Topical Collection "Sustainable Building Materials: Design and Digitization" (Closed)

A topical collection in Buildings (ISSN 2075-5309). This collection belongs to the section "Building Materials, and Repair & Renovation".

Viewed by 13995

Editors

Department of Civil Engineering, School of Engineering, Nazarbayev University, Bldg. 3, Room 3.330, 53 Kabanbay Batyr Ave., Nur-Sultan 010000, Kazakhstan
Interests: sustainable cement based composites; structural functional integrated concrete; thermal energy storage concrete; post-elevated temperature performance of cementitious composites; structural health monitoring; self-sensing concrete; self-healing concrete; 3D concrete printing; energy efficient buildings
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
NUST Institute of Civil Engineering (NICE), School of Civil and Environmental Engineering (SCEE), National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), H/12 Campus, Islamabad 44000, Pakistan
Interests: sustainable construction; self-healing concrete; self-sensing concrete; nano-modified concrete; multi-functional concrete; construction and demolition waste; energy-efficient buildings; lightweight panels; smart bricks
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

E-Mail Website
Collection Editor
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, King Fahd University of Petroleum and Minerals, Dhahran 31261, Saudi Arabia
Interests: sustainable construction materials; recycled aggregate concrete; lightweight cement-based composites; laminated cementitious composites; fiber-reinforced concrete; nanomaterials; fatigue and fracture; wind energy harvesting
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals
Department of Structural, Geotechnical and Building Engineering (DISEG), Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca Degli Abruzzi, 24, 10129 Turin, TO, Italy
Interests: sustainable concrete; nano-modified concrete; lightweight foamed concrete; 3D concrete printring; functionally graded concrete; construction and demolition waste; self-healing concrete
Special Issues, Collections and Topics in MDPI journals

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

Buildings are the founding components in constructing cities. However, the impacts of construction materials on structural, environmental, and human health are significant, albeit hidden. More than 40% of the share of global energy is used by the construction sector, with an estimated 30% emissions of global greenhouse gases. The construction industry consumes more than 75% of all natural resources and produces plenty of waste. According to the U.S. Environment Protection Agency, in 2018, construction and demolition projects filled U.S. landfills with almost 145 million tons of waste. In the last couple of decades, more emphasis has been given to sustainable construction technology to protect the environment and its available resources. Researchers have explored numerous pathways leading to more sustainable construction and protecting the built environment. Low-CO2-producing materials, such as binders, bio-based healing materials, industrial waste applications, and many other pathways, have been explored and are still in progress to find more avenues leading to sustainable construction. However, the design recipe always involves the detailed phase of laboratory trials leading to material wastage and depletion of natural reserves. Therefore, in addition to endorsing sustainability only via material inventions, the construction sector has been transformed towards digitization, involving the use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and machine learning practices, such as Artificial Neural networks (ANN), Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference Systems (ANFIS), and Image Processing (IP), in the design phase of sustainable buildings. These tools can be used to predict the properties of construction materials and can be guided to have real-time monitoring of defects in built structures and their periodic health diagnosis. The application of sustainable practices with digitization can effectively mitigate the environmental challenges that humanity is facing in terms of global warming and climate change.

This Special Issue aims to gather a research dataset on the recent optimization of sustainable building materials via laboratory-based experiments or integrated machine learning tools. We believe that the collection will open a knowledge corridor about material selection and its use in green buildings by merging the phases of design and digitization. The major construction materials will include plain and reinforced concrete, bricks, lightweight concrete, ceramics, timber, geopolymers, steel, and any other specialized materials used for the purpose.

Papers may draw on thematic areas and related subject areas, which may include, but are not limited to the following areas:

  1. 3D concrete printing;
  2. Engineered cementitious composites;
  3. Self-sensing concrete;
  4. Self-healing concrete;
  5. High performance concrete;
  6. Self-consolidating concrete;
  7. Structural functional integrated concrete;
  8. Thermal energy storage concrete;
  9. Sustainable cement-based composites;
  10. Structural health monitoring;
  11. Recycling of construction and demolition waste;
  12. Lightweight cementitious composites;
  13. Ferrocement and thin laminated composites;
  14. Nanomaterials in cementitious composites;
  15. ‘Green’ multi-functional construction materials;
  16. Prefabrication and modular construction;
  17. Machine learning and artificial intelligence in design optimization;
  18. Data analytics and visualization in digital material design;
  19. Virtual and augmented reality for sustainable design;
  20. Building information modeling for sustainable design;
  21. Post-elevated temperature performance of cementitious composites;
  22. CO2-cured concrete.

