Next Issue
Volume 13, May
Previous Issue
Volume 13, March
 
 

Societies, Volume 13, Issue 4 (April 2023) – 24 articles

Cover Story (view full-size image): Augmented intelligence—as the fusion of human and artificial intelligence—is effectively being employed in response to a spectrum of risks and crimes that stem from the online sexual exploitation marketplace. This paper explores the use of technology-based enforcement and deterrence methods, and the harnessing of augmented intelligence to deter sex buyers at the point of purchase. A discussion of technology-facilitated trafficking in the online sexual exploitation marketplace is juxtaposed with the use of augmented intelligence in collaborative responses to these crimes. Illustrative case studies are presented that describe how two organizations employ technology that utilizes the complementary strengths of humans and machines to discourage the demand that fosters sex trafficking. View this paper
  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Reader to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
18 pages, 3051 KiB  
Article
The Best Welfare Deal: Retirement Migrants as Welfare Maximizers
by Inés Calzada, Virginia Páez, Rafael Martínez-Cassinello and Andrea Hervás
Societies 2023, 13(4), 102; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc13040102 - 19 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1223
Abstract
Retirement migration within Europe has increased enormously since the 1990s. It now involves millions of elderly Europeans moving from Central/Northern Europe (UK, Germany, Scandinavia) to Mediterranean countries (Malta, Portugal, Spain) in search of a better quality of life. Most previous research departs from [...] Read more.
Retirement migration within Europe has increased enormously since the 1990s. It now involves millions of elderly Europeans moving from Central/Northern Europe (UK, Germany, Scandinavia) to Mediterranean countries (Malta, Portugal, Spain) in search of a better quality of life. Most previous research departs from an ethnographic perspective to look at the personal experiences and motivations of retirement migrants. In this paper, we adopt a macro-level perspective to address the use that retirement migrants make of the European framework of social rights. We aim to understand (a) to what extent do retirement migrants living in Spain ask for help from the local Social Services when they enter into dependency? (b) Do retirement migrants engage in strategies to maximize their welfare rights? To answer these questions, we carried out qualitative phone interviews with the coordinators of Social Services that cover 80 (out of 119) of the Spanish municipalities with larger numbers of retirement migrants (more than 30% of elderly residents are foreigners). Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

