# Mechanical Performance of Concrete Segment Lining Structure of Shield Tunneling in Different Strata

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Project Overview

## 3. Test Preparation, Component Installation and Data Collection

#### 3.1. Selection of Test Sections

#### 3.2. Installation of Test Components

#### 3.3. Test Segment Data Collection

- (1)
- It is assumed that the circumferential joints of the segment have no influence on the force of the segment, and the force between the segments is continuous;
- (2)
- Take a calculation unit in the circumferential direction of the segment and simplify the arc segment into a rectangular unit.

_{1}and N

_{2}are the axial force of the single steel bar inside and outside the segment, N

_{c}is the resultant force of the circumferential concrete pressure on the section, M is the circumferential section bending moment, α′ is the thickness of the steel protective layer, and the protective layer thickness of the upper and lower steel bars is equal, both 35 mm. According to the measured results, we can know the concrete stress values σ

_{c1}and σ

_{c2}inside and outside the section, the axial forces N

_{1}and N

_{2}inside and outside the steel bar, the longitudinal cross-sectional area of the segment A and the axial force of the longitudinal section of the segment is determined by the axial force on the concrete. N

_{c}consists of the axial force N

_{s}on the steel bar, and the cross-sectional bending moment consists of the bending moment M

_{c}on the concrete and the bending moment M

_{s}on the steel bar. According to the static equilibrium conditions and the material mechanics pressure-bending combination calculation formula, the available force balance equation is as follows [38]:

## 4. Test Results and Analysis

#### 4.1. Soft and Hard Uneven Formation

#### 4.1.1. Distribution Law of Soil Pressure on Pipe Segments

#### 4.1.2. Distribution Rules of Internal Forces in Segments

#### 4.1.3. Distribution Rules of Pore Water Pressure

#### 4.2. Clay Formation

#### 4.2.1. Distribution Law of Soil Pressure on Pipe Segments

#### 4.2.2. Distribution Rules of Internal Forces in Segments

#### 4.2.3. Distribution Law of Pore Water Pressure

#### 4.3. Proximity Pile Foundation

#### 4.3.1. Distribution Law of Soil Pressure on Pipe Segments

#### 4.3.2. Distribution Law of Internal Force in Pipe Segments

#### 4.3.3. Distribution Law of Pore Water Pressure

## 5. Conclusions

- (1)
- In the stratum with uneven hardness, the hardness of soil varies, the earth pressure on the left and right sides of the test ring is asymmetric, and the vault pressure is greater than the arch bottom pressure. There are water passages and bedrock fissure water in the stratum, and the surrounding groundwater will continuously replenish the groundwater loss here because of the head difference until the water pressure reaches a stable equilibrium state; in clay stratum, the soil is gravelly cohesive soil with a single property and low permeability coefficient, and the earth pressure distribution at each position of the segment ring is relatively balanced. There is no effective flow channel in the gravel cohesive soil layer, and the water pressure can not be completely transmitted downwards, which leads to the actual water pressure difference between the arch bottom and the arch waist being smaller than the theoretical difference; in the fully weathered granite layer of the overlying building, the segment of the test ring is subjected to greater additional stress, which is much greater than the internal force of the segment without the overlying building. A boundary surface for groundwater circulation is formed between rock strata, which can store a large amount of fissure water and pore water. Groundwater in other places can supply groundwater loss here at a faster speed, and finally reach a state of hydraulic balance.
- (2)
- The mechanical properties of shield tunnel segments in different strata are quite different, but their mechanical properties change stages are consistent. That is, when the segment ring is just assembled, under the protection of the shield shell, the internal force is small, and when the segment comes out of the shield tail, the internal force of the segment reaches the maximum peak. When the segment is assembled for a certain period of time, the internal force of the segment tends to be stable, and the internal force of the stabilized segment is generally smaller than when it just comes out of the shield tail.

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Data Availability Statement

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

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**Figure 7.**Change curve of steel bar axial force at each measuring point with construction: (

**a**) Axial force (N

_{1}) change curve of inner steel bar. (

**b**) Axial force (N

_{2}) change curve of outer steel bars.

**Figure 8.**Change curve of concrete strain (ε) at each measuring point with construction: (

**a**) Inside concrete strain (ε) change curve. (

**b**) External concrete strain (ε) change curve.

**Figure 9.**Segment internal force in soft and hard uneven formation: (

**a**) Axial force (N) diagram of the segment when just spliced (kN). (

**b**) The tube axis force (N) diagram when the shield tail comes out (kN). (

**c**) Axial force (N) diagram of segment after stabilization (kN). (

**d**) Bending moment (M) diagram of segment when newly spliced (kN·m). (

**e**) Bending moment (M) diagram of shield tail pipe piece after escapement (kN·m). (

**f**) Segment bending moment (M) diagram after stabilization (kN·m).

**Figure 14.**Steel axis force of each measuring point with the construction changes: (

**a**) Axial force (N

_{1}) change curve of inner steel bar. (

**b**) Axial force (N

_{2}) change curve of outer steel bars.

**Figure 15.**Concrete stress (σ) of each measuring point with the construction changes: (

**a**) Inside concrete stress (σ) change curve. (

**b**) External concrete stress (σ) change curve.

**Figure 16.**Segment internal force in clay ground: (

**a**) Axial force (N) diagram of the segment when just spliced (kN). (

**b**) The tube axis force (N) diagram when the shield tail comes out (kN). (

**c**) Axial force (N) diagram of segment after stabilization (kN). (

**d**) Bending moment (M) diagram of segment when newly spliced (kN·m). (

**e**) Bending moment (M) diagram of shield tail pipe piece after escapement (kN·m). (

**f**) Segment bending moment (M) diagram after stabilization (kN·m).

**Figure 21.**Steel axis force of each measuring point with the construction changes: (

**a**) Axial force (N

_{1}) change curve of inner steel bar. (

**b**) Axial force (N

_{2}) change curve of outer steel bars.

**Figure 22.**Concrete stress (σ) of each measuring point with the construction changes: (

**a**) Inside concrete stress (σ) change curve. (

**b**) External concrete stress (σ) change curve.

**Figure 23.**Segment internal force in proximity pile foundation: (

**a**) Axial force (N) diagram of the segment when just spliced (kN). (

**b**) The tube axis force (N) diagram when the shield tail comes out (kN). (

**c**) Axial force (N) diagram of segment after stabilization (kN). (

**d**) Bending moment (N) Bending moment (M) diagram of segment when newly spliced (kN·m). (

**e**) Bending moment (M) diagram of shield tail pipe piece after escapement (kN·m). (

**f**) Segment bending moment (M) diagram after stabilization (kN·m).

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Hu, H.; Xue, T.; Li, J.; Liu, P.; Wang, B.; Liu, Y.
Mechanical Performance of Concrete Segment Lining Structure of Shield Tunneling in Different Strata. *Buildings* **2023**, *13*, 3118.
https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13123118

**AMA Style**

Hu H, Xue T, Li J, Liu P, Wang B, Liu Y.
Mechanical Performance of Concrete Segment Lining Structure of Shield Tunneling in Different Strata. *Buildings*. 2023; 13(12):3118.
https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13123118

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Hu, Hui, Tao Xue, Jianjun Li, Peisi Liu, Bo Wang, and Yun Liu.
2023. "Mechanical Performance of Concrete Segment Lining Structure of Shield Tunneling in Different Strata" *Buildings* 13, no. 12: 3118.
https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13123118