Health Risk Assessment of Informal Food Vendors: A Comparative Study in Johannesburg, South Africa
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Hazard Assessment
2.2. Exposure Assessment
2.3. Risk Characterization and Consequences Assessment
3.1. Hazard Assessment
3.1.1. Vendor Market Description
3.1.2. Hazard Identification
3.2. Informal Food Vendor’s Demographic Information
3.3. Exposure Assessment
3.3.1. Static Air Pollution Exposures at Indoor and Outdoor Stalls
3.3.2. Workplace Exposure Related Activities and Personal Behaviors
Work Location and Type of Vendor
Water Access and Hand Hygiene Practices
Respiratory Protective Equipment (RPE) Usage
Health and Safety Training
3.3.3. Personal Behaviors and Other Exposures
Air Pollution Exposure at Home
3.3.4. Work Duration and Frequency of Exposure
3.4. Prevalence of Respiratory Symptoms and Diseases
3.5. Risk Characterisation and Consequencess Assessment
3.5.1. Air Pollutants Comparison to Relevant Exposure Limits or Standards
3.5.2. The Association between Identified Risk Factors to Respiratory Health Symptoms Amongst Informal Food Vendors
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
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|Demographic Characteristics||Gender||Total No = 617|
|Male = n (%)||Female = n (%)|
|Gender||275 (45%)||342 (55%)||617 (100%)|
|South African||137 (41%)||196 (59%)||333(54%)|
|Non-south African||138 (49%)||146 (51%)||284 (46%)|
|Age Groups (years)|
|18–29||48 (51%)||47 (49%)||95 (15%)|
|30–39||125 (46%)||148 (54%)||273 (44%)|
|40–49||88 (44%)||111 (56%)||199 (32%)|
|50>||14 (28%)||36 (72%)||50 (8%)|
|Never attended||15 (43%)||20 (57%)||35 (6%)|
|Primary||89 (54%)||77 (46%)||166 (27%)|
|Secondary||160 41%)||231 (59%)||391 (63%)|
|Tertiary/ Higher||11 (44%)||14 (56%)||25 (4%)|
|Air Pollutant||Indoor (Site A)||Outdoor (Site B)||South African Standards||International Standards|
|PM2.5 (mg/m3)||0.01 mg/m3||0.07 mg/m3||HCA, 2021||5 mg/m3||8 h||WHO, 2021||15 μg/m3||24 h|
|SO2 (μg/m3)||7 μg/m3||17 μg/m3||NEMA, 2004||125 μg/m3||24 h||WHO, 2021||40 μg/m3||24 h|
|NO2 (μg/m3)||55 μg/m3||159 μg/m3||NEMA, 2004||200 μg/m3||1 h||WHO, 2021||200 μg/m3||1 h|
|CO2 (ppm)||366 ppm||397 ppm||HCA, 2021||5000 ppm||8 h||NIOSH, 1994||5000 ppm||8 h|
|CO (ppm)||0.0 ppm||0.0 ppm||HCA, 2021||4000 ppm||8 h||WHO, 2021||35 μg/m3||1 h|
|Occupational Characteristics||Work Location||Total No = 617|
|Indoor = n (%)||Outdoor = n (%)|
|Duration of food Vending/years||0–5 years||101 (47%)||115 (53%)||216 (35%)|
|6–10 years||153 (60%)||103 (40%)||256 (41%)|
|11–20 years||73 (61%)||47 (39%)||120 (19%)|
|>20 years||11 (44%)||14 (56%)||25 (4%)|
|Working days/week||2 days||1 (100%)||0||1 (0, 2%)|
|3 days||2 (67%)||1 (33%)||3 (0, 5%)|
|5 days||26 (47%)||29 (53%)||55 (8, 9%)|
|6 days||174 (59%)||121 (41%)||295 (47, 8%)|
|7 days||135 (51%)||128 (49%)||263 (42, 6%)|
|Working hours/week||<8 h||34 (63%)||20 (37%)||54 (9%)|
|8 h||53 (47%)||59 (53%)||112 (18%)|
|>8 h||251 (56%)||200 (44%)||451(73%)|
|Break during the working day||Yes||212 (60%)||144 (40%)||356 (58%)|
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Sepadi, M.M.; Nkosi, V. Health Risk Assessment of Informal Food Vendors: A Comparative Study in Johannesburg, South Africa. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20, 2736. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20032736
Sepadi MM, Nkosi V. Health Risk Assessment of Informal Food Vendors: A Comparative Study in Johannesburg, South Africa. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2023; 20(3):2736. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20032736Chicago/Turabian Style
Sepadi, Maasago Mercy, and Vusumuzi Nkosi. 2023. "Health Risk Assessment of Informal Food Vendors: A Comparative Study in Johannesburg, South Africa" International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 20, no. 3: 2736. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20032736