Next Issue
Volume 9, October
Previous Issue
Volume 9, March
 
 
Infectious Disease Reports is published by MDPI from Volume 12 Issue 3 (2020). Previous articles were published by another publisher in Open Access under a CC-BY (or CC-BY-NC-ND) licence, and they are hosted by MDPI on mdpi.com as a courtesy and upon agreement with PAGEPress.

Infect. Dis. Rep., Volume 9, Issue 2 (May 2017) – 7 articles

  • Issues are regarded as officially published after their release is announced to the table of contents alert mailing list.
  • You may sign up for e-mail alerts to receive table of contents of newly released issues.
  • PDF is the official format for papers published in both, html and pdf forms. To view the papers in pdf format, click on the "PDF Full-text" link, and use the free Adobe Reader to open them.
Order results
Result details
Section
Select all
Export citation of selected articles as:
1055 KiB  
Case Report
Disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex in an Adolescent with Perinatally-Acquired HIV Infection
by Nurul I. Hariadi and R. Alexander Blackwood
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2017, 9(2), 6884; https://doi.org/10.4081/idr.2017.6884 - 15 Jun 2017
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 499
Abstract
Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is the most frequent nontuberculous mycobacteria implicated in opportunistic infections that define acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. With highly active antiretroviral therapy, disseminated MAC (dMAC) has become a rare entity. This unique case of dMAC was diagnosed in an adolescent with [...] Read more.
Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is the most frequent nontuberculous mycobacteria implicated in opportunistic infections that define acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. With highly active antiretroviral therapy, disseminated MAC (dMAC) has become a rare entity. This unique case of dMAC was diagnosed in an adolescent with newly diagnosed perinatally- acquired HIV infection whose initial CD4 cell count was severely depleted and viral load was extremely high. While maximized treatment regimen had not been able to control his dMAC, improvement was noted when granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) was added. GM-CSF should be considered as an adjunctive therapy in patients with refractory dMAC. Full article
608 KiB  
Brief Report
Antiretroviral Therapy Containing Raltegravir to Prevent Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV in Infected Pregnant Women
by Diego M. Cecchini, Marina G. Martinez, Laura M. Morganti and Claudia G. Rodriguez
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2017, 9(2), 7017; https://doi.org/10.4081/idr.2017.7017 - 14 Jun 2017
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 440
Abstract
We conducted a retrospective study in a general hospital in Buenos Aires, Argentina (2009-2015) aimed at evaluating outcomes in HIV-infected pregnant women (HIPW), who were prescribed raltegravir (RAL)- containing antiretroviral therapy (ART). A total of 239 HIPW were enrolled in our study; among [...] Read more.
We conducted a retrospective study in a general hospital in Buenos Aires, Argentina (2009-2015) aimed at evaluating outcomes in HIV-infected pregnant women (HIPW), who were prescribed raltegravir (RAL)- containing antiretroviral therapy (ART). A total of 239 HIPW were enrolled in our study; among them 31 received RAL (12.9%) at different clinical stages: i) intensification (INS): addition of RAL to current ART because of detectable antepartum viral load, 13 (41.9%); ii) late presenter (LP): standard ART + RAL as fourth drug, 15 (48.4%); iii) treatment of resistant-HIV: 3 (9.7%). Median gestational age at RAL initiation was 34 weeks and median exposure was 30 days. In INS-group, median viral load (VL) decrease was 1.48 log10. In LPgroup, median VL decline was 2.15 log10. No clinical adverse events or maternal intolerance attributable to RAL were observed. Elective cesarean section was done in 51.7%; mild elevation of transaminases was observed in 35% of neonates. No vertical transmission was documented. Full article
1637 KiB  
Article
Epidemiology and Clinical Complication Patterns of Influenza A (H1N1 Virus) in Northern Saudi Arabia
by Kheder Mohamed Altayep, Hussain Gadelkarim Ahmed, Amjad Tallaa a Tallaa, Ahmad Soud Alzayed, Aqeel Jazzaa Alshammari and Ayman Talla Ali Talla
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2017, 9(2), 6930; https://doi.org/10.4081/idr.2017.6930 - 8 Jun 2017
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 616
Abstract
The aim of the present study is to describe epidemiologic and clinical presentation, clinical complications and outcomes of patients diagnosed with influenza A infection (H1N1) during a one-year period. We retrospectively investigated 300 patients with influenza-like clinical presentation during the period January 2015 [...] Read more.
