Volunteer Working during COVID-19 in Jordanian Community: Advantages and Challenges
2. Literature Review
2.2. Community Initiatives and Voluntary in Jordan during the COVID-19 Pandemic
2.3. COVID-19 and Voluntary Work
2.4. Advantages and Challenges of Voluntary Work during COVID-19
2.5. Ethics in Social and Voluntary Work
3. The Significance of This Research
4.1. Data Collection
4.2. The Study Community and Its Sample
4.3. The Questionnaire
Part 1 includes demographic information, consisting of sex, age, work, educational level, marital status, place of residence, income, participation in voluntary work for those in need during the pandemic, participation in voluntary work through social media sites, participation in direct services for COVID-19 patients, and participation through assistance to families of those infected by COVID-19.Part 2 measures the skills acquired by volunteers through volunteering and includes 28 paragraphs.Part 3 measures the difficulties and challenges faced by volunteers while volunteering and includes 28 paragraphs.
4.4. Reliability and Validity
4.5. Statistical Analysis
- Extracting repetitions and percentages to describe the members of the study sample.
- Using the Alpha Cronbach test to ensure the tool is stable.
- Descriptive statistics: Calculation averages were extracted to detect the level of responses of study sample members and standard deviations to determine the level of dispersion of responses.
- Using the three-way ANOVA tri-contrast test.
5. Discussion and Results
|Strongly Dis-Agree||Dis-Agree||Neutral||Agree||Strongly Agree|
- Next we calculated the results of the first question: What skills do volunteers acquire through volunteering?
- Calculation averages and standard deviations were calculated to identify the level of skills acquired by volunteers through volunteering during the emerging Corona pandemic, as shown in Table 2.
- Volunteering during the COVID-19 pandemic has had a positive impact on volunteers during this period in terms of acquiring a variety of skills, which is an incentive for these volunteers to continue to participate in volunteering as these skills may be positively reflected in the volunteer, both in his or her personal private life and working life. Beyond individual motivations and behaviors, this research contributes to a better understanding of how to handle large numbers of spontaneous volunteers in a pandemic situation, which agrees with Al Gharaibeh (2020). This crisis has demonstrated the urgent need to reorganize voluntary and social work in Jordan and to better train social workers to be able to deal more effectively with crisis situations and their social and psychological aftermaths. Beardmore et al. (2020) also indicated that volunteering in this crisis—COVID-19—helped individuals to band together and grow stronger and more confident in themselves. Empowering volunteers is important for the holistic care of patients. While it is realistic to presume that volunteer characteristics remain consistent over time, helping during a pandemic may draw volunteers from a variety of demographic groups (Mak and Fancourt 2021). Volunteers should continue to help this community, and the significance of their efforts should be acknowledged (Pickell et al. 2020).
- The most prominent difficulties faced by volunteers while volunteering during the emerging COVID-19 pandemic were faced by women, where customs and traditions that restrict the movement of women for fear of mixing with the opposite sex, directly or indirectly, may be due to the stereotype of women’s work, which is limited to the work of the house and no work is encouraged outside this framework. In addition, the difficulties faced by volunteers that make them reluctant to participate is the lack of legislation protecting volunteers in these epidemiological circumstances. There is a great need to protect volunteers, especially since they are vulnerable to health risks in these circumstances, and the results of the study clarify that volunteers see the view of society as negative with reduced importance of their participation in bringing about change in society. This relates to the culture of society and its view of young people in general and their role in participating in taking responsibility in these circumstances. Assisting and creating a volunteer network provides easy access and multiple channels to serve the needs of patients and their families. These should develop as part of the Self Help and Family Support Group (Pradubwong et al. 2015).
- There were no statistically significant differences in the level of skills acquired by volunteers as a result of their participation in volunteering, i.e., the skills acquired by young people participating in volunteering were the same regardless of gender, age, or educational level, which is an indication of the benefits sought by volunteers without any regard for the characteristics of the volunteer. Almharmeh and Alhajjaj (2022) recommended that there is a need to train volunteer teams in disaster and crisis management skills, and build comprehensive national databases for volunteers and their institutions.
- The lack of statistically significant differences in the level of challenges faced by volunteers due to gender, age, and educational level indicates that the difficulties faced by volunteers are not related to volunteers’ gender, age, or educational level, but rather to the difficulties faced by volunteers regardless of these variables, making it critical to seek to overcome these difficulties as they are universal and affect all types of volunteers.
- The need to find legislation that protects volunteers to remove their fears and reluctance to participate in volunteering.