Dr. Shazim Ali Memon
Dr. Arsalan Khushnood
Dr. Asad Hanif
Dr. Luciana Restuccia
Collection Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All submissions that pass pre-check are peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the collection website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Buildings is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 2600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • green building materials
  • sustainable recycling and reusability
  • durability and aging materials
  • phase change materials
  • bacteria-based mortar
  • autonomous healing
  • low-carbon binder
  • 3D printing
  • machine learning
  • nanocomposite
  • structural health monitoring

Published Papers (7 papers)

2022

14 pages, 6129 KiB  
Article
Properties of Mortar Containing Recycled Fine Aggregate Modified by Microbial Mineralization
Buildings 2022, 12(11), 2035; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12112035 - 21 Nov 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 879
Abstract
Microbial-induced mineralization deposition was used to improve the quality of the recycled fine aggregate (RFA) in this paper. In order to obtain a better improvement effect, the microbial mineralization conditions were first optimized. The effect of the pH value, temperature, bacterial concentration and [...] Read more.
Microbial-induced mineralization deposition was used to improve the quality of the recycled fine aggregate (RFA) in this paper. In order to obtain a better improvement effect, the microbial mineralization conditions were first optimized. The effect of the pH value, temperature, bacterial concentration and calcium ion concentration on the mineralization ability of bacteria were investigated. The optimal microbial mineralization conditions were selected for the treatment of RFA and the microbial mineralization modification effect of RFA was evaluated based on the water absorption and crushing index. In addition, the natural fine aggregate (NFA), unmodified RFA and modified RFA were made into ordinary mortar, recycled mortar and modified recycled mortar, respectively. The workability, mechanical properties and chloride ion penetration resistance of mortars was investigated. Meanwhile, the precipitations formed by microbial mineralization were characterized using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) with an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The pore structure of mortars was analyzed using the mercury intrusion porosimeter (MIP). The results showed that the bioprecipitations were mainly calcite calcium carbonate and the quality of the RFA was improved by microbial-induced calcium carbonate deposition. The water absorption and crushing index of the modified RFA decreased by 25.7% and 4.2%, respectively. Compared with the crushing index, the water absorption of the RFA was improved more obviously. The workability, mechanical performance, chloride ion penetration resistance and pore structure of the modified recycled mortar was improved. Compared with the recycled mortar, the fluidity of the modified recycled mortar was 7.3% higher, the compressive strength of 28 d was 7.0% higher and the 6 h electric flux was 18.8% lower. The porosity of the ordinary mortar, recycled mortar and modified recycled mortar was 16.49%, 20.83% and 20.27%, respectively. The strengthening of the modified recycled mortar performance may be attributed to the improvement of the mortar microstructure due to the enhancement of the RFA quality after the biotreatment. Full article
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18 pages, 6317 KiB  
Article
Use of Processed Sugarcane Bagasse Ash in Concrete as Partial Replacement of Cement: Mechanical and Durability Properties
Buildings 2022, 12(10), 1769; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12101769 - 21 Oct 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 2851
Abstract
Using biomass waste as supplementary cementing material (SCM) in concrete has attracted researchers’ attention for efficient waste utilization and reducing cement demand. Sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA) is one such example of biomass waste. It is an agricultural waste obtained when sugarcane bagasse from [...] Read more.
Using biomass waste as supplementary cementing material (SCM) in concrete has attracted researchers’ attention for efficient waste utilization and reducing cement demand. Sugarcane bagasse ash (SCBA) is one such example of biomass waste. It is an agricultural waste obtained when sugarcane bagasse from the sugar industry is used for power generation and disposed of in open-air dumping sites. Its waste disposal causes the generation of particulate matter, degrading air quality. In this study, the effect of processed SCBA as SCM in concrete has been investigated. The processing of the SCBA involved the removal of fibrous and carbon-containing particles by sieving followed by grinding. The SCBA was ground for 45 min until the surface area was comparable to that of cement and was then used for further characterization and incorporation into concrete. The 45 min grinding time resulted in 2.92 times higher pozzolanic reactivity of the SCBA. The SCBA was incorporated by replacing cement in different weight fractions (10%, 20%, 30%, 40%) in concrete. Test results showed that the concrete workability increased with SCBA incorporation, whereas the resulting concrete density was reduced. The results of the mechanical properties, including compressive sstrength and hardened density, were enhanced upon the cement replacement by SCBA. Concrete containing 30% SCBA can be used for structural applications as its 28 days compressive strength was 21 MPa, which complies with ACI 318-16 specifications. Concrete resistance against scaling and leaching due to adverse effects of sulfuric and hydrochloric acid considerably increased with SCBA addition and was due to microstructure densification by secondary hydrates formation as lower portlandite content was detected by thermogravimetric analysis. Hence, SCBA processing increases its reactivity, as reflected by the improved mechanical properties and greater durability of SCBA-incorporated concrete. Full article
