# Crypto Hash Algorithm-Based Blockchain Technology for Managing Decentralized Ledger Database in Oil and Gas Industry

^{1}

^{2}

^{*}

## Abstract

**:**

## 1. Introduction

## 2. Blockchain and Informatics Technology Investigation

y | is the vehicle longitudinal velocity (m/s) |

r | is the yaw rate (%) |

$\delta $ | the wheel steering angle of the vehicle (rad) |

${C}_{\propto f}$ | is the front wheels stiffness when curve (N/rad) |

${C}_{\propto r}$ | is the rear wheels stiffness when curve (N/rad) |

${l}_{f}$ | is the length between CoG to front axle (m) |

${l}_{r}$ | is the length between CoG to rear axle (m) |

m | the mass of vehicle (kg) |

${I}_{z}$ | Inertia moment around the Z-axis (kg/m^{2}) |

${\mu}_{vj}\left(t\right)$ | the mean speed at time t on the road section j in (m/s) |

${\u20ae}_{rt}$ | is driver perception and response time (s) |

$\delta $ | the vehicle distance + gap between vehicle |

g | is the acceleration due to gravity rate, 9.8 (m/s) |

${f}_{j}\left(t\right)$ | the frictional-road parameter at time period t on the road section j |

${\omega}_{j}\left(t\right)$ | the level of road section j link during collection period t (%) |

t | is collection time period (s) |

j | number of road sections. |

#### 2.1. Blockchain Technology Types

- The public permissioned blockchain is a transparent and open permissioned-based Litecoin system, which allows anyone to update or review anything at a time required. This technology allows anybody to participate in managing the blockchain as public. It is also known as a permissioned blockchain without any centralized authority required for the verification process as found in the Ethereum, Litecoin, and Bitcoin technology [30]. This type of technology allows complete node running, easy transaction, review, or audit the blockchain by any participant in the Bitcoins/Litecoin (BTC/LTC) chain of blockchain explorer.
- Private blockchain is an advanced Bitcoin technology that is managed centrally by an individual or organization for adequate security. This permissioned-based blockchain does not allow negotiation of the distributed network management as found in the BankChain practices. This technology does not allow anyone to run a full node and start mining and does not grant transactions access or review/audit by anyone or individual on the blockchain. The private blockchain is a permissioned-based design for central authority and process authentication.
- The Consortium or Federated Blockchain eliminates the sole autonomy in the private blockchain by making sure there is more than one person in charge of chain management. Different authorities come together to make decisions that are good for the network such as a group of companies or representatives of individuals involved. It is also known as the hybrid blockchain because it combines both the characteristics of a public blockchain and the private blockchain. The R3 companies (New York City, NY, USA) and Energy Web Foundation (EWF) are open source and scalable blockchain platforms.

#### 2.2. Secure Hashing Algorithm (SHA-1)

^{64}bits, 512-bit block size, 32-bit word size, and 160 message digests [33].

#### 2.3. Problems Statement

## 3. Materials and Methods

#### 3.1. Blockchain Transactions Architecture for Petroleum Product Distribution

- Open Ledger Belief (OLB): This help every participant in this network/chain to see and aware of transaction and its content on the chain and then validate using mining (public key). Here are the procedures.
- i.
- The oil and gas products are transported between points A and B through the third-party (automobile conveyance).
- ii.
- The third-party (automobile conveyance) is not trusted with 44,000 L $\left({\mathsf{\u03cf}}_{44,000}\right)$ of transaction from point A to point B. The transaction relation between two parties is expressed as ${\mathsf{\u03cf}}_{44,000}$=> φ$\to M$ and attached with link.
- iii.
- All transactions in the chain are validated using a public key for every participant agreement in the network.