The aim of the present study is to describe epidemiologic and clinical presentation, clinical complications and outcomes of patients diagnosed with influenza A infection (H1N1) during a one-year period. We retrospectively investigated 300 patients with influenza-like clinical presentation during the period January 2015 − January 2016 in King Khalid Hospital, Saudi Arabia. Fifty-four patients out of 300 (18%) were diagnosed with H1N1 virus infection; their age ranged from 7 months to 85 years, with a mean age of 25 years. Among them, 34 (63%) were males and 20 (37%) were females, with a M:F ratio of 1.70. The findings of this study show the great spread of influenza A outside the main holy cities of Saudi Arabia, and underline the absolute need for strict prevention strategies including vaccinations, public awareness and hygiene measures. Full article
625 KiB  
Review
Resistance to Colistin in Klebsiella pneumoniae: A 4.0 Strain?
by Guido Granata and Nicola Petrosillo
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2017, 9(2), 7104; https://doi.org/10.4081/idr.2017.7104 - 31 May 2017
Cited by 20 | Viewed by 698
Abstract
The global rise of multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria represents an increasing threat to patient safety. From the first observation of a carbapenem-resistant gramnegative bacteria a global spread of extendedspectrum beta-lactamases and carbapenemases producing Klebsiella pneumoniae has been observed. Treatment options for multidrug-resistant K. pneumoniae [...] Read more.
The global rise of multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria represents an increasing threat to patient safety. From the first observation of a carbapenem-resistant gramnegative bacteria a global spread of extendedspectrum beta-lactamases and carbapenemases producing Klebsiella pneumoniae has been observed. Treatment options for multidrug-resistant K. pneumoniae are actually limited to combination therapy with some aminoglycosides, tigecycline and to older antimicrobial agents. Unfortunately, the prevalence of colistin-resistant and tigecycline- resistant K. pneumoniae is increasing globally. Infection due to colistin-resistant K. pneumoniae represents an independent risk factor for mortality. Resistance to colistin in K. pneumoniae may be multifactorial, as it is mediated by chromosomal genes or plasmids. The emergence of transmissible, plasmidmediated colistin resistance is an alarming finding. The absence of new agents effective against resistant Gram-negative pathogens means that enhanced surveillance, compliance with infection prevention procedures, and antimicrobial stewardship programs will be required to limit the spread of colistinresistant K. pneumoniae. Full article
649 KiB  
Article
School-Based Health Education in Yucatan, Mexico about the Chikungunya virus and Mosquito Illness Prevention
by Monica Seungah Choo and R. Alexander Blackwood
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2017, 9(2), 6894; https://doi.org/10.4081/idr.2017.6894 - 31 May 2017
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 708
Abstract
The Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has been rapidly spreading throughout Latin America, utilizing pre-existing vectors to infiltrate the immunologically naïve populations. With the current rise of the Zika Virus, there is an urgent need for more rigorous vector control efforts to prevent further Zika [...] Read more.
The Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) has been rapidly spreading throughout Latin America, utilizing pre-existing vectors to infiltrate the immunologically naïve populations. With the current rise of the Zika Virus, there is an urgent need for more rigorous vector control efforts to prevent further Zika breakout. We designed a schoolbased education module on CHIKV and mosquito prevention and presented it to the local students of ages of 6-18 in a rural town called Sudzal in Yucatan, Mexico. We distributed questionnaires before and after education to test the students’ knowledge of CHIKV and mosquito prevention. Chisquared test was performed to determine the efficacy of the presentation in increasing their knowledge. The education presentation has proven to effectively educate the local residents in several critical methods of mosquito prevention, increasing the average test scores by 67% post-education. These include applying repellent, staying hydrated during recuperation, and cleaning indoor water containers to eliminate breeding sites (P<0.001). Furthermore, the questionnaire captured the residents’ behavioral patterns regarding CHIKV and mosquito prevention and identified cultural, ecological, and socioeconomic factors hindering effective implementation of vector control. Full article
641 KiB  
Case Report
Septic Thrombophlebitis with Persistent Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia and de novo Resistance to Vancomycin and Daptomycin
by Yael Koton, Zafrir Or and Naiel Bisharat
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2017, 9(2), 7008; https://doi.org/10.4081/idr.2017.7008 - 30 Jan 2017
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 470
Abstract
Persistent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia is associated with significant risk of mortality, especially when it occurs while on appropriate antimicrobial therapy. We herein describe an unusual case of a patient with prosthetic aortic tissue valve, who suffered from central venous catheter related [...] Read more.
