# Kinematic and Dynamic Response of a Novel Engine Mechanism Design Driven by an Oscillation Arm

^{1}

^{2}

^{3}

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

#### 1.1. Background

_{2}emission by 18% [19,20,21,22,23]. Nissan has achieved considerable success in the development of VCR engines over time [24,25]. The VC-Turbo engine from Nissan uses a multi-link system in place of a traditional connecting rod to rotate the crankshaft, and an actuator motor changes the multi-link system endpoint in order to vary the piston reach to transform the compression ratio. This makes it possible to vary the compression ratio continuously as needed within the range of 8:1 (for high load) to 14:1 (for low load). FEV developed a two-stage VCR engine system that has been proven to be a good concept, considering its low cost to manufacture and the benefit if integration into common engine architectures. The system uses a length-adjustable connecting rod with an eccentric piston pin in the small eye; the compression ratio adjustment is performed through a combination of gas and mass forces [26,27]. A potential improvement of fuel consumption is 5–7% depending upon drive cycle and vehicle/powertrain combinations [28]. Furthermore, Ford has extensively worked on the development of VCR engines in the last 20 years and a VCR Engine with varying length of piston and connecting rod was developed in 2003 [29].

#### 1.2. Objective

## 2. Simulation Method

- Ff the bearing joint is moved in the opposite direction with respect to GCS axes, the number “1” is used as a secondary subscript of the letter D; the first subscript indicates the axis direction of the movement takes place;
- In a similar manner, a subscript number “2” will be used if the bearing joint is moved in the positive direction of the GCS axes. In the kinematic analysis, the movable range of pivot point has been considered as +/−40 mm on the horizontal direction and +/−25 mm on the vertical direction.

- for translational motion: $\sum \overrightarrow{\mathrm{F}}=\mathrm{m}\xb7\overrightarrow{\mathrm{a}}$;
- for rotational motion: $\sum \overrightarrow{\mathrm{M}}=\mathrm{j}\xb7\overrightarrow{\mathsf{\epsilon}}$.

_{i}—inertia forces, J—inertia mass moment, F

_{p}—piston force, N—normal force coming from a contact, ω—angular speed, ε—angular acceleration, T—engine torque).

_{1}can be obtained. Based on it, and knowing the speed of crank, it is possible to evaluate the power of an engine.

_{1}obtained from the system of Equation (1) is called the total torque of engine and is in fact a cumulative effect that comes from two sources: pressure inside cylinders and inertia.

_{p}is considered equal to zero. Furthermore, if we want to find out the contribution of the pressure in a cylinder on the total torque T

_{1}, all terms from right side of equations from system (1) will be equal to zero.

## 3. Conclusions

- ○
- From a kinematic point of view, an increase of 25% was obtained for piston stroke on the novelty design mechanism compared to the classical one. This increase is due to the oscillating arm included in the configuration of the mechanism between the crankshaft and con-rod.
- ○
- Furthermore, the velocity and acceleration of the piston for the novelty mechanism have a similar percent of increase with respect to the piston stroke obtained with a classic mechanism.
- ○
- The percentage increase of the kinematic parameters also led to the increase of the internal dynamic loads in the mechanism. For example, in the novel mechanism, on the big end of a con-rod, a maximum value of the resulting dynamic load greater than 8% compared to the classical mechanism was obtained.
- ○
- The dynamic loading reduced to the lever of crankshaft will induce an increase of the torque and also an increase of power. According to the simulations, a major percent of 40% is obtained for the novel mechanism compared to the classic one.
- ○
- Finally, the lithic power calculated in terms of kinematic and dynamic parameters has a 20% increasing obtain for the novel mechanism comparison to the classic one.

_{2}emissions when compared to other competing technologies. Furthermore, VCR technology can offer torque enhancement at low rpm when any boost or auxiliary systems are least effective.

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 2.**Kinematic schema for two concept of engine mechanism: (

**a**) classic; (

**b**) with oscillating arm.

**Figure 3.**Trajectory of the con rod big end for a complete rotation of crank shaft: (

**a**) classic; (

**b**) VCR.

**Figure 6.**Piston stroke evolution during complete rotation of crankshaft when the pivot point is moved in: (

**a**) horizontal direction (

**b**) vertical direction.

**Figure 7.**Kinematic parameters evolution on a complete cycle rotation crankshaft: (

**a**) piston velocity; (

**b**) piston acceleration.

**Figure 10.**Pressure evolution on a cylinder used as input data in analyses (

**a**) depending on crank speed; (

**b**) depending on crank angle for a complete cycle (

**c**) sketch of the engine [13].

**Figure 11.**(

**a**). Con-rod big end force [N], (

**b**). Torque engine evolution on a complete cycle for a total torque of 1000 rpm, (

**c**). Torque engine evolution on a complete cycle for a total torque of 3500 rpm, (

**d**). Torque engine evolution on a complete cycle for a total torque of 6000 rpm.

Initial Position of Joints Considering in Mechanism [mm] | ||||
---|---|---|---|---|

Joint | Classic | VCR | ||

x | y | x | y | |

O | 0 | 0 | 0 | 0 |

A | 0 | 38 | 0 | 38 |

B | 0 | 165 | 43.15 | 63.5 |

C | 0 | 207.2 | ||

D | − | − | −120 | 80 |

D Point ExtremePosition | Clearance [mm] | Stroke [mm] | Bore Diameter [mm] | Total Volume [L] | Clearance Volume [L] | Compression Ratio (CR) |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

initial | 13.78 | 98.21 | 82 | 0.59 | 0.07 | 8.13 |

Left | 9.80 | 94.88 ↘ | 82 | 0.55 | 0.05 | 10.68 ↗ |

Right | 21.35 | 99.42 ↗ | 82 | 0.64 | 0.11 | 5.66 ↘ |

Down | 6.18 | 105.7 ↗ | 82 | 0.59 | 0.03 | 18.1 ↗ |

Up | 21.20 | 89.1 ↘ | 82 | 0.58 | 0.11 | 5.2 ↘ |

Element | Classic | VCR | ||
---|---|---|---|---|

Mass [kg] | Inertia Moment [kg∙mm^{2}] | Mass [kg] | Inertia Moment [kg∙mm^{2}] | |

1—crank | 16.5 | 24,560 | 16.5 | 24,560 |

2—con-rod | 0.3 | 1185 | 0.3 | 1185 |

3—piston | 0.354 | 387.5 | 0.354 | 387.5 |

4—oscillation arm | − | − | 1.55 | 13,400 |

5—pivot | − | − | 0.275 | 100 |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Itu, C.; Scutaru, M.-L.; Pruncu, C.I.; Muntean, R.
Kinematic and Dynamic Response of a Novel Engine Mechanism Design Driven by an Oscillation Arm. *Appl. Sci.* **2020**, *10*, 2733.
https://doi.org/10.3390/app10082733

**AMA Style**

Itu C, Scutaru M-L, Pruncu CI, Muntean R.
Kinematic and Dynamic Response of a Novel Engine Mechanism Design Driven by an Oscillation Arm. *Applied Sciences*. 2020; 10(8):2733.
https://doi.org/10.3390/app10082733

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Itu, Călin, Maria-Luminiţa Scutaru, Cătălin Iulian Pruncu, and Radu Muntean.
2020. "Kinematic and Dynamic Response of a Novel Engine Mechanism Design Driven by an Oscillation Arm" *Applied Sciences* 10, no. 8: 2733.
https://doi.org/10.3390/app10082733