Review of Tidal Lagoon Technology and Opportunities for Integration within the UK Energy System
- The first part provides a description of the mechanism behind the generation of tides, an overview of tidal plants currently in service and a description of tidal lagoons. The characteristics of energy generated by tidal lagoons (variability and intermittency) are then described. Methodologies to reduce both variability and intermittency of energy generated are discussed.
- The second part addresses the integration of tidal energy within the UK energy mix. This section starts with a comparison between the characteristics of solar, wind and tidal energy, and then shows the current levels of energy generation in the UK, divided by energy source. A tidal project proposed for South Wales is used as an example to quantify the impact of this form of energy on the UK energy system.
- Ebb tide: The period between high tide and low tide, during which water flows away from the shore.
- Flow tide: The period between low tide and high tide, during which water flows to the shore.
- Spring tide: maximum tidal range, obtained at full moon or new moon (see Section 4 for more details on this definition).
- Neap tide: minimum tidal range, obtained at first moon quarter or last moon quarter (see Section 4 for more details on this definition).
- Lunar day: the interval of time between two successive crossings of the meridian by the moon (approximately 24 h and 50 min).
- Tidal barrage: it is the most common method used to harness tidal energy, and consists in creating a barrage across an existing basin, such as the estuary of a river. This system is schematically shown in Figure 3a
- Tidal stream: this technology consists of installing turbines inside the water and allowing generation of energy by the tidal wave. This type of generation is still at the research stage and is not addressed in this paper. One limitation of this technology is the low energy density of the tidal stream.
3. The Generation of Tides and the Tidal Range Variability
4. Overview of Existing Tidal Plants and of the Projects Proposed for the Bristol Channel
5. Tidal Lagoon Operation
5.1. Single-Basin Operation
- The optimal time for power generation is dependent on the tidal cycle, and cannot be adjusted to follow power demand levels.
- The amount of power generated is at peak only when maximum differential height is obtained.
- The amount of power generated is dependent on the maximum height reached by the water and on the tide level, therefore, the same basin will yield more energy at spring tide than at neap tide.
5.2. Solutions to Improve Energy Generation
6. Integration of Tidal Energy in the UK Energy Generation Mix
6.1. Characteristics of Solar, Wind and Tidal Energy
6.2. The Role of Tidal Lagoons
7. Quantitative Analysis
7.1. Estimated Annual Energy Generation
7.2. Integration of Tidal Lagoons within the UK Energy Mix
Conflicts of Interest
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Todeschini, G. Review of Tidal Lagoon Technology and Opportunities for Integration within the UK Energy System. Inventions 2017, 2, 14. https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions2030014
Todeschini G. Review of Tidal Lagoon Technology and Opportunities for Integration within the UK Energy System. Inventions. 2017; 2(3):14. https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions2030014Chicago/Turabian Style
Todeschini, Grazia. 2017. "Review of Tidal Lagoon Technology and Opportunities for Integration within the UK Energy System" Inventions 2, no. 3: 14. https://doi.org/10.3390/inventions2030014