17 pages, 320 KiB  
Article
Immigrant Victimization: Centering Language in Theory, Data and Method
by Meghan Maree Ballard and Charis E. Kubrin
Societies 2023, 13(4), 101; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc13040101 - 14 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2363
Abstract
Compared to immigrant criminality, relatively less attention is paid to immigrant victimization, even as extensive scholarship on criminal victimization exists more generally. This is curious in light of research showing that certain immigrant groups are at increased risk of victimization with respect to [...] Read more.
Compared to immigrant criminality, relatively less attention is paid to immigrant victimization, even as extensive scholarship on criminal victimization exists more generally. This is curious in light of research showing that certain immigrant groups are at increased risk of victimization with respect to certain crimes. In this essay, we set out to answer the following questions: How do leading theories of victimization explain the risk of immigrant victimization? Are there aspects of immigrant victimization that would benefit from further theorization and empirical inquiry? How do challenges associated with data collection of immigrant populations impact the advancement of theorizing and research on immigrant victimization? What insights about immigrant victimization may be gained by better integrating theory, data, and method in this research area? To answer these questions, we first provide an overview of classic frameworks used to explain criminal victimization in general, mapping their development to broader discussions in victimology. We then review how victimization theories are used to explain immigrant victimization, discuss the possibility of using culturally integrated theories of offending in immigrant victimization research, and examine data impediments associated with studying immigrant crime victims. With an aim toward integrating theory, data, and method in this research area, we next propose that scholars center language in research on immigrant victimization, offering examples of where such an approach could yield important theoretical and empirical advancements. We conclude by identifying policies and practices that are consistent with this approach. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Immigration and Crime)
3 pages, 177 KiB  
Editorial
Special Issue “Frontiers in Organizing Processes: Collaborating against Human Trafficking/Modern Slavery for Impact and Sustainability”
by Kirsten Foot, Marcel Van der Watt and Elizabeth Shun-Ching Parks
Societies 2023, 13(4), 99; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc13040099 - 10 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1447
Abstract
Multiprofessional, interorganizational, and cross-sector collaboration is widely recognized as essential to counter human trafficking [...] Full article
15 pages, 2260 KiB  
Concept Paper
Towards Marketing 4.0: Vision and Survey on the Role of IoT and Data Science
by Himadri Sikhar Khargharia, Muhammad Habib ur Rehman, Abhik Banerjee, Federico Montori, Abdur Rahim Mohammad Forkan and Prem Prakash Jayaraman
Societies 2023, 13(4), 100; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc13040100 - 10 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2416
Abstract
According to KPMG, Internet of Things (IoT) technology was among the top 10 technologies of 2019. It has been growing at a significant pace, influencing and disrupting several application domains. It is expected that by 2025, 75.44 billion devices will be connected to [...] Read more.
According to KPMG, Internet of Things (IoT) technology was among the top 10 technologies of 2019. It has been growing at a significant pace, influencing and disrupting several application domains. It is expected that by 2025, 75.44 billion devices will be connected to the Internet. These devices generate massive amounts of data which, when harnessed using the power of data science (DS) techniques and approaches such as artificial intelligence (AI) and machine learning (ML), can provide significant benefits to economy, society, and people. Examples of areas that are being disrupted are digital marketing and retail commerce services in smart cities. This paper presents a vision for Marketing 4.0 that is underpinned by disruptive digital technologies such as IoT and DS. We present an analysis of the current state of the art in IoT and DS via the three pillars of marketing: namely, people, products, and places. We propose a blueprint architecture for developing a Marketing 4.0 solution that is underpinned by IoT and DS. We conclude the paper by highlighting the open challenges that need to be addressed in order to realise the Marketing 4.0 blueprint architecture, including supporting the integration of IoT data concerning people, products, and places and using DS to make efficient and effective recommendations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Societies and IoT)
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 288 KiB  
Article
Examining the Association between Recent Maternal Incarceration and Adolescents’ Sleep Patterns, Dietary Behaviors, and Physical Activity Involvement
by Qianwei Zhao, Ning He, Flor Avellaneda and Danielle E. Parrish
Societies 2023, 13(4), 98; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc13040098 - 8 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1649
Abstract
Maternal incarceration has become an increasingly common life event among adolescents in the U.S., especially those from disadvantaged backgrounds. Evidence suggests that maternal incarceration is a risk factor for adolescents’ internalizing and externalizing problems. However, its collateral consequences on adolescents’ sleep patterns, dietary [...] Read more.
Maternal incarceration has become an increasingly common life event among adolescents in the U.S., especially those from disadvantaged backgrounds. Evidence suggests that maternal incarceration is a risk factor for adolescents’ internalizing and externalizing problems. However, its collateral consequences on adolescents’ sleep patterns, dietary behaviors and physical activity involvement remain unclear. This study uses the Fragile Family and Child Wellbeing Study dataset (N = 3262) to examine the prevalence of risk behaviors related to sleep, diet, and physical exercise among adolescents with maternal incarceration histories and assess the relationship between maternal incarceration and these behavioral health risks. Findings suggested that a significantly lower proportion of adolescents with maternal incarceration experiences consumed breakfast for at least four days a week than those without maternal incarceration experiences (41.78% vs. 52.76%, p = 0.009), a higher proportion of them consumed fast food for at least two days a week (57.35% vs. 48.61%, p = 0.035), had at least two sweetened drinks per day (71.92% vs. 62.21%, p = 0.018), and reported more days having problems staying asleep per week (1.70 vs. 1.26, p = 0.008). Regression analyses suggested that adolescents with maternal incarceration experiences were more likely to have problems staying asleep (B = 0.44, p = 0.012) than those without maternal incarceration experiences. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Youth Health and Well-Being: Determinative Effects of Environment)
13 pages, 293 KiB  
Article
Composing Worlds: A Portuguese Transdisciplinary Network in Humanities, Health and Well-Being
by Marina Prieto Afonso Lencastre, Rodrigo Sá-Nogueira Saraiva, José Calheiros, Diogo Guedes Vidal, Eduardo Paz Barroso, Álvaro Campelo, Pedro Cunha, Ricardo Jorge Pinto, Susana Magalhães, Teresa Toldy and Rui Estrada
Societies 2023, 13(4), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc13040097 - 4 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1251
Abstract
The project “Composing worlds: humanities, health and well-being in the 21st century” aims to build a network of experts in the humanities, social and health sciences, who think about health and well-being in contemporary technological societies. The relevance of this project is based [...] Read more.
The project “Composing worlds: humanities, health and well-being in the 21st century” aims to build a network of experts in the humanities, social and health sciences, who think about health and well-being in contemporary technological societies. The relevance of this project is based on the growing evidence that most of the problems that the 21st century will face, particularly in the area of health and well-being, relate to the way in which humans connect to the environment, to non-human beings, to different cultures and to technologies. Its main goal is to bring out personal and well-founded ideas on these issues and to reflect on how the humanities may help with difficult environmental, social and technological issues. The methodology used in the first phase of the project consists of an open answer interview, built in a participatory way by the network of experts, and of a thematic analysis of the answers. It is an exploratory research project, which uses thematic analysis to identify the key ideas of each author, and to induce the corresponding main themes. The themes are then organized by semantic correspondence into thematic clusters. The thematic axes are abstracted from these clusters, and they constitute the vectors to be developed in the second phase of the project, by proposing their integration into university curricula, research and intervention of social, cultural and community outreach. Some of these developments are already in place. Full article
31 pages, 4686 KiB  
Article
A Framework to Develop Interventions to Address Labor Exploitation and Trafficking: Integration of Behavioral and Decision Science within a Case Study of Day Laborers
by Matt Kammer-Kerwick, Mayra Yundt-Pacheco, Nayan Vashisht, Kara Takasaki and Noel Busch-Armendariz
Societies 2023, 13(4), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc13040096 - 4 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3318
Abstract
This paper describes a process that integrates behavioral and decision science methods to design and evaluate interventions to disrupt illicit behaviors. We developed this process by extending a framework used to study systems with uncertain outcomes, where only partial information is observable, and [...] Read more.
This paper describes a process that integrates behavioral and decision science methods to design and evaluate interventions to disrupt illicit behaviors. We developed this process by extending a framework used to study systems with uncertain outcomes, where only partial information is observable, and wherein there are multiple participating parties with competing goals. The extended framework that we propose builds from artefactual data collection, thematic analysis, and descriptive analysis, toward predictive modeling and agent-based modeling. We use agent-based modeling to characterize and predict interactions between system participants for the purpose of improving our understanding of interventional targets in a virtual environment before piloting them in the field. We apply our extended framework to an exploratory case study that examines the potential of worker centers as a venue for deploying interventions to address labor exploitation and human trafficking. This case study focuses on reducing wage theft, the most prevalent form of exploitation experienced by day laborers and applies the first three steps of the extended framework. Specifically, the case study makes a preliminary assessment of two types of social interventions designed to disrupt exploitative processes and improve the experiences of day laborers, namely: (1) advocates training day laborers about their workers’ rights and options that they have for addressing wage theft and (2) media campaigns designed to disseminate similar educational messages about workers’ rights and options to address wage theft through broadcast channels. Applying the extended framework to this case study of day laborers at a worker center demonstrates how digital technology could be used to monitor, evaluate, and support collaborations between worker center staff and day laborers. Ideally, these collaborations could be improved to mitigate the risks and costs of wage theft, build trust between worker center stakeholders, and address communication challenges between day laborers and employers, in the context of temporary work. Based on the application of the extended framework to this case study of worker center day laborers, we discuss how next steps in the research framework should prioritize understanding how and why employers make decisions to participate in wage theft and the potential for restorative justice and equity matching as a relationship model for employers and laborers in a well-being economy. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 726 KiB  
Article
Preserving Local Food Traditions: A Hybrid Participatory Approach for Stimulating Transgenerational Dialogue
by Alessia D’Andrea and Arianna D’Ulizia
Societies 2023, 13(4), 95; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc13040095 - 4 Apr 2023
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 4637
Abstract
Local food traditions are an essential part of culture and society, reflecting a community’s history, values, and beliefs. Elders play a major role in passing on local food knowledge to younger generations, ensuring local food traditions and cultural identity do not disappear over [...] Read more.
Local food traditions are an essential part of culture and society, reflecting a community’s history, values, and beliefs. Elders play a major role in passing on local food knowledge to younger generations, ensuring local food traditions and cultural identity do not disappear over time. To preserve these traditions, it is essential to engage older and younger generations of a community in a transgenerational dialogue. From this perspective, the study utilizes a hybrid participatory approach, composed of design thinking and learning-by-doing. Results of the case study underline the effectiveness of the approach in stimulating both the transfer of knowledge, as well as the involvement of younger generations, in the preservation of local food traditions. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

