrasonic Powder Coatings on the Surface of Treated Materials" Applied Sciences 13, no. 10: 6034. https://doi.org/10.3390/app13106034