- Decentralized ledger coding (DLC): This database helps govern the transaction in the chain/network with consensus agreement on the record updates without central authority or third-party negotiation. It has timestamp with unique credentials signature which makes all the transaction history in the chain immutable. These procedures are involved in the operation principle of DLC.
- i.
- Broadcasting and publishing a copy of transaction to the network as follows, ${\mathsf{\varpi}}_{33,000}=>$ φ$\to \lambda $, ${\text{\xb5}}_{11,000}=>$ φ$\to \mathsf{\u03d0},$ ${\text{\xb5}}_{44,000}=>$ φ$\to \zeta ,{\text{}\mu}_{12,000}=$ φ$\to \rho $.
- ii.
- Synchronize the copy to ensure that transaction gets to all participants in the chain/network.
- iii.
- Use a mining algorithm to validate the transaction by computing random hash number generation as a special key used by every participant in the network.

#### 3.2. Crypto Hash Algorithm Functions

- Cryptotrack: 6BD736F1C2DC0B566812B92B7C47EBA39BCD5222
- cryptotrack: 5AA13558D0CCA00C53EDD39427392545046DB597

- 1:
- Takes input text and splits it into an array of the characters’ ASCII codes.
- 2:
- Converts ASCII codes to binary.
- 3:
- Pad zeros to the front of each bit until they are 8 bits long.
- 4:
- Join them together and append them to one (1).
- 5:
- Pad the binary message with zeros until its length is 512 mod 448.
- 6:
- Take binary 8-bit ASCII code array from step 3 and get its length in binary.
- 7:
- Pad with zeros until it is 64 characters.
- 8:
- Append to your previously created binary message from step 5.
- 9:
- Break the message into an array of chunks of 512 characters.
- 10:
- Break each chunk into subarray of sixteen 32-bit words.
- 11:
- Loop through each chunk array of sixteen 32-bit words and extend each array to 80 words using bitwise operations.
- 12:
- Initialize some variables.
- 13:
- Looping through each chunk: bitwise operations and variable reassignment.
- 14:
- Convert each of the five resulting variables to hexadecimal.
- 15:
- Append them together and the result is your hash value or message digest.

#### 3.3. Crypto Hash Computation (SHA-1)

- SHA-1
- (“Cryptotrack”) denotes 6BD736F1C2DC0B566812B92B7C47EBA39BCD5222
- SHA-1
- SHA-1(“cryptotrack”) means 5AA13558D0CCA00C53EDD39427392545046DB597

_{t}is the message word expanded for round t; K

_{t}is the constant round of t, $\u229e$ representing an (xor) additional modulo 2

^{32}; and <<<

_{n}represents the left bit rotation by numbers of (n). The collision resistance is used during hashing of two different messages to achieve the same value and to prevent a brute force attack as given in Equation (5), and the first iterative function of the message block is expressed in Equation (6).

_{t}is split into 32 bits of 16 words {W

_{0}, W

_{1}, W

_{2}, …, W

_{15}} as expressed in Equation (8), the transformation of message input is divided into 32 bits of five words (A

_{0}, B

_{0}, C

_{0}, D

_{0}, and E

_{0}) as given in Equation (9), and the feed forward of input key message M

_{t+1}is the sums modulo of 2

^{32}that are concatenated to form the variable chaining H

_{t+1}as expressed in Equation (10). The copies of each shift rotated message are given in Equation (10).

_{t}is the input message, M

_{t+1}is the input key, and K

_{i}is the predetermined constant.

#### 3.4. Mining Algorithm and Pseudocode-Based Blockchain

#### 3.5. Cryptographic Algorithm for Key Management in Blockchain Technology

1. Key generation procedure/Algorithm | |

Step 1. | Signing message |

i. | Start with shared the global public key values (p, q, g) |

ii. | Select about 160-bit prime number (q) |

iii. | Select a large prime number (p) with 2^ (L-1) < p < 2^l, where L will be equal to 512 to 1024 bits and is a multiple of 64 such that q is a 160-bit prime divisor of p-1 |

iv. | Select h, then find g=h^((p-1)/q) mod p, where 1<h<p-1 and h^((p-1)/q) mod p>1 |