21 pages, 348 KiB  
Article
Discouraging the Demand That Fosters Sex Trafficking: Collaboration through Augmented Intelligence
by Marcel Van der Watt
Societies 2023, 13(4), 94; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc13040094 - 4 Apr 2023
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 4564
Abstract
Augmented intelligence—as the fusion of human and artificial intelligence—is effectively being employed in response to a spectrum of risks and crimes that stem from the online sexual exploitation marketplace. As part of a study that was sponsored by the National Institute of Justice, [...] Read more.
Augmented intelligence—as the fusion of human and artificial intelligence—is effectively being employed in response to a spectrum of risks and crimes that stem from the online sexual exploitation marketplace. As part of a study that was sponsored by the National Institute of Justice, the National Center on Sexual Exploitation has documented 15 tactics that have been used in more than 2650 US cities and counties to deter sex buyers from engaging with prostitution and sex trafficking systems. One of these tactics, technology-based enforcement and deterrence methods, has been used in more than 78 locations in the United States. This paper explores the issue of technology-facilitated trafficking in the online sexual exploitation marketplace and juxtaposes this with the use of augmented intelligence in collaborative responses to these crimes. Illustrative case studies are presented that describe how two organizations employ technology that utilizes the complementary strengths of humans and machines to deter sex buyers at the point of purchase. The human(e) touch of these organizations, combined with artificial intelligence, natural language processing, constructed websites, photos, and mobile technology, show significant potential for operational scaling, and provide a template for consideration by law enforcement agencies, criminal justice systems, and the larger multidisciplinary counter-trafficking community for collaborative replication in other settings. Full article
12 pages, 280 KiB  
Article
The Relative Importance of Family, School, and Leisure Activities for the Mental Wellbeing of Adolescents: The Young-HUNT Study in Norway
by Bodil Elisabeth Valstad Aasan, Monica Lillefjell, Steinar Krokstad, Mari Sylte and Erik Reidar Sund
Societies 2023, 13(4), 93; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc13040093 - 3 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1774
Abstract
It is well-known that the social environment in which children and adolescents live and grow has an impact on their mental wellbeing, though the relative importance of different social contexts may vary. In the present study, we used data from the Young-HUNT4 survey [...] Read more.
It is well-known that the social environment in which children and adolescents live and grow has an impact on their mental wellbeing, though the relative importance of different social contexts may vary. In the present study, we used data from the Young-HUNT4 survey in Norway (n = 8066, age range 13 to 19 years). Linear regression models were used to investigate the relative importance of family cohesion, school climate, and number of leisure activities on psychological distress, loneliness, and life dissatisfaction among Norwegian adolescents by investigating whether the strength of association varied across social contexts for the three outcomes. Additionally, analyses were stratified by parental education to investigate whether the relative importance of family, school, and leisure activities differed between adolescents from families with low and high parental education. We found that family cohesion showed the strongest association with all three outcomes, followed by the school climate and number of leisure activities. These associations did not vary significantly between low and high parental education. Understanding the relative importance of social contexts may be essential in developing effective public health policies and interventions in preventing mental ill health and promoting mental wellbeing in children and adolescents. Full article
11 pages, 817 KiB  
Article
Measuring the Digital Divide: A Neighborhood-Level Analysis of Racial Inequality in Internet Speed during the COVID-19 Pandemic
by Stephen Rodriguez-Elliott and Karl Vachuska
Societies 2023, 13(4), 92; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc13040092 - 3 Apr 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2854
Abstract
Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, internet access has been vital to ensuring individuals can work from home, attend online school and maintain contact with loved ones. While research has already shown that inequalities exist regarding who has access to the internet, [...] Read more.
Since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, internet access has been vital to ensuring individuals can work from home, attend online school and maintain contact with loved ones. While research has already shown that inequalities exist regarding who has access to the internet, less research has used actual internet speed test data to examine neighborhood inequalities in internet access, and even less research has explored trends related to this during the COVID-19 pandemic. Using a dataset containing over 100 million internet speed tests in the United States, we analyze neighborhood-level variation in internet speed. We find that neighborhoods with higher proportions of Black residents tend to have better download speeds but worse upload speeds. Notably, upload speeds are especially important for video communication, which massively proliferated during the pandemic. Further, upload speeds in Black neighborhoods have consistently fallen relative to white neighborhoods during the pandemic. This trend has substantial implications for racial inequality in the digital age. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