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38 pages, 11466 KiB  
Review
A Review of Improvement of Interfacial Transition Zone and Adherent Mortar in Recycled Concrete Aggregate
Buildings 2022, 12(10), 1600; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12101600 - 03 Oct 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1607
Abstract
An increasing amount of construction and demolishing waste has made the implementation of recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) a popular topic; RCA can reduce the environmental pollution caused by the construction industry. This paper describes differences in physical, mechanical, and chemical properties between RCA [...] Read more.
An increasing amount of construction and demolishing waste has made the implementation of recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) a popular topic; RCA can reduce the environmental pollution caused by the construction industry. This paper describes differences in physical, mechanical, and chemical properties between RCA and natural aggregate (NA). For the first time, the methods of interfacial transition zone (ITZ) improvement in RCA, including strengthening through carbonation, incorporation of mineral admixtures, and different mixing approaches, are extensively covered. In addition, the methods used to improve the adherent mortar regions of RCA are covered. This approach makes it possible to demonstrate the impact of different methods on these regions (ITZ and adhered mortar) and overall RCA enhancement. Lastly, a comparison of each of these methods in terms of their effectiveness is presented. The review of several studies concludes that the carbonation treatment method for ITZ and adherent mortar enhancement are the most efficient and sustainable methods compared to others. Summarizing, using RCA instead of NA provides a sustainable solution for the construction industry due to reducing the amount of produced waste and conserving landfill space. Full article
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19 pages, 890 KiB  
Article
Methods of Construction to the Meet Housing Crisis in the UK Residential Sector: A Comparative Study between Timber Frame and Masonry Construction
Buildings 2022, 12(8), 1177; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12081177 - 06 Aug 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 3906
Abstract
Major efforts have been invested in the UK Residential sector to meet the increasing housing demands, deliver sustainability, and improve its resiliency against many uncertainties. While data/information within the UK residential sector relating to location, sizes and volumes are annually updated, there is [...] Read more.
Major efforts have been invested in the UK Residential sector to meet the increasing housing demands, deliver sustainability, and improve its resiliency against many uncertainties. While data/information within the UK residential sector relating to location, sizes and volumes are annually updated, there is limited emphasis on the methods of construction that support meeting housing demands. Over the years, it has been recognised that the UK residential sector has been dominated by two methods of construction: timber frame and masonry. This study aims to holistically compare timber frames with masonry as the two domineering construction methods for the UK residential sector. The comparison will be based on build costs, preference and drivers by construction professionals, longevity and consumer confidence, and sustainability. The research methodology was developed based on applying mixed methods of quantitative data analysis of build costs and qualitative data assessment of semi-structured interviews. The findings showed that, from a build cost perspective, masonry methods of construction are a more cost-effective choice with major variation in material cost. However, although the masonry method of construction was more favoured, in many respects, small-in-size developers show more tendency to timber frames, as this is being rationalised by meeting sustainability targets. Practical implications show that the future of the residential sector in meeting the housing demands would heavily depend on Modern Methods of Construction (MMC), as it offers a more optimised mechanism; however, the uptake of this is considerably low. Future studies will enquire into pillars to make MMC efficient in the UK residential sector. Full article
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23 pages, 7929 KiB  
Article
Development of Self-Compacting Concrete Incorporating Rice Husk Ash with Waste Galvanized Copper Wire Fiber