Step 2. | Select a private key and compute the public keys |

i. | Select a random private key such that: x < q |

ii. | Compute the public key such that: $y={g}^{x}modp$ |

2. Creation of Signature | |

Step1. | Signing of a message M, the sender: |

i. | Creates a random signature key (k), such that k < q |

ii. | Creation of k must be random, one-time password (OTP) and destroyed after used |

Step 2 | Computation of signature pair |

i. | $r=\left({g}^{k}modp\right)modq$ |

ii. | $s=\left[{k}^{-1}\left(H\left(M\right)+xr\right)\right]modq$ |

iii. | The signature (r, s) and message M (Transaction) will be send |

3. Verification of Signature | |

i. | While receiving message (M) with signature (r, s) |

ii. | Then, to verify a recipient transaction signature, use the following computation. $w={s}^{-1}modq=k\left(H\left(m\right)+xr\right){}^{-1}modq$ $u1=\left[H\left(M\right)w\right]modq$ $u2=\left(rw\right)modq$ $v=\left[\left({g}^{u1}{y}^{u2}\right)modp\right]modq$ |

iii. | If v = r, then transaction signature is confirmed |

End the process. |

p | is $\mathrm{prime}\text{}\mathrm{number}\text{}\mathrm{where}\text{}{2}^{\mathrm{L}-1}\mathrm{p}{2}^{\mathrm{L}}$, $\mathrm{for}\text{}512\text{}\le \mathrm{L}\le 1024\text{}\mathrm{and}\text{}\mathrm{L}\text{}\mathrm{a}\text{}\mathrm{multiple}\text{}\mathrm{of}\text{}64\text{},$ $\mathrm{i}.\mathrm{e}.,.,\text{}\mathrm{a}\text{}\mathrm{bit}\text{}\mathrm{length}\text{}\mathrm{between}\text{}512\text{}\mathrm{and}\text{}1024\text{}\mathrm{bits}\text{}\mathrm{in}\text{}\mathrm{increments}\text{}\mathrm{of}\text{}64\text{}\mathrm{bits}$ |

q | $\mathrm{prime}\text{}\mathrm{divisor}\text{}\mathrm{of}\text{}\left(\mathrm{p}-1\right),\text{}\mathrm{where}\text{}{2}^{159}\mathrm{q}{2}^{160}$$\mathrm{i}.\mathrm{e}\dots .\text{}\mathrm{a}\text{}\mathrm{bit}\text{}\mathrm{length}\text{}\mathrm{of}\text{}160\text{}\mathrm{bits}$ |

s | ${\mathrm{h}}^{\left(\mathrm{p}-1\right)/\mathrm{q}}\text{}\mathrm{mod}\text{}\mathrm{p},\text{}\mathrm{where}\text{}\mathrm{h}\text{}\mathrm{is}\text{}\mathrm{any}\text{}\mathrm{integer}\text{}\mathrm{with}\text{}1\mathrm{h}\left(\mathrm{p}-1\right)$, ${\mathrm{such}\text{}\mathrm{that}\text{}\mathrm{h}}^{\left(\mathrm{p}-1\right)/\mathrm{q}}\mathrm{mod}\text{}\mathrm{p}1$ |

x | $\mathrm{random}\text{}\mathrm{or}\text{}\mathrm{pseudorandom}\text{}\mathrm{integer}\text{}\mathrm{with}\text{}0\mathrm{x}\mathrm{q}$ used as a private key |

y | ${\mathrm{is}\text{}\mathrm{given}\text{}\mathrm{as}\text{}\mathrm{g}}^{\mathrm{x}}\mathrm{mod}\text{}\mathrm{p}\text{}\mathrm{used}\text{}\mathrm{as}\text{}publickey$ |