20 pages, 3022 KiB  
Article
Official Information on Twitter during the Pandemic in Spain
by Soledad García-García and Raquel Rodríguez-Díaz
Societies 2023, 13(4), 91; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc13040091 - 2 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1977
Abstract
This article shows the use of Twitter that the main official spokespersons of the Spanish government made during the first weeks of the pandemic, with the aim of analyzing how government health campaigns were managed during the exceptional period of the state of [...] Read more.
This article shows the use of Twitter that the main official spokespersons of the Spanish government made during the first weeks of the pandemic, with the aim of analyzing how government health campaigns were managed during the exceptional period of the state of alarm to deal with the COVID-19 pandemic and whether the instructions in terms of institutional management of communication to combat the infodemic set by the World Health Organization (WHO) were followed. This research considers the diffusion of official information in different phases of the first three months of the government’s action (102 days) from the outbreak of COVID-19 in Spain (March 2020) and how it developed its approach to crisis communication using the Twitter accounts of the President of the Spanish government (@sanchezcastejon), front-line leaders and the Ministry of Health (@sanidadgob), the main public institution responsible for health crisis management with the hashtags #EsteVirusLoParamosUnidos and #COVID-19. The results of a sample of 750 tweets reveal how the official sources used a model of online communication with a particular emphasis on informative and motivational tweets from leaders aimed at audiences (media and the general public). At the same time, there is also an instructive function about the pandemic towards audiences (general public and companies), with the Ministry and health authorities playing a key, proactive role in an attempt to achieve informative transparency to mitigate the pandemic and infodemic. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

