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Sexes, Volume 3, Issue 1 (March 2022) – 17 articles

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10 pages, 240 KiB  
Article
Immigrants’ Length of Residence and Stalking Victimization in Canada: A Gendered Analysis
by Joseph A. Braimah, Emmanuel Kyeremeh, Eugena Kwon, Roger Antabe, Yujiro Sano and Bradley P. Stoner
Sexes 2022, 3(1), 219-228; https://doi.org/10.3390/sexes3010017 - 17 Mar 2022
Viewed by 1846
Abstract
Although previous studies have explored the role of gender on stalking victimization, we know very little about how female and male immigrants are exposed to stalking victimization over time after their arrival to their host society. To address this void in the literature, [...] Read more.
Although previous studies have explored the role of gender on stalking victimization, we know very little about how female and male immigrants are exposed to stalking victimization over time after their arrival to their host society. To address this void in the literature, we use the 2014 Canada General Social Survey to compare stalking victimization among native-born individuals, recent immigrants (those who have been in Canada for fewer than 10 years), and established immigrants (those who have been in Canada for 10 years or more) separately for women and men. Applying gender-specific complementary log-log models, we find that female (OR = 0.63, p < 0.05) and male (OR = 0.46, p < 0.01) recent immigrants are less likely to experience stalking victimization than their native-born counterparts. We also find that female established immigrants (OR = 0.65, p < 0.05) are less likely to experience stalking victimization than their native-born counterparts although there is no significance difference for male established immigrants (OR = 1.01, p > 0.05). Overall, this study points to the importance of understanding the intersection between immigrants’ length of residence and gender in the context of stalking victimization in Canada. Based on these findings, we discuss several implications for policymakers and directions for future research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gender Studies)
10 pages, 2631 KiB  
Article
Sports Activity Levels of Sexual Minority Groups in Germany
by Johannes Müller, Hannes Delto, Nicola Böhlke and Michael Mutz
Sexes 2022, 3(1), 209-218; https://doi.org/10.3390/sexes3010016 - 7 Mar 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2728
Abstract
It is widely assumed that LGBT+ people may feel insecure and unwelcome in sports settings, which are often characterized by a binary gender order and a culture of heteronormativity. Previous research also suggests that LGBT+ individuals experience homophobia in the context of sport. [...] Read more.
It is widely assumed that LGBT+ people may feel insecure and unwelcome in sports settings, which are often characterized by a binary gender order and a culture of heteronormativity. Previous research also suggests that LGBT+ individuals experience homophobia in the context of sport. Despite these findings, reliable quantitative data on the sports participation levels of sexual minority groups are scarce. The paper addresses this academic void by analyzing sports activity data of sexual minority groups. The 2019 wave of the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) study is analyzed, which includes a novel LGBT+ boost sample of respondents who self-identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, or non-binary with regard to gender. The analysis of this sample shows that sports activity levels (with regard to frequency and duration) of homo- and bisexual individuals are comparable to the heterosexual majority. Although findings show that a high share of homo- and bisexual individuals experience sexual discrimination, discrimination is not associated with lower participation rates in sports. We thus conclude that the domain of sport—although by no means free of discrimination—offers sufficient participation opportunities for LGBT+ people. Full article
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20 pages, 1043 KiB  
Review
Participatory Action Research for Adolescent Sexual and Reproductive Health: A Scoping Review
by Zohra S Lassi, Ebony Grace Neideck, Bridget Mary Aylward, Prabha H. Andraweera and Salima Meherali
Sexes 2022, 3(1), 189-208; https://doi.org/10.3390/sexes3010015 - 3 Mar 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 6705
Abstract
Introduction: Youth-friendly sexual and reproductive health (SRH) interventions are essential for the health of adolescents (10–19 years). Co-designing is a participatory approach to research, allowing for collaboration with academic and non-academic stakeholders in intervention development. Participatory action research (PAR) involves stakeholders throughout the [...] Read more.
