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Digital, Volume 2, Issue 1 (March 2022) – 7 articles

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16 pages, 2340 KiB  
Article
The Development of a Clinical Decision-Support Web-Based Tool for Predicting the Risk of Gastrointestinal Cancer in Iron Deficiency Anaemia—The IDIOM App
Digital 2022, 2(1), 104-119; https://doi.org/10.3390/digital2010007 - 18 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2355
Abstract
To facilitate the clinical use of an algorithm for predicting the risk of gastrointestinal malignancy in iron deficiency anaemia—the IDIOM score, a software application has been developed, with a view to providing free and simple access to healthcare professionals in the UK. A [...] Read more.
To facilitate the clinical use of an algorithm for predicting the risk of gastrointestinal malignancy in iron deficiency anaemia—the IDIOM score, a software application has been developed, with a view to providing free and simple access to healthcare professionals in the UK. A detailed requirements analysis for intended users of the application revealed the need for an automated decision-support tool in which anonymised, individual patient data is entered and gastrointestinal cancer risk is calculated and displayed immediately, which lends itself to use in busy clinical settings. Human-centred design was employed to develop the solution, focusing on the users and their needs, whilst ensuring that they are provided with sufficient details to appropriately interpret the risk score. The IDIOM App has been developed using R Shiny as a web-based application enabling access from different platforms with updates that can be carried out centrally through the host server. The application has been evaluated through literature search, internal/external validation, code testing, risk analysis, and usability assessments. Legal notices, contact system with research and maintenance teams, and all the supportive information for the application such as description of the population and intended users have been embedded within the application interface. With the purpose of providing a guide of developing standalone software medical devices in academic setting, this paper aims to present the theoretical and practical aspects of developing, writing technical documentation, and certifying standalone software medical devices using the case of the IDIOM App as an example. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligent Digital Health Interventions)
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16 pages, 380 KiB  
Systematic Review
Promise of AI in DeFi, a Systematic Review
Digital 2022, 2(1), 88-103; https://doi.org/10.3390/digital2010006 - 12 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 6539
Abstract
Decentralized Finance (DeFi) is an emerging and revolutionizing field with notable uncertainties of reliability to be used on a mass scale. On the other hand, Artificial Intelligence (AI) has proved to be a crucial helping tool in numerous domains. In this study, we [...] Read more.
Decentralized Finance (DeFi) is an emerging and revolutionizing field with notable uncertainties of reliability to be used on a mass scale. On the other hand, Artificial Intelligence (AI) has proved to be a crucial helping tool in numerous domains. In this study, we present a systematic review of the utility of AI in DeFi in terms of impact, reliability, and security and conduct exhaustive analysis. The review was motivated by an in-depth investigation of recently published literature that prioritized AI and DeFi in their research. This research, like many prior studies, examined the articles in terms of impact, reliability, and security. In addition, a new relevance score is introduced to better comprehend the quality of the content. According to investigation, the combination of AI and DeFi is one of the trending research topics that lacks adequate interpretations of black-box methodologies. Furthermore, it was discovered that one of the primary issues in DeFi is security, and numerous technologies, including blockchain technology and machine learning approaches, have been used to minimize such challenges. We hope that the gap addressed throughout this review will give insights to future researchers and practitioners, ultimately leading to new research opportunities in AI to bridge the gap of trust between peers and make the integration of DeFi more agile in the near future. Full article
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23 pages, 1004 KiB  
Article
A Regulatory Readiness Assessment Framework for Blockchain Adoption in Healthcare
Digital 2022, 2(1), 65-87; https://doi.org/10.3390/digital2010005 - 11 Mar 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 3411
Abstract
Blockchain is now utilized by a diverse spectrum of applications and is proclaimed as a technological innovation that transforms the way that data are stored. This technology has the potential to transform the healthcare sector, especially the prevalent issues of patient’s data-privacy and [...] Read more.
Blockchain is now utilized by a diverse spectrum of applications and is proclaimed as a technological innovation that transforms the way that data are stored. This technology has the potential to transform the healthcare sector, especially the prevalent issues of patient’s data-privacy and fragmented healthcare data. However, there is no evidence-based effort to develop a readiness assessment framework for blockchain that combines all the different social and economic factors and involves all stakeholders. Based on a systematic literature review, the proposed framework is applied to Portugal’s healthcare sector and its applicability is outlined. The findings in this paper show the unique importance of regulators and the government in achieving a globally acceptable regulatory framework for the adoption of blockchain technology in healthcare and other sectors. The business entities and solution providers are ready to leverage the opportunities of blockchain, but the absence of a widely acceptable regulatory framework that protect stakeholders’ interests is slowing down the adoption of blockchain. There are several misconceptions regarding blockchain laws and regulations, which has slowed stakeholder readiness. This paper will be useful as a guideline and knowledge base to reinforce blockchain adoption. Full article
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12 pages, 1232 KiB  
Article
Web Technologies to Support Scientific Research and Education in Citizen Science—A Case Study in Germany
Digital 2022, 2(1), 53-64; https://doi.org/10.3390/digital2010004 - 27 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2980
Abstract
In citizen science, citizens are encouraged to participate in research, with web technologies promoting location-independent participation and broad knowledge sharing. In this study, web technologies were extracted from 112 citizen science projects listed on the “Bürger schaffen Wissen”. Four indicators on web technologies—Online [...] Read more.