15 pages, 290 KiB  
Article
“We Can Manage This Corona Disaster”: Psycho-Social Experiences of a Diverse Suburban Middle-Class Community in South Africa: Interview-Based Study
by Susanne Jacobs
Societies 2023, 13(4), 90; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc13040090 - 1 Apr 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1040
Abstract
The study concerns psycho-social domains experienced in a diverse suburban middle-class community, reporting the most positive cases and the deepest suffering, and interactions towards adaptation in stressful situations, such as the Coronavirus pandemic. This qualitative investigation used a descriptive design, with a strengths-based [...] Read more.
The study concerns psycho-social domains experienced in a diverse suburban middle-class community, reporting the most positive cases and the deepest suffering, and interactions towards adaptation in stressful situations, such as the Coronavirus pandemic. This qualitative investigation used a descriptive design, with a strengths-based perspective directing a two-phased method. Through non-probability convenience sampling, 80 participants completed a web-based qualitative questionnaire (phase one). From those, 20 purposely selected volunteers participated in individual, face-to-face, open-ended, and unstructured interviews (phase 2). Themes, interpreted as one set, show how strengths and resilience appear, despite extreme shock and uncertainty. Transitional processes in psycho-social spheres reveal conscious decisions towards dynamic engagement, embracing change, reflecting on life’s value, and regarding novel meaningful priorities in contrast with “before”. Most prominent relational spaces have human connections in the inner (close) and outer (community) circles. Personal, meaningful relationships strengthen social bonds. Appreciative inquiry (AI) assisted in the transitional process to co-construct awareness of the positive core, emotional agility, and pride in embracing and expanding on newly developed strengths. Interpreted inductively, meaning described in abstracted knowledge can be transferred to and integrated with other contexts, identifying new initiatives and trans-, multi-, and inter-disciplinary debates mitigating psycho-social consequences and fostering resilience during disasters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Resilient Communities)
13 pages, 583 KiB  
Article
‘Nothing Gets Realised Anyway’: Adolescents’ Experience of Co-Creating Health Promotion Measures in Municipalities in Norway
by Mari Sylte, Monica Lillefjell, Bodil Elisabeth Valstad Aasan and Kirsti Sarheim Anthun
Societies 2023, 13(4), 89; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc13040089 - 1 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1446
Abstract
In this study, we aimed to explore how adolescents experience co-creating health promotion measures in four municipalities in Norway. We applied a qualitative design with group interviews (n = 9) among forty-nine adolescents participating in projects related to ‘Program for Public Health [...] Read more.
In this study, we aimed to explore how adolescents experience co-creating health promotion measures in four municipalities in Norway. We applied a qualitative design with group interviews (n = 9) among forty-nine adolescents participating in projects related to ‘Program for Public Health Work in Municipalities’ (2017–2027). Additionally, participatory observation of project activities was performed in two municipalities. We conducted a data-driven thematic analysis to analyse the data. The most prominent finding was that the adolescents often expressed feelings of resignation and dissatisfaction. Furthermore, we identified four underlying reasons behind the resignation and dissatisfaction. These were related to long project duration, the experience of not having an influence on the outcome, promises not being kept and lack of information and continuity in their participation. Essential features for meaningful participation were not present, and the findings suggest that the municipalities had limited success in facilitating participation that adolescents perceived as meaningful. The findings indicate that despite good intentions and policies supporting children’s participation, effort placed on implementing such policies in practice is still needed. This study adds knowledge regarding important factors to consider when involving young people in co-creating measures to avoid unintended effects such as disempowering adolescents. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