Introduction: Youth-friendly sexual and reproductive health (SRH) interventions are essential for the health of adolescents (10–19 years). Co-designing is a participatory approach to research, allowing for collaboration with academic and non-academic stakeholders in intervention development. Participatory action research (PAR) involves stakeholders throughout the planning, action, observation, and reflection stages of research. Current knowledge indicates that co-producing SRH interventions with adolescents increases a feeling of ownership, setting the scene for intervention adoption in implementation settings. Objectives: This scoping review aims to understand the extent of adolescents’ participation in PAR steps for co-designed SRH interventions, including the barriers and facilitators in co-designing of SRH intervention, as well as its effectiveness on adolescents’ SRH outcomes. Methods: Database searching of PubMed, Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Scopus, Web of Science, Google Scholar, and organisational websites was performed, identifying 439 studies. Results: Upon screening, 30 studies (published between 2006–2021) met the inclusion criteria. The synthesis identified that adolescents were involved in the planning and action stages of the interventions, but not in the observation and reflection stages. Although the review identified the barriers and facilitators for co-designing SRF interventions, none of the included studies reported on the effectiveness of co-designing SRH interventions with adolescents; therefore, meta-analysis was not performed. Conclusions: While no specific outcome of the interventions was reported, all papers agreed that adolescent co-designing in ASRH interventions should occur at all stages to increase understanding of local perceptions and develop a successful intervention. Full article
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11 pages, 267 KiB  
Article
Similar Sexual Behaviour yet Different Outcomes: Comparing Trans and Gender Diverse and Cis PrEP Users in Germany Based on the Outcomes of the PrApp Study
by Max Nicolai Appenroth, Ulrich Marcus, Stefan Albrecht, Klaus Jansen, Barbara Gunsenheimer-Bartmeyer, Viviane Bremer and Uwe Koppe
Sexes 2022, 3(1), 178-188; https://doi.org/10.3390/sexes3010014 - 23 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2748
Abstract
Little knowledge about pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use in trans and gender diverse (TGD) communities in Germany exists. The PrApp Study collected data on PrEP use and sexual behaviour among PrEP users in Germany. Descriptive methods and logistic regression were used to describe PrEP [...] Read more.
Little knowledge about pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use in trans and gender diverse (TGD) communities in Germany exists. The PrApp Study collected data on PrEP use and sexual behaviour among PrEP users in Germany. Descriptive methods and logistic regression were used to describe PrEP use among TGD and cis persons. A total of 4350 PrEP users in Germany were included, with 65 (1.5%) identified as TGD. Compared to cis participants, TGD participants were younger (median age 29 vs. 37 years) and more likely to have a lower income (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 4.4; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.4–8.2) and be born outside Germany (aOR = 2.5; 95% CI = 1.3–4.5). On-demand PrEP use was higher in TGD participants (aOR = 1.9; 95% CI = 1.0–3.5) and numerically more TGD obtained PrEP from informal sources (aOR = 1.8; 95% CI = 0.9–3.5). Testing behaviour, condom use, and number of sexual partners were comparable between both groups. Socioeconomic disparities may constitute structural barriers for TGD people to access PrEP, leading to more informal and on-demand use. PrEP providers need to reduce access barriers for TGD PrEP users and provide information on safe PrEP use for this population. Full article
14 pages, 249 KiB  
Article
A Longitudinal Look at Family Communication about Sexual Issues
by Jennifer M. Grossman and Amanda M. Richer
Sexes 2022, 3(1), 164-177; https://doi.org/10.3390/sexes3010013 - 23 Feb 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 3443
Abstract
Parent–child communication about sex and relationships can protect adolescents from risky sexual behaviors, but few studies investigate how family talk may change over the course of development from adolescence to emerging adulthood. This current study uses thematic analysis to explore continuity and change [...] Read more.
Parent–child communication about sex and relationships can protect adolescents from risky sexual behaviors, but few studies investigate how family talk may change over the course of development from adolescence to emerging adulthood. This current study uses thematic analysis to explore continuity and change in perceived talk with parents about sex and relationships, following a United States sample of 15 adolescent participants over three time points: early adolescence (age 13–14), middle adolescence (age 15–16), and emerging adulthood (age 20–21). Analyses addressed participants’ experiences of talk with parents about sex and relationships (comfort, engagement) and the content of talk: dating and relationships, pregnancy and parenting, protection, STIs, and sexual behavior. Findings show that family communication about sex and relationships extends from early adolescence to emerging adulthood, but changes in content to reflect shifts in adolescent and emerging adult development. Further, while positive engagement and comfort with talk about sex remain relatively high over time, participants’ discomfort and negative engagement appear to increase, highlighting challenges for ongoing family communication. These findings suggest a meaningful, ongoing role for parents in family communication about sex and relationships as their children develop, and suggest some opportunities and challenges that parents may face through this process. Full article
23 pages, 1154 KiB  
Review
Sex Differences in Anxiety and Depression: What Can (and Cannot) Preclinical Studies Tell Us?
by Franco Rafael Mir and María Angélica Rivarola
Sexes 2022, 3(1), 141-163; https://doi.org/10.3390/sexes3010012 - 22 Feb 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 6118
Abstract
In recent years, the gender perspective in scientific research and sex differences in biological studies on emotional disorders have become increasingly important. However, sex bias in basic research on anxiety and depression is still far from being covered. This review addresses the study [...] Read more.