Buildings 2022, 12(7), 1024; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12071024 - 15 Jul 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2127
Abstract
This research work is devoted to the experimental investigation of both rheological and mechanical properties of self-compacting concrete (SCC) produced with waste galvanized copper wire fiber and rice husk ash (RHA). In the study, three different volume fractions of 0.5 p to 0.75 [...] Read more.
This research work is devoted to the experimental investigation of both rheological and mechanical properties of self-compacting concrete (SCC) produced with waste galvanized copper wire fiber and rice husk ash (RHA). In the study, three different volume fractions of 0.5 p to 0.75 percent, 1 percent of scrap copper wire fiber as reinforcing material, and 2 percent RHA as cement replacement were used. To evaluate the fresh characteristics of SCC, the slump flow, J-ring, and V-funnel experiments were conducted for this investigation. Compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, and flexural strength of the concrete were conducted to assess the hardened properties. The test was carried out to compare each characteristic of plain SCC with this modified SCC mixture, containing RHA as pozzolanic materials and copper fiber as reinforcing material. Incorporating copper fiber in the SCC leads to a drop in fresh properties compared to plain SCC but remains within an acceptable range. On the other hand, the inclusion of 2% RHA makes the SCC more viscous. Although adding 2% RHA and 1% copper wire in SCC provide the highest strength, this mix has an unacceptable passing ability. The SCC mix prepared with 2% RHA and 0.75% copper fiber is suggested to be optimum in terms of the overall performance. According to this study, adding metallic fiber reinforcement like copper wire and mineral admixture like RHA can improve the mechanical properties of SCC up to a certain level. Full article
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22 pages, 8134 KiB  
Article
Gene Expression Programming for Estimating Shear Strength of RC Squat Wall
Buildings 2022, 12(7), 918; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12070918 - 29 Jun 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1362
Abstract
The flanged, barbell, and rectangular squat reinforced concrete (RC) walls are broadly used in low-rise commercial and highway under and overpasses. The shear strength of squat walls is the major design consideration because of their smaller aspect ratio. Most of the current design [...] Read more.
The flanged, barbell, and rectangular squat reinforced concrete (RC) walls are broadly used in low-rise commercial and highway under and overpasses. The shear strength of squat walls is the major design consideration because of their smaller aspect ratio. Most of the current design codes or available published literature provide separate sets of shear capacity equations for flanged, barbell, and rectangular walls. Also, a substantial scatter exists in the predicted shear capacity due to a large discrepancy in the test data. Thus, this study aims to develop a single gene expression programming (GEP) expression that can be used for predicting the shear strength of these three cross-sectional shapes based on a dataset of 646 experiments. A total of thirteen influencing parameters are identified to contrive this efficient empirical compared to several shear capacity equations. Owing to the larger database, the proposed model shows better performance based on the database analysis results and compared with 9 available empirical models. Full article
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17 pages, 8015 KiB  
Article
Does Metakaoline Replacement Adversely Affect the Cyclic Behavior of Non-Strengthened and Strengthened RC Beams: An Experimental Investigation
Buildings 2022, 12(6), 719; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12060719 - 26 May 2022
Viewed by 1201
Abstract
The need to reduce carbon emissions has recently become prevalent in light of concerns related to climate change. Since the cement industry causes approximately 8% of global CO2 emissions, it might be an urgent necessity to include cement replacement materials within the [...] Read more.
The need to reduce carbon emissions has recently become prevalent in light of concerns related to climate change. Since the cement industry causes approximately 8% of global CO2 emissions, it might be an urgent necessity to include cement replacement materials within the concrete industry. An important question arises about if such replacement negatively affects the cyclic or seismic behavior of reinforced concrete (RC) elements. This research presents an experimental investigation of the effect of using different percentages of metakaolin replacement on the monotonic and cyclic behavior of RC beams. The investigated parameters include the flexural strength, ductility and energy dissipation capacity of the tested beams. The current paper also aims to study the effect of using the CFRP-strengthening technique with 15% metakaolin replacement on the behavior of RC beams under the same loading protocols. The experimental results reveal that metakaolin can be used as a partial substitute for cement up to 20% without negative effect on the concrete behavior under both loading protocols. For cyclic loading, the percentage of replacement did not negatively affect the ductility; rather, it provided some improvement. Full article
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