k | $\mathrm{used}\text{}\mathrm{to}\text{}\mathrm{generate}\text{}\mathrm{random}\text{}\mathrm{or}\text{}\mathrm{pseudo}-\mathrm{random}\text{}\mathrm{integer}\text{}\mathrm{with}\text{}0\mathrm{k}\mathrm{q}\text{}\mathrm{per}\text{}\mathrm{message}\text{}\mathrm{sec}\mathrm{ret}\text{}\mathrm{number}$ |

r, s | is the signature for signing, where $\mathrm{r}=\left({\mathrm{g}}^{\mathrm{k}}\mathrm{mod}\text{}\mathrm{p}\right)\mathrm{mod}\text{}\mathrm{q}$, and $s=[{\mathrm{k}}^{-1}\left(\mathrm{H}\left({\mathrm{M}}^{\text{}}\right)+\mathrm{xr})\right]\mathrm{mod}\text{}\mathrm{q}$ |

v, r | v = r is the verification, $\mathrm{w}=\left({\mathrm{s}}^{-}\right){\text{}}^{-1}$mod q ${\mathrm{u}}_{1}=\left[\mathrm{H}\left(\text{}\mathrm{M}\prime \right)\mathrm{w}\right]\mathrm{mod}\text{}\mathrm{q}$ ${\mathrm{u}}_{2}=\left({r}^{\prime}\right)\mathrm{w}\text{}\mathrm{mod}\text{}\mathrm{q}$ $\mathrm{v}=\left[\left({\mathrm{g}}^{\mathrm{u}1}{\mathrm{y}}^{\mathrm{u}2}\right)\mathrm{mod}\text{}\mathrm{p}\right]\mathrm{mod}\text{}\mathrm{q}$ |

M | Message to be signed |

H(M) | Hash of M using SHA-1 |

M’, r, s’ | the received varieties or copy of M, r, s. |

#### 3.6. Implementation of (Telematics) an In-Vehicle Tracking System Prototype

`ɖ`x. Therefore, the speed (ȕ) of the wave is expressed as in Equation (15), where changes in distance (

`ɖ`x) of the liquid level are calculated in Equations (16) and (17).

## 4. Results and Discussion

#### 4.1. Development of Crypto Hash Decentralized Ledger

#### 4.2. Encryption and Decryption Algorithm Testing and Results Using WAVE

**Encryption algorithm**

**Decryption algorithm**

#### 4.3. Testing and Results of Implemented Automobile Based Telematics

#### 4.4. Performance Evaluation Testing of the Crypto Hash System

## 5. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 7.**Hash function security key exchange and computation [37].

**Figure 15.**Crypto-track blockchain database login interface and detail transaction records. (

**a**) Homepage GUI; (

**b**) Users registration page; (

**c**) First layer login interface; (

**d**) Admin section for user confirmation; (

**e**) Admin section for managing transporter geolocation; (

**f**) GUI for new transaction details.

S/N | Conveyance ID | Quantity (Liter) | Transaction ID | Destination Area ID | $\mathbf{Relation}\text{}\mathbf{between}\text{}\mathbf{A}\to $ B |
---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | Ϗ | 44,000 | ${\mathsf{\u03cf}}_{44,000}$ | Minna (M) | ${\mathsf{\u03cf}}_{44,000}$=> φ$\to \mathrm{M}$ |

2 | 𝜛 | 33,000 | ${\mathsf{\varpi}}_{33,000}$ | Lokoja (λ) | ${\mathsf{\varpi}}_{33,000}=>$φ$\to \mathsf{\lambda}$ |

3 | µ | 11,000 | ${\text{\xb5}}_{11,000}$ | Bida (ϐ) | ${\text{\xb5}}_{11,000}=>$φ$\to \mathsf{\u03d0}$ |

4 | Ύ | 33,000 | ${\mathsf{\u038e}}_{44,000}$ | Ilorin (ζ) | ${\text{\xb5}}_{44,000}=>$φ$\to \mathsf{\zeta}$ |