Persistent methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia is associated with significant risk of mortality, especially when it occurs while on appropriate antimicrobial therapy. We herein describe an unusual case of a patient with prosthetic aortic tissue valve, who suffered from central venous catheter related MRSA bacteremia with septic thrombus formation in the superior vena cava. MRSA bacteremia persisted despite removal of the catheter and appropriate antimicrobial therapy including vancomycin, rifampin, and daptomycin. Subsequently, the MRSA strain exhibited de novo resistance to vancomycin, rifampin and daptomycin. Eventually, salvage combination therapy with high dose daptomycin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole was successful and achieved clearance of MRSA bacteremia. The case illustrates the growing complexity of treating MRSA infections. Full article
583 KiB  
Article
Epidemiological Distribution of Rodents as Potent Reservoirs for Infectious Diseases in the Provinces of Mazandaran, Gilan and Golestan, Northern Iran
by Behzad Esfandiari, Hossein Nahrevanian, Mohammad Reza Pourshafie, Mohammad Mehdi Gouya, Pejvak Khaki, Ehsan Mostafavi, Jamshid Darvish and Hamed Hanifi
Infect. Dis. Rep. 2017, 9(2), 6900; https://doi.org/10.4081/idr.2017.6900 - 30 Jan 2017
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 879
Abstract
Rodents are mammals that comprise more than 2000 species and approximately 30 families. There are many morphological and ecological differences among them as variations in their shape, size, weight and habitat. In addition to significant economic losses, rodents have a major role in [...] Read more.
Rodents are mammals that comprise more than 2000 species and approximately 30 families. There are many morphological and ecological differences among them as variations in their shape, size, weight and habitat. In addition to significant economic losses, rodents have a major role in the dissemination of infectious diseases caused by viruses, bacteria, parasites or other micro-organisms. Rodents are important reservoirs of diseases which have been observed in many cities of Iran provinces especially along Caspian Sea border to Alborz Mountain. The aim of this study is to assess the geographical distribution of rodents in three provinces of northern part of Iran as reservoir of potential endemic infectious diseases. Rodents in 10 major parts of each of the three provinces of Mazandaran, Gilan and Golestan, northern Iran were collected and a total of 404 rodents were trapped alive. They were determined by the key characteristics such as gender, genus, species, different locations and topological situation. Statistical analysis was performed to characterize the study sample and to correlate all variables and parameters. The distribution frequencies of three, five and six genera of rodents were identified in Mazandaran, Gilan and Golestan provinces respectively. The overall distribution frequency of eight genera of rodents in the three provinces were identified as Rattus (R.) norvegicus (67.3%), R. rattus (13.6%), Apodemus sylvaticus (13.9%), Arvicola (1%), Mus musculus (0.3%), Nesokia indica (2.5%), Cricetulus migrates (0.7%) and Rhombomys opimus (0.7%). The results of this study determined the geographic distribution of the rodents in the three northern provinces of Iran. It is indicated the association of various distribution and diversity of rodents with provincial location. The overall distribution frequency of eight genera of rodents was recognized in the above three provinces geographical locations. This study confirms epidemiological distribution of various rodents as potent reservoirs for infectious diseases, such as leptospirosis, salmonellosis, tularemia, leishmaniasis, etc. in the three provinces. Full article
Previous Issue
Next Issue
Back to TopTop