# Optimization of the Winding Layer Structure of High-Pressure Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels

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## Abstract

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## 1. Introduction

## 2. Materials and Methods

#### 2.1. Liner Structure and Material Performance

#### 2.2. Thickness of Composite Layer

#### 2.2.1. COPV Cylindrical Section

_{0}: the radius of the COPV polar hole in mm; $R$: the radius of the cylindrical part in mm; ${P}_{b}$: the burst pressure in MPa;${h}_{A}$: the thickness of the annular layers in mm; ${h}_{H}$: the thickness of the helical layers in mm;$\sigma $: the fiber strength in MPa; K: the fiber strength utilization rate—0.5 ≤ K < 1; N

_{a}: number of annular fiber layers; N

_{h}: number of helical fiber layers.

_{a}and N

_{h}are taken as the minimum even number greater than the calculation result. For example, if the number of annular fiber winding layers calculated in this paper is 24.4, then N

_{a}is taken as 26, and the ratio of the annular fiber layer thickness to the helical fiber layer thickness is written as λ, so λ = N

_{a}/N

_{h}. According to the actual measurement, the single layer thickness (m) of the annular and helical winding fibers (dry yarn) during winding is 0.18 mm.

#### 2.2.2. COPV Dome Section

_{A}: the thickness of the fiber layer in the cylindrical section; r

_{0}: the radius of the polar hole; R: the outer radius of the cylindrical section of the liner; r: the radius of the concentric circle of the dome.

#### 2.3. Design Pressure

#### 2.4. Manufacturing Method

#### 2.5. Finite Element Analysis and Performance Testing

## 3. Results and Discussion

#### 3.1. Effect of Winding Thickness on Burst Pressure

_{A}and h

_{H}) are only functions of the fiber strength utilization rate (K). The thickness of the wound fiber layer can be adjusted by adjusting the value of the fiber strength utilization rate (K).

#### 3.2. Effect of Ratio of Annular/Helical Fiber on Bursting Pressure of COPV

_{c}≤ 90°) (1), we can know that α

_{c}is an increasing function of $\frac{{r}_{0}}{R}$, and when $\frac{{r}_{0}}{R}$ is smaller, the winding angle α

_{c}is also smaller. According to Formula (8), λ is a decreasing function of α

_{c}. When the winding angle (α

_{c}) is smaller, the ratio (λ) is larger. According to Formulas (1) and (8), it can be concluded that when the polar hole radius (r

_{0}) (the polar hole radius in this paper is the COPV mouth radius) is constant, λ increases with the COPV radius (R); that is, the proportion of annular fiber should be larger.

_{n}, n = 1, 2, 3…), R

_{n}also increases with the increase in the winding layer thickness, as shown in Figure 8. In this paper, the approximate geodesic winding with small angle is adopted, and the radius of the polar hole (r

_{0}) can be considered as a constant value. Therefore, according to the above conclusion, the ratio (λ) should also be larger. It can be seen that when preparing COPVs with large thickness, the ratio (λ) can be appropriately improved to meet the requirements of netting theory.

#### 3.3. Effect of Ratio of Annular/Helical Fiber on Fatigue Property of COPVs

## 4. Conclusions

- According to the netting theory formula, the design parameters of the 70 MPa COPV were preliminarily determined and the failure location of the COPV was predicted by ANSYS finite element analysis method.
- It is found that the measured performance of the COPV is very different from the design goal, and the effect is minor when the thickness of the winding layer is increased. By analyzing the failure mode, the ratio of annular fiber to helical fiber is further adjusted, which greatly improves the bearing capacity and fatigue performance of the COPV. When the number of winding layers is 48 and the ratio of annular fiber to helical fiber is 3.0, the performance of the COPV is optimal.
- The method is validated by deducing the netting theory formula. However, further study is needed to determine how to use the finite element simulation method to further design and predict the performance of COPVs with large thickness.

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Institutional Review Board Statement

## Informed Consent Statement

## Data Availability Statement

## Conflicts of Interest

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Project | E_{1} (GPa) | E_{2} (GPa) | G_{12} (GPa) | V_{12} | V_{23} | X_{t} (MPa) |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

6061 AL | 70 | 70 | 26.9 | 0.3 | 0.3 | 262 |

T700SC/epoxy | 154 | 114 | 7.09 | 0.33 | 0.49 | 2300 |

T700SC | 230 | - | - | - | - | 4900 |

NO. | Total Number of Winding Layers | K | n_{a} | n_{z} | λ | Maximum Stress, MPa | Mean Burst Pressure, MPa |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

1# | 42 | 0.75 | 28 | 14 | 2.0 | 2189.46 | 138 |

2# | 48 | 0.65 | 32 | 16 | 2.0 | 1977.26 | 143 |

NO. | Total Number of Winding Layers | K | n_{a} | n_{z} | λ | Maximum Stress, MPa | Mean Burst Pressure, MPa |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

2# | 48 | 0.65 | 32 | 16 | 2.0 | 1977.26 | 143 |

3# | 48 | 0.65 | 34 | 14 | 2.4 | 1716.77 | 155 |

4# | 48 | 0.65 | 36 | 12 | 3.0 | 1614.55 | 170 |

5# | 48 | 0.65 | 38 | 10 | 3.8 | 1935.90 | 158 |

NO. | Total Number of Winding Layers | λ | Failure Location | Failure Mode | Fatigue Life Cycle |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

2# | 48 | 2.0 | cylindrical section | longitudinal crack | 2852 |

3# | 48 | 2.4 | cylindrical section | longitudinal crack | 5520 |

4# | 48 | 3.0 | cylindrical section | longitudinal crack | 10,122 |

5# | 48 | 3.8 | cylindrical section | circular crack | 7625 |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Di, C.; Zhu, B.; Guo, X.; Yu, J.; Zhao, Y.; Qiao, K. Optimization of the Winding Layer Structure of High-Pressure Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels. *Materials* **2023**, *16*, 2713.
https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16072713

**AMA Style**

Di C, Zhu B, Guo X, Yu J, Zhao Y, Qiao K. Optimization of the Winding Layer Structure of High-Pressure Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels. *Materials*. 2023; 16(7):2713.
https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16072713

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Di, Chengrui, Bo Zhu, Xiangji Guo, Junwei Yu, Yanbin Zhao, and Kun Qiao. 2023. "Optimization of the Winding Layer Structure of High-Pressure Composite Overwrapped Pressure Vessels" *Materials* 16, no. 7: 2713.
https://doi.org/10.3390/ma16072713