14 pages, 650 KiB  
Article
Sources of Wellbeing Amongst Saudi Arabian Women Academic Leaders: An Explorative Study
by Rasis Alanazi and Claire Alkouatli
Societies 2023, 13(4), 88; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc13040088 - 1 Apr 2023
Viewed by 1599
Abstract
Although Saudi Arabian women increasingly attain leadership positions in a national reform movement, few studies have examined their wellbeing during this time of cultural change. Contributing to filling this gap, we engaged ten Saudi women academic leaders in semi-structured interviews, inquiring into their [...] Read more.
Although Saudi Arabian women increasingly attain leadership positions in a national reform movement, few studies have examined their wellbeing during this time of cultural change. Contributing to filling this gap, we engaged ten Saudi women academic leaders in semi-structured interviews, inquiring into their perspectives on wellbeing. Three thematic sources of wellbeing—ecological building blocks, spiritual wellsprings, and eudaimonic motivations—highlight that these Saudi women leaders are drawing from varied sources, from skydiving or culturally unique iterations of ‘me time’ to socio-spiritual activities and relationships. The women identified stresses including balancing ageing parents and young children with their high-pressure positions and co-workers with outdated mindsets. Describing their work as social contributions, acts of worship, and charitable offerings of knowledge, the women’s voices counter stereotypes while illuminating culturally specific sources of wellbeing across life domains. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

18 pages, 322 KiB  
Article
Missed Opportunities Due to Gender Bias: A Qualitative Analysis of Microdiscrimination against Female University Students in Spain
by María A. Martínez-Ruiz and María J. Hernández-Amorós
Societies 2023, 13(4), 87; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc13040087 - 31 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3038
Abstract
This study investigates the microdiscrimination that female students experience on their journey through higher education. Using qualitative methodology we interpret, analyse and categorize gender microinequities. The results show that female students are aware of the social naturalization of gender roles, but they in [...] Read more.
This study investigates the microdiscrimination that female students experience on their journey through higher education. Using qualitative methodology we interpret, analyse and categorize gender microinequities. The results show that female students are aware of the social naturalization of gender roles, but they in no way adopt them. Few participants go beyond condemning the fact that stereotypes are deeply rooted in the family and society. They do not generally perceive that the legal, political and economic systems are also structured in such a way as to hinder equal opportunities. Political and institutional measures, therefore, need to be applied to draw attention to the inequalities generated on a macrostructural level by the patriarchal system. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Gender and Social Class Issue in Academic Field)
8 pages, 228 KiB  
Concept Paper
Reading Health and the Reading Health Index
by Jaka Gerčar and Adriaan van der Weel
Societies 2023, 13(4), 86; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc13040086 - 30 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1710
Abstract
This paper introduces Reading Health as a concept to help chart the collective reading habits of the individuals that make up a society—at any aggregate level. Now that the digital medium is transforming reading practices, and particularly the position of paper books and [...] Read more.
This paper introduces Reading Health as a concept to help chart the collective reading habits of the individuals that make up a society—at any aggregate level. Now that the digital medium is transforming reading practices, and particularly the position of paper books and longform reading in society, the authors suggest a thorough examination of prevalent assumptions about reading and a fresh formulation of explicit reading aims for the future. The concept of Reading Health (RH) is paired with a corresponding Reading Health Index (RHI), an instrument to benchmark and keep track of changes in a society’s Reading Health over time. Full article
11 pages, 231 KiB  
Concept Paper
Understanding and Pursuing Labor Trafficking Cases Collaboratively
by Derek J. Marsh
Societies 2023, 13(4), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc13040085 - 30 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2011
Abstract
The disparity between sex and labor federal prosecutions in the United States underscores the significant degree to which labor trafficking investigations and prosecutions have been marginalized since the Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA) was enacted in 2000 in the United States. This article [...] Read more.
The disparity between sex and labor federal prosecutions in the United States underscores the significant degree to which labor trafficking investigations and prosecutions have been marginalized since the Trafficking Victims Protection Act (TVPA) was enacted in 2000 in the United States. This article focuses on the issue of labor trafficking and considers the importance of collaborating with multi-agency, multi-jurisdictional organizations to successfully pursue labor trafficking cases. Labor trafficking in the United States is defined, the importance of executive leadership support is reviewed, and suggestions for stakeholders to proactively identify potential foreign national and domestic labor trafficking cases are explored using the barrier model. A discussion of the trauma experienced by labor trafficking victims is made to further underscore the importance of including service providers in anti-labor trafficking collaborations. Full article
15 pages, 2375 KiB  
Article
Digital Competence of Special Education Teachers: An Analysis from the Voices of Members of School Management Teams
by Marta Montenegro-Rueda and José Fernández-Cerero
Societies 2023, 13(4), 84; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc13040084 - 29 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1777
Abstract
The use of digital technologies is one of the fundamental resources to favour the inclusion of students with special educational needs. However, recent studies continue to show a lack of use by teachers during the development of their teaching practices, especially in the [...] Read more.
The use of digital technologies is one of the fundamental resources to favour the inclusion of students with special educational needs. However, recent studies continue to show a lack of use by teachers during the development of their teaching practices, especially in the field of special education. This article aims to analyse the level of digital competence of special education teachers through the perceptions of the school management team in Andalusia (Spain). The information is obtained through interviews with 62 members of school management teams. The results suggest that the low level of training and digital competence of special education teachers is the reason why they do not make use of digital tools in their teaching practice, due to a lack of teacher awareness, as well as the non-existent or insufficient development of training activities that hinder such training. In conclusion, there is a need to improve the professional development of special education teachers in digital competencies, as well as greater institutional involvement through strategic plans that promote such training. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

