Effect of Aggregate Type on Properties of Ultra-High-Strength Concrete
- White Portland cement CEM I 52.5R (c);
- Fine aggregate—pit sand, granite, and basalt with fractions of 0.125–0.25 mm, 0.25–0.5 mm, 0.5–1.0 mm and 1–2 mm;
- Fly ash (fa);
- Microsilica (ms);
- Polycarboxylate admixture;
- Pure laboratory pipeline water (w).
3.1. Mix Proportions
3.2. Concrete Mix Consistency Testing
3.3. Testing of Compressive Strength of Concrete
3.4. Testing of Flexural Strength of Concrete
- fcf—the flexural strength of the concrete (MPa);
- F—the maximum load (N);
- l = 120—the distance between the supporting rollers (mm);
- d1 = 40, d2 = 40—the lateral dimensions of the specimen (mm).
3.5. Water Absorption by Hardened Concrete
- wi—the parameter of water absorbability by hardened concrete in the i-th sample (%);
- —the mass of the i-th sample after 20 h of curing (g);
- —the mass of the i-th sample after 28 days of curing (g).
4.1. Concrete Mix Consistency
4.2. Compressive Strength of Concrete
4.3. Flexural Strength of Concrete
4.4. Water Absorption
- Low cement consumption;
- No need to use special curing conditions;
- Use of waste additives such as fly ash;
- The consistency that enables the use of concrete in an element with a complex reinforcement system.
- The use of basalt aggregate in a concrete mix made with CEM I 52.5 R Portland cement below 600 kg/m3 and with the addition of microsilica and fly ash allowed concrete with a compressive strength exceeding 150 MPa, while maintaining S3 consistency to be obtaining. Obtaining such a level of compressive strength in concrete did not require special care conditions or the addition of fibers.
- The water demand of an aggregate and its quantity affected the consistency of a concrete mix. Increasing the amount of crushed aggregate in a concrete mix reduced its plasticity.
- In the recipe obtained for very-high-strength concrete based on sand or granite as a natural fine aggregate, changing the aggregate to basalt increased the compressive strength of concrete by 28%, which allowed it to be classified as ultra-high-strength concrete.
- Concrete made from sand had the lowest compressive strength among all of the concrete mixes analyzed. The achieved strength allowed it to be classified as very-high-strength concrete. The SC1 concrete mix was characterized by the highest degree of plasticization. The flexural strength was almost 14% of the compressive strength of the concrete. This concrete was characterized by the lowest water absorption rate.
- Concrete made based on granite aggregate was characterized by the lowest degree of mix liquefaction and the lowest early-age compressive strength. However, after 28 days, the GC1 concrete had a compressive strength 9% higher than that of the SC1 concrete. The flexural strength of the GC1 concrete was 13% of the compressive strength, and of the GC2 concrete—of 14.5%. This concrete was characterized by the highest water absorption rate, which was caused by the absorption of granite aggregate.
- Concrete made from basalt aggregate was characterized by the highest strength throughout the entire maturation period. This applied to both compressive and flexural strength. The strength of the BC1 concrete allowed it to be classified as ultra-high-strength concrete. The liquefaction of the mix was slightly lower than the consistency of the concrete mix made from sand. Water absorption rate was greater than that of concrete made from sand by no more than 25%.
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Conflicts of Interest
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|kg/m3||% c||kg/m3||% c||kg/m3||% c||kg/m3||% c||kg/m3||% c|
|Fly ash (fa)||92||16.7||92||16.7||87||16.7||98||16.7||92||16.7|
|Microsilica fume (ms)||74||13.3||74||13.3||69||13.3||79||13.3||74||13.3|
|Concrete Mix Series||Cone Fall (mm)||Class of Consistency|
|Concrete Mix Series||Flexural Strength|
|Flexural Strength Mean Value|
|Flexural Strength Root Mean Square Error|
|i = 1||i = 2||i = 3|
|Concrete Mix Series||Flexural Strength |
|Flexural Strength Mean Value|
|Flexural Strength Root Mean Square Error|
|i = 1||i = 2||i = 3|
|kg/m3||% c||kg/m3||kg/m3||% c||kg/m3|
|Cement CEM I 52.5 R||800.0||100.0||↑ 44 %||675.0||100.0||↑ 22 %|
|Microsilica||200.0||25.0||↑ 171%||45||6.7||↓ 39 %|
|Sand 0–2 mm||1136.0 1||142.0||↓ 13 %||864.5||128.1||↑ 7.6 % 2|
|Basalt 1–3 mm||0||0||-||576.3||85.4||↓ 15 % 3|
|Water||176.0||22.0||↑ 0.3 %||180.0||26.7||↑ 2.3 %|
|Admixtures||40.0||5.0||↑ 456 %||10.8||1.6||↑ 26 %|
|w/c||0.27||↓ 18 %||0.28||↓ 15 %|
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Szcześniak, A.; Siwiński, J.; Stolarski, A. Effect of Aggregate Type on Properties of Ultra-High-Strength Concrete. Materials 2022, 15, 5072. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15145072
Szcześniak A, Siwiński J, Stolarski A. Effect of Aggregate Type on Properties of Ultra-High-Strength Concrete. Materials. 2022; 15(14):5072. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15145072Chicago/Turabian Style
Szcześniak, Anna, Jarosław Siwiński, and Adam Stolarski. 2022. "Effect of Aggregate Type on Properties of Ultra-High-Strength Concrete" Materials 15, no. 14: 5072. https://doi.org/10.3390/ma15145072