5 | ₤ | 44,000 | ${\u20a4}_{33,000}$ | Okene ($\mathsf{\rho}$) | ${\text{\xb5}}_{12,000}=>$φ$\to \mathsf{\rho}$ |

Id | Tanker_ID | Time | Date | Satellite Number | HDOP | Liquid Level | Speed | Latitude | Longitude |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | 865210031078669 | 06:15:44 | 08/10/2018 | 5 | 2.19 | 66 | 0.35 | 9.531407 | 6.451446 |

2 | 865210031078669 | 06:16:17 | 08/10/2018 | 6 | 1.92 | 89 | 0.37 | 9.531438 | 6.451479 |

3 | 865210031078669 | 06:16:50 | 08/10/2018 | 5 | 1.98 | 89 | 0.59 | 9.531368 | 6.451441 |

4 | 865210031078669 | 06:17:23 | 08/10/2018 | 6 | 2.03 | 89 | 0.44 | 9.531471 | 6.451372 |

5 | 865210031078669 | 06:17:56 | 08/10/2018 | 5 | 1.6 | 97 | 1.19 | 9.531489 | 6.451346 |

6 | 865210031078669 | 07:55:25 | 08/10/2018 | 5 | 2.56 | 100 | 1.2 | 9.530928 | 6.451571 |

7 | 865210031078669 | 07:55:58 | 08/10/2018 | 4 | 9.51 | 100 | 1.81 | 9.531051 | 6.451568 |

8 | 865210031078669 | 07:56:32 | 08/10/2018 | 5 | 2.5 | 100 | 1.04 | 9.530858 | 6.451453 |

9 | 865210031078669 | 07:57:05 | 08/10/2018 | 8 | 2.5 | 100 | 1.5 | 9.530884 | 6.45146 |

10 | 865210031078669 | 07:57:38 | 08/10/2018 | 6 | 4.99 | 100 | 1.98 | 9.531068 | 6.451518 |

11 | 865210031078669 | 07:58:11 | 08/10/2018 | 5 | 4.94 | 100 | 2.85 | 9.530917 | 6.451497 |

12 | 865210031078669 | 07:58:44 | 08/10/2018 | 6 | 2.48 | 100 | 1.87 | 9.530988 | 6.45146 |

13 | 865210031078669 | 18:20:29 | 08/10/2018 | 9 | 0.81 | 48 | 0.2 | 9.531387 | 6.451231 |

14 | 865210031078669 | 18:21:02 | 08/10/2018 | 9 | 0.88 | 0 | 0.15 | 9.531398 | 6.451261 |

15 | 865210031078669 | 18:21:35 | 08/10/2018 | 10 | 0.82 | 0 | 1.11 | 9.53142 | 6.451247 |

16 | 865210031078669 | 18:22:08 | 08/10/2018 | 10 | 0.78 | 0 | 0.2 | 9.531483 | 6.451261 |

17 | 865210031078669 | 18:22:41 | 08/10/2018 | 9 | 0.87 | 0 | 0.74 | 9.531522 | 6.451264 |

18 | 865210031078669 | 18:23:14 | 08/10/2018 | 10 | 0.87 | 0 | 2.63 | 9.531484 | 6.451257 |

19 | 865210031078669 | 18:23:47 | 08/10/2018 | 10 | 0.98 | 0 | 2.57 | 9.531505 | 6.451173 |

20 | 865210031078669 | 18:24:20 | 08/10/2018 | 10 | 0.78 | 0 | 0.44 | 9.531486 | 6.451322 |

21 | 865210031078669 | 18:24:53 | 08/10/2018 | 9 | 0.85 | 0 | 0.61 | 9.531514 | 6.451376 |

22 | 865210031078669 | 18:25:26 | 08/10/2018 | 9 | 0.85 | 0 | 0.61 | 9.531542 | 6.451425 |

23 | 865210031078669 | 18:25:59 | 08/10/2018 | 5 | 1.82 | 0 | 14.26 | 9.531661 | 6.451532 |