26 pages, 1157 KiB  
Article
Xenophobia and Hate Speech towards Refugees on Social Media: Reinforcing Causes, Negative Effects, Defense and Response Mechanisms against That Speech
by Yasmin Aldamen
Societies 2023, 13(4), 83; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc13040083 - 29 Mar 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4303
Abstract
This study aims to recognize the possible role of social media in forming xenophobia and hate speech against Syrian refugees and to understand the reinforcing causes and negative effects of that speech on the refugees, as well as the refugees’ response mechanisms against [...] Read more.
This study aims to recognize the possible role of social media in forming xenophobia and hate speech against Syrian refugees and to understand the reinforcing causes and negative effects of that speech on the refugees, as well as the refugees’ response mechanisms against that speech. A mixed approach was used in this study. In addition to a questionnaire tool that was used to collect data, focus group discussions were conducted to support the obtained data. The study used a statistically representative sample of Syrian refugees who live in Turkey and Jordan. The participants see the negative representation of their image via social media as leading to hatred towards them. The findings showed that there are some causes that reinforce xenophobic speech, such as otherization and demonization of refugees, by the negative representation and spreading of fake news on social media, which are published continuously. Moreover, gatekeepers have a role in promoting negative representation by approving xenophobic speech transmission without filtering or ethical control. The results also showed that the negative representation containing hate speech contributes to more negative effects on the refugees, such as psychological effects, as a sense of hatred towards refugees is created in the host country, and the effect of changing the feelings of the public from empathy to compassion fatigue concluding to hatred towards those refugees. Furthermore, the results showed that the Syrian refugees follow different defense mechanisms against xenophobia and hate speech against them published and circulated through social media platforms. The participants were divided into two main categories; the first one is those who prefer replying, not being silent, and defending the refugees, and the second category is those who prefer keeping silent. The first category of refugees stated that they do not accept keeping silent and they prefer to reply using logical, emotional, or defensive and offensive ways to bad comments against Syrian refugees in general. While the second category claimed that either they do not have time to reply or they sometimes agree that it was only a reaction to the behavior of some individual refugees. Some of them explained that they are afraid of being subjected to more bad comments and negative reactions against them. When they encounter aggressive comments and see that such views represent the majority, they prefer to keep silent to avoid being attacked. This is understood within the framework of the spiral of silence theory, where refugees hide their opinions, views, and preferences when they think that they fall within a minority group. They fear social isolation through social media. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

11 pages, 295 KiB  
Article
Correlation between Suicidal Ideation and Addiction to Various Social Media Platforms in a Sample of Young Adults: The Benefits of Physical Activity
by Liliana Mendes, Levi Leonido and Elsa Morgado
Societies 2023, 13(4), 82; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc13040082 - 29 Mar 2023
Viewed by 3393
Abstract
The rise in suicide death rates has become a major public health concern, which has led to increased addiction to internet and social media platforms. Despite the limited research available on the relationship between suicidal ideation and addiction to social media such as [...] Read more.
The rise in suicide death rates has become a major public health concern, which has led to increased addiction to internet and social media platforms. Despite the limited research available on the relationship between suicidal ideation and addiction to social media such as Instagram and TikTok, this study aims to examine this connection. The study design is cross-sectional, quantitative, comparative, and correlational, with a quasi-experimental approach. The sample includes 315 young adults aged 20 to 30 who were surveyed through the administration of the Suicidal Ideation Questionnaire (SIQ) and the Social Media Disorder Scale-Short Form (SMDS-SF) surveys. The results showed differences in addiction levels based on the type of social media, specifically between TikTok and other social media platforms. The study found that female participants who engage in physical activity (PA) four times a week had lower levels of suicidal ideation than those who did not; there were no differences compared to male participants. This suggests that PA may be a potential strategy for preventing and reducing suicide-related phenomena. The results also indicate that addiction to social media was a statistically significant predictor of suicidal ideation, after controlling for gender and PA. Full article
13 pages, 1162 KiB  
Article
Disinformation and Verification in a Digital Society: An Analysis of Strategies and Policies Applied in the European Regional TV Broadcasters of the CIRCOM Network
by Jose Rúas-Araújo, Talia Rodríguez-Martelo and Julia Fontenla-Pedreira
Societies 2023, 13(4), 81; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc13040081 - 27 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1576
Abstract
The recent COVID-19 health crisis has shone a spotlight on disinformation as the circulation of false information became more and more prominent. What the World Health Organization (WHO) has defined as an ‘infodemic’ poses a great risk for democracies and for society in [...] Read more.
The recent COVID-19 health crisis has shone a spotlight on disinformation as the circulation of false information became more and more prominent. What the World Health Organization (WHO) has defined as an ‘infodemic’ poses a great risk for democracies and for society in general. In this context, public television channels, with their regional scope, actively participate in the fight against misinformation. This research aims to identify and classify the different verification initiatives and technological tools, as well as the different strategies and codes used in fact-checking tasks by European broadcasters belonging to the CIRCOM network. The methodology undertakes an exploratory approach and employs a questionnaire that is applied to a sample of the members of the network. Managers and professionals with executive profiles were asked about the management, operation and strategies used in the verification process. In light of the results obtained, it can be concluded that the current verification processes are based on human efforts, rather than technological tools, amounting to a total dependence on content curation by the writing teams in the newsroom. Thus, it is evidenced that in most cases, there is neither a specific department for verification, nor sufficient resources, despite the fact that all those surveyed regard disinformation as a priority issue, a threat to democratic integrity and a responsibility of public service media. Full article
Show Figures