In citizen science, citizens are encouraged to participate in research, with web technologies promoting location-independent participation and broad knowledge sharing. In this study, web technologies were extracted from 112 citizen science projects listed on the “Bürger schaffen Wissen”. Four indicators on web technologies—Online platforms, Educational tools, Social media, and Data sharing between projects—were chosen to quantify the extent to which web technologies are used within citizen science projects. The results show that the use of web technologies is already very well established in both the natural and social science projects and only the possibilities for data sharing between projects are limited. Full article
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7 pages, 233 KiB  
Communication
Use of Internet Technology among Older Adults in Residential Aged Care Facilities: Protocol for a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Digital 2022, 2(1), 46-52; https://doi.org/10.3390/digital2010003 - 25 Feb 2022
Viewed by 2475
Abstract
Internet usage may help promote the physical and mental health of older adults living in Residential Aged Care Facilities (RACF). There is little evidence of how these older citizens use internet services. This systematic review aims to explore the trends and factors contributing [...] Read more.
Internet usage may help promote the physical and mental health of older adults living in Residential Aged Care Facilities (RACF). There is little evidence of how these older citizens use internet services. This systematic review aims to explore the trends and factors contributing to internet use among aged care residents. A systematic search will be conducted on nine online databases—MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycInfo, CINAHL, AgeLine, ProQuest, Web of Science, Scopus, and the Cochrane Library. Two reviewers will independently conduct title and abstract screening, full-text reading, critical appraisal, and data extraction. Any discrepancies will be resolved by consensus. Methodological risk of bias will be assessed using the Effective Public Health Practice Project measure and Joanna Briggs Institute checklist. We will report a narrative synthesis of the evidence. Information on factors contributing to internet use and their strength of association will be reported. If feasible, we will undertake a meta-analysis and meta-synthesis. Our review will provide information on the factors predicting internet use among older adults in residential aged care facilities. The evidence from this review will help to formulate further research objectives and, potentially, to design an intervention to trial internet access for these groups. (Protocol Registration: PROSPERO-CRD 42020161227). Full article
13 pages, 2737 KiB  
Article
Augmented Reality (AR) as a Tool for Engaging Museum Experience: A Case Study on Chinese Art Pieces
Digital 2022, 2(1), 33-45; https://doi.org/10.3390/digital2010002 - 20 Feb 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 6552
Abstract
The research explores the efficiency of augmented reality (AR) technology as a tool for the positive triggering museum experience. This article shows the design, development, and evaluation of an AR prototype for information visualization based on a famous Chinese art piece named Along [...] Read more.
The research explores the efficiency of augmented reality (AR) technology as a tool for the positive triggering museum experience. This article shows the design, development, and evaluation of an AR prototype for information visualization based on a famous Chinese art piece named Along the River During the Qingming Festival. In total, 58 participants were invited to evaluate the prototype. Results suggest that AR technology can trigger users’ engagement, learning, meaningful experience, and emotional connection, and hence arouse their interest and learning process. These findings may interest researchers and designers to develop a broader range of innovative AR applications to prompt a digital learning experience. Full article
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32 pages, 446 KiB  
Review
Deep Else: A Critical Framework for AI Art
Digital 2022, 2(1), 1-32; https://doi.org/10.3390/digital2010001 - 05 Jan 2022
Cited by 13 | Viewed by 14778
Abstract
From a small community of pioneering artists who experimented with artificial intelligence (AI) in the 1970s, AI art has expanded, gained visibility, and attained socio-cultural relevance since the second half of the 2010s. Its topics, methodologies, presentational formats, and implications are closely related [...] Read more.
From a small community of pioneering artists who experimented with artificial intelligence (AI) in the 1970s, AI art has expanded, gained visibility, and attained socio-cultural relevance since the second half of the 2010s. Its topics, methodologies, presentational formats, and implications are closely related to a range of disciplines engaged in the research and application of AI. In this paper, I present a comprehensive framework for the critical exploration of AI art. It comprises the context of AI art, its prominent poetic features, major issues, and possible directions. I address the poetic, expressive, and ethical layers of AI art practices within the context of contemporary art, AI research, and related disciplines. I focus on the works that exemplify poetic complexity and manifest the epistemic or political ambiguities indicative of a broader milieu of contemporary culture, AI science/technology, economy, and society. By comparing, acknowledging, and contextualizing both their accomplishments and shortcomings, I outline the prospective strategies to advance the field. The aim of this framework is to expand the existing critical discourse of AI art with new perspectives which can be used to examine the creative attributes of emerging practices and to assess their cultural significance and socio-political impact. It contributes to rethinking and redefining the art/science/technology critique in the age when the arts, together with science and technology, are becoming increasingly responsible for changing ecologies, shaping cultural values, and political normalization. Full article
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