- Working to raise awareness of the importance of allowing women to participate in volunteering as an important partner in supporting society and taking responsibility, especially in humanitarian emergencies such as the COVID-19 pandemic.
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Age||20 years and less.||37||30.6|
|More than 40 years.||14||11.6|
|He/she doesn’t work||92||76|
|Educational level||Secondary school and below||27||22.3|
|Master and Top||10||8.3|
|Income||Less than 400 dinars||79||65.3|
|1601 dinars and more||5||4.1|
|Did you take part in direct voluntary work for those in need during the pandemic?||Yes||79||65.3|
|Did you participate in voluntary work through social media sites?||Yes||96||79.3|
|Have you participated in providing direct services to corona patients||Yes||38||31.4|
|Did you participate with the help of the families of those injured in Corona?||Yes||44||36.4|
|Stability Coefficient Using Cronbach Alpha||Paragraphs||The Variables|
|0.974||28||Skills acquired by volunteers through volunteering|
|0.956||28||Difficulties and challenges faced by volunteers while volunteering|
|No.||Paragraph||Arithmetic Average||Standard Deviation||Value (t)||Rank||Level|
|14||I find my volunteering a love of active participation in community issues.||4.45||0.69||22.903 *||1||High|
|11||Volunteering has contributed to developing my self-confidence||4.40||0.79||19.439 *||2||High|
|16||Volunteering has increased my ability to establish successful social relationships||4.40||0.68||22.702 *||2||High|
|25||Acquire new skills and methods in dealing with others.||4.40||0.63||24.560 *||2||High|
|9||My involvement in volunteering made me prefer to work with the team.||4.39||0.77||19.891||5||High|
|1||My participation in volunteering in these circumstances has developed a skill to communicate with others.||4.38||0.85||17.880 *||6||High|
|26||Volunteering has led to the acquisition of new acquaintances and friends||4.38||0.64||23.877 *||6||High|
|28||I was encouraged to participate in volunteering to leave my mark in multiple places in my country.||4.38||0.72||21.034 *||6||High|
|13||Volunteering has the values of belonging to the community.||4.37||0.70||21.657 *||9||High|
|22||My participation in volunteering has increased my ability to dialogue and exchange views.||4.37||0.72||20.950 *||9||High|
|23||I’m becoming more receptive to others.||4.37||0.72||20.950 *||9||High|
|6||I’m becoming more responsible.||4.36||0.68||21.880 *||12||High|
|12||Volunteering has increased my decision-making ability.||4.36||0.74||20.226 *||12||High|
|24||I’ve increased my ability to develop myself.||4.36||0.68||21.958 *||12||High|
|20||Volunteering increased my ability to work under pressure.||4.34||0.73||20.308 *||15||High|
|21||I’m becoming more able to plan and organize.||4.32||0.66||22.005 *||16||High|
|5||I’ve developed a skill in collecting information and data.||4.31||0.73||19.717 *||17||High|
|15||I’ve got the ability to propose solutions more.||4.30||0.73||19.653 *||18||High|
|7||My ability to interact with society has become better.||4.28||0.82||17.210 *||19||High|
|2||I’m becoming more able to interview others.||4.26||0.84||16.474 *||20||High|
|18||Volunteering has helped expand my network of relationships at the level of the working community||4.26||0.77||17.957 *||20||High|
|19||Volunteering has increased my ability to lead||4.26||0.68||20.400 *||20||High|
|17||Volunteering has gained practical experience that will increase my chances of getting a job later.||4.23||0.83||16.236 *||23||High|
|27||I’m better able to invest my free time.||4.23||0.75||18.058 *||23||High|
|10||I’ve developed a problem-solving skill.||4.21||0.78||17.203 *||25||High|
|3||My observations of what’s around me have become more accurate.||4.18||0.77||16.783 *||26||High|
|4||I’m better at recording notes more accurately.||4.17||0.83||15.441 *||27||High|
|8||My ability to organize and manage time is better.||4.16||0.80||15.991 *||28||High|
|No.||Paragraph||Arithmetic Average||Standard Deviation||Value (T)||Rank||Level|
|27||There are obstacles for females related to customs and traditions that affect the extent of their participation||3.64||1.15||6.146 *||1||Mid-level|
|28||There’s no legislation that protects us as volunteers that sometimes makes us reluctant to participate in volunteer work.||3.50||1.19||4.656 *||2||Mid-level|
|18||Society reduces the role of the volunteer and his ability to bring about change||3.24||1.10||2.390 *||3||Mid-level|
|7||The large number of family commitments affects the degree of my participation in volunteering||3.23||1.13||2.250 *||4||Mid-level|
|21||In some cases, volunteers only aim to obtain certificates.||3.22||1.20||2.044 *||5||Mid-level|
|14||Lack of enough time to volunteer because of my work/studies||3.19||1.08||1.931||6||Mid-level|
|16||Lack of awareness of the concept of volunteering in society affects my ability to participate in volunteering||3.16||1.15||1.505||7||Mid-level|
|25||Lack of an organized plan or clear description of the tasks required of us as volunteers||3.06||1.13||0.564||8||Mid-level|
|3||Volunteer institutions keep secrets that make me, as a volunteer, know a lot of things.||3.04||1.12||0.405||9||Mid-level|
|19||The lack of media interest in raising awareness of the importance of volunteering limits my enthusiasm for participating in volunteering||3.01||1.18||0.077||10||Mid-level|
|11||Some volunteers tend to neglect to take on the responsibilities assigned to them.||3.00||1.12||0.000||11||Mid-level|
|22||Limiting volunteering to certain routine areas increases my reluctance to participate||3.00||1.18||0.000||11||Mid-level|
|12||Some volunteers tend to underestimate volunteering by taking advantage of the flexibility of this work.||2.98||1.18||0.155||13||Mid-level|
|26||The multiplicity of supervisors as volunteers causes us psychological and physical pressure.||2.98||1.11||0.164||13||Mid-level|
|2||The poor material potential of voluntary institutions has affected my motivation to participate in volunteering||2.97||1.16||0.313||15||Mid-level|
|10||Lack of sufficient information on the importance of volunteering limits my participation in it||2.93||1.18||0.695||16||Mid-level|
|15||I didn’t get enough training to volunteer properly.||2.89||1.06||1.112||17||Mid-level|
|5||As a volunteer, I face administrative handicaps that limit my enthusiasm and my ability to volunteer.||2.85||1.09||1.497||18||Mid-level|
|1||My lack of respect and appreciation from the officials reduced my motivation to volunteer.||2.83||1.24||1.544||19||Mid-level|
|6||I had difficulties dealing with staff.||2.83||1.11||1.723||19||Mid-level|
|17||The lack of encouragement from my family to participate in volunteer work affects my enthusiasm to participate in it.||2.83||1.33||1.372||19||Mid-level|
|9||I see there’s a focus on working individually at the expense of working as a team.||2.82||1.13||1.765||22||Mid-level|
|4||I find myself as a volunteer in a dark circle for not evaluating and directing the administration for the volunteer work I do.||2.81||1.21||1.723||23||Mid-level|
|24||The volunteer foundation does not provide lunches for volunteers if they volunteer for long hours||2.81||1.13||1.854||23||Mid-level|
|13||I don’t want to volunteer far from my place.||2.73||1.23||2.436 *||25||Mid-level|
|8||I find that voluntary institutions are using volunteers to do other work.||2.65||1.15||3.334 *||26||Mid-level|
|23||I can’t find collaboration by staff at the volunteer organization with volunteers.||2.64||1.06||3.676 *||27||Mid-level|
|20||Non-compliance of volunteering supervisors with volunteer ethics||2.60||1.05||4.229 *||28||Mid-level|
|Number||Arithmetic Average||Standard Deviation|
|20 years and less.||37||4.39||0.44|
|40 years and older||14||4.15||0.51|
|Secondary and below||27||4.44||0.47|
|Master and more||10||4.06||0.62|
|Source||Total Squares||Degrees of Freedom df||Average Squares||Value F||Statistical Significance Sig.|
|Number||Arithmetic Average||Standard Deviation|
|20 years and less.||37||2.72||0.80|
|40 years and older||14||3.23||0.68|
|Secondary and below||27||2.64||0.89|
|Master and more||10||3.38||0.67|
|Source||Total Squares||Degrees of Freedom df||Average Squares||Value F||Statistical Significance Sig.|
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Alhajjaj, H.A.; Al Nabulsi, H.H. Volunteer Working during COVID-19 in Jordanian Community: Advantages and Challenges. Soc. Sci. 2022, 11, 377. https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11080377
Alhajjaj HA, Al Nabulsi HH. Volunteer Working during COVID-19 in Jordanian Community: Advantages and Challenges. Social Sciences. 2022; 11(8):377. https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11080377Chicago/Turabian Style
Alhajjaj, Huda A., and Hana H. Al Nabulsi. 2022. "Volunteer Working during COVID-19 in Jordanian Community: Advantages and Challenges" Social Sciences 11, no. 8: 377. https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11080377