Figure 1

13 pages, 1083 KiB  
Article
Keeping the Knives Sharp: Socioeconomic Innovation in the Artisan Sector of Butchery in Italy
by Michele Filippo Fontefrancesco and Andrea Costa
Societies 2023, 13(4), 80; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc13040080 - 26 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1253
Abstract
This paper investigates the socioeconomic and cultural transformation in food artisan entrepreneurship due to the complexification of the food sector and ongoing globalisation through a case study conducted among the artisan butchers of Genoa, Italy. The butcher’s trade has enjoyed centrality and social [...] Read more.
This paper investigates the socioeconomic and cultural transformation in food artisan entrepreneurship due to the complexification of the food sector and ongoing globalisation through a case study conducted among the artisan butchers of Genoa, Italy. The butcher’s trade has enjoyed centrality and social and cultural promotion that made butcher shops key places in the urban foodscape. However, this centrality is challenged by both new consumption trends and the imposition of large-scale organised distribution as the fulcrum of mass food trade. These changes raise the question about the future of the profession and its knowledge. This paper addresses this question by investigating the structure of the butcher’s business and the practices involved in knowledge creation and transmission, exploring the factor of change and its effects on the butcher’s profession, as well as the very foundational aspects of the artisanship. The research suggests that artisanship should be read as a form of entrepreneurship capable of placing and moving the craftsman within the global social hierarchy of a community. Therefore, the preservation of artisanship and its sociocultural complexity cannot be limited to the mere preservation of gastronomic forms and techniques. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Socioeconomic Innovation in the Context of Globalization)
Show Figures

Figure 1

10 pages, 251 KiB  
Article
Association between Community Attachment and Prescription Drug Misuse among American Indian Adolescents in Arizona
by Chao-Kai Huang, Shiyou Wu, Flavio F. Marsiglia and Ana Paola Campos
Societies 2023, 13(4), 79; https://doi.org/10.3390/soc13040079 - 23 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1405
Abstract
Prescription drug misuse (PDM) has become a major health issue in the U.S. over the past decade. PDM affects all ethnic and racial groups; however, there is a higher prevalence among American Indian (AI) youths, and there is scarce information on the risk [...] Read more.
Prescription drug misuse (PDM) has become a major health issue in the U.S. over the past decade. PDM affects all ethnic and racial groups; however, there is a higher prevalence among American Indian (AI) youths, and there is scarce information on the risk and protective factors driving this behavior. Using the Arizona Youth Survey 2018, we analyzed data from 2494 students who self-identified as AI (aged 13–18 years, 47.31% male). Logistic regression models were used to examine the association between community attachment with lifetime and the past-30-days PDM. Community attachment was negatively associated with AI youths’ lifetime PDM (OR = 0.78, 95% CI [0.65, 0.92]); however, it was not significant for the past-30-days users (OR = 0.91, 95% CI [0.72, 1.15]). For both lifetime and past-30-days users, a common protective factor was close friends’ negative perceptions of PDM, while a common risk factor included siblings’ prescription drug use and ease of access to substances. Lifetime users’ drug-free closest friends were also protective. The findings support similar community-oriented approaches showing a cumulative rather than immediate effect, and past-30-days PMD youths were strongly influenced by peers and family. PDM risk and protective factors can advance knowledge about AI youths’ social and cultural determinants of health and influence future prevention interventions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Youth Health and Well-Being: Determinative Effects of Environment)
Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop