# Why Logics?

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## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Classical Logic(s) vs. Non-Classical Logic(s)

## 2. From the Universe of Logic Systems to Universal Logic

- 1st UNILOG, Montreux, 2005, How to define identity between logics?
- 2nd UNILOG, Xi’an, 2007, How to translate one logic into another one?
- 3rd UNILOG, Lisbon, 2010, How to combine logics?

## 3. The Singular Science of Logic

- (1)
- reasoning;
- (2)
- a system describing reasoning, that is, “a logic”;
- (3)

## 4. Birth of the Journal Logics

## Funding

## Conflicts of Interest

## Notes

1 | We are indicating the dates of birth and death of the main personalities whom we are discussing to fix the ideas and to provide a more precise historical account, as well as to emphasize that a science like logic has been developed until now by human beings who were born and died (some are still alive) and not by robots. |

2 | There were other proposals, such as Indian logic (see, e.g., [1,2]), Talmudic logic [3], Stoic logic [4], etc., but their influence was not as important as that of Aristotelian logic, and they were not developed in as systematic a way. The systematization of Aristotelian syllogistic logic has many aspects, such as the theory of the square opposition (see, e.g., [5]), the introduction of singular terms [6], and all kinds of variations, such Abelard’s logic [7]. |

3 | Carroll is famous for his novel Alice’s Adventures in Wonderland (1865), but he was also a logician [14]. |

4 | |

5 | I wrote a master’s thesis in philosophy at the Sorbonne in 1987 on the question of objective reality according to modern physics [57], comparing the views of Heisenberg, Bohr, and Bohm, under the supervision of the famous physicist Bernard d’Espagnat (1921–2015), who received the Templeton prize in 2009. |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Beziau, J.-Y.
Why *Logics*? *Logics* **2023**, *1*, 148-156.
https://doi.org/10.3390/logics1030007

**AMA Style**

Beziau J-Y.
Why *Logics*? *Logics*. 2023; 1(3):148-156.
https://doi.org/10.3390/logics1030007

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Beziau, Jean-Yves.
2023. "Why *Logics*?" *Logics* 1, no. 3: 148-156.
https://doi.org/10.3390/logics1030007