24 | 865210031078669 | 18:26:32 | 08/10/2018 | 7 | 2.88 | 0 | 8.72 | 9.531518 | 6.451762 |

25 | 865210031078669 | 18:27:06 | 08/10/2018 | 0 | 99.99 | 0 | 14.93 | 9.531453 | 6.452001 |

26 | 865210031078669 | 18:27:40 | 08/10/2018 | 9 | 1.01 | 0 | 4.63 | 9.531857 | 6.451674 |

27 | 865210031078669 | 18:28:13 | 08/10/2018 | 8 | 0.9 | 0 | 0.24 | 9.531544 | 6.451401 |

28 | 865210031078669 | 00:37:47 | 09/12/2018 | 9 | 0.98 | 0 | 0.74 | 9.531361 | 6.451714 |

29 | 865210031078669 | 00:38:34 | 09/12/2018 | 9 | 0.85 | 0 | 0.11 | 9.531422 | 6.451569 |

30 | 865210031078669 | 00:39:21 | 09/12/2018 | 9 | 0.88 | 0 | 0.06 | 9.531407 | 6.451598 |

31 | 865210031078669 | 00:40:08 | 09/12/2018 | 9 | 0.8 | 0 | 0.33 | 9.53139 | 6.451566 |

32 | 865210031078669 | 00:40:55 | 09/12/2018 | 11 | 0.76 | 0 | 0.17 | 9.531413 | 6.451585 |

33 | 865210031078669 | 00:41:42 | 09/12/2018 | 9 | 0.99 | 0 | 0.48 | 9.531431 | 6.45158 |

34 | 865210031078669 | 00:42:29 | 09/12/2018 | 10 | 0.88 | 0 | 1 | 9.531427 | 6.4516 |

35 | 865210031078669 | 00:43:16 | 09/12/2018 | 10 | 0.92 | 0 | 0.63 | 9.531411 | 6.45163 |

36 | 865210031078669 | 00:44:03 | 09/12/2018 | 9 | 0.92 | 0 | 1.98 | 9.531393 | 6.451665 |

Actual Coordinate Values | GPS Coordinate Values | ||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|

Location (Address) | Latitudinal Coordinate | Longitudinal Coordinate | Latitudinal Coordinate | Longitudinal Coordinate | No of Satellite Captured |

ICT Complex | 6.451576 | 9.531347 | 6.451829 | 9.531222 | 4 |

Engineering Complex | 6.449162 | 9.533510 | 6.449241 | 9.533539 | 8 |

E-exam Center | 6.449688 | 9.536088 | 6.449667 | 9.536154 | 9 |

ITS Center | 6.452325 | 9.535278 | 6.452507 | 9.535301 | 5 |

Agric Complex | 6.451862 | 9.533240 | 6.451966 | 9.533134 | 7 |

Senate Building | 6.452790 | 9.534655 | 6.452748 | 9.52748 | 6 |

© 2019 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

## Share and Cite

**MDPI and ACS Style**

Ajao, L.A.; Agajo, J.; Adedokun, E.A.; Karngong, L.
Crypto Hash Algorithm-Based Blockchain Technology for Managing Decentralized Ledger Database in Oil and Gas Industry. *J* **2019**, *2*, 300-325.
https://doi.org/10.3390/j2030021

**AMA Style**

Ajao LA, Agajo J, Adedokun EA, Karngong L.
Crypto Hash Algorithm-Based Blockchain Technology for Managing Decentralized Ledger Database in Oil and Gas Industry. *J*. 2019; 2(3):300-325.
https://doi.org/10.3390/j2030021

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Ajao, Lukman Adewale, James Agajo, Emmanuel Adewale Adedokun, and Loveth Karngong.
2019. "Crypto Hash Algorithm-Based Blockchain Technology for Managing Decentralized Ledger Database in Oil and Gas Industry" *J* 2, no. 3: 300-325.
https://doi.org/10.3390/j2030021