In recent years, the gender perspective in scientific research and sex differences in biological studies on emotional disorders have become increasingly important. However, sex bias in basic research on anxiety and depression is still far from being covered. This review addresses the study of sex differences in the field of anxiety and depression using animal models that consider this issue so far. What can preclinical studies tell us and what are their main limitations? First, we describe the behavioral tests most frequently used in preclinical research to assess depressive-like and anxiety-like behaviors in rodents. Then, we analyze the main findings, strengths, and weaknesses of rodent models of anxiety and depression, dividing them into three main categories: sex chromosome complement-biased sex differences; gonadal hormone-biased sex differences; environmental-biased sex differences. Regardless of the animal model used, none can reproduce all the characteristics of such complex and multifactorial pathologies as anxiety and depressive disorders; however, each animal model contributes to elucidating the bases that underlie these disorders. The importance is highlighted of considering sex differences in the responses that emerge from each model. Full article
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7 pages, 662 KiB  
Article
Anne’s Secret: Teaching Children to Protect Themselves from Child Sexual Abuse Using Animated Cartoons
by Pilar Rueda, Marta Ferragut, M. Victoria Cerezo, Isabel Calvo and Margarita Ortiz-Tallo
Sexes 2022, 3(1), 134-140; https://doi.org/10.3390/sexes3010011 - 9 Feb 2022
Viewed by 3083
Abstract
This paper presents an innovative methodology for the prevention of child sexual abuse (CSA): animated cartoons. CSA is a political, social, educational, and psychological problem that affects many children according to the World Health Organization (WHO). That is why prevention becomes an essential [...] Read more.
This paper presents an innovative methodology for the prevention of child sexual abuse (CSA): animated cartoons. CSA is a political, social, educational, and psychological problem that affects many children according to the World Health Organization (WHO). That is why prevention becomes an essential tool for the protection of children. Children are increasingly accustomed to the use of digital media, both for learning and for entertainment. In response to this evolution on how information is transmitted and according to the tradition that cartoons have always had of transmitting values such as friendship, ecology, or solidarity, a 15-minute long video was developed. This video is an animated cartoon, presenting a story. It is composed of music, six friends, and three fantasy characters, and it was designed for children to learn resources to ask for help in case they are suffering CSA. The video is accompanied by a workbook through which both children and adults reinforce what they have learned in the cartoons and learn additional keys for their protection. Data from the first pilot studies carried out to test the effectiveness of this methodology are also presented, with promising results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sexual Behavior and Attitudes)
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19 pages, 338 KiB  
Article
Do Pornography Use and Masturbation Frequency Play a Role in Delayed/Inhibited Ejaculation during Partnered Sex? A Comprehensive and Detailed Analysis
by David L. Rowland, Abigail L. Morrow, Benjamin D. Hamilton and Krisztina Hevesi
Sexes 2022, 3(1), 115-133; https://doi.org/10.3390/sexes3010010 - 6 Feb 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 8573
Abstract
The role of masturbation frequency and pornography use on sexual response during partnered sex has been controversial, the result of mixed and inconsistent findings. However, studies investigating this relationship have often suffered from methodological shortcomings. We investigated the role of masturbation frequency and [...] Read more.
The role of masturbation frequency and pornography use on sexual response during partnered sex has been controversial, the result of mixed and inconsistent findings. However, studies investigating this relationship have often suffered from methodological shortcomings. We investigated the role of masturbation frequency and pornography use on both the occurrence and severity of delayed/inhibited ejaculation (DE), an increasingly common sexual problem among men. We did so in a large (nonclinical) multinational sample of cisgender men (N = 2332; mean age = 40.3, SE = 0.31) within a multivariate context that relied on multiple (and, when possible, standardized) assessments of sexual dysfunctions while controlling for possible confounding variables. Results indicated a weak, inconsistent, and sometimes absent association between the frequency of pornography use and DE symptomology and/or severity. In contrast, both poorer erectile functioning and anxiety/depression represented consistent and strong predictors of DE and, to a lesser extent, DE severity. Other factors, including relationship satisfaction, sexual interest, and masturbation frequency, were significantly though moderately to weakly associated with DE. In conclusion, associations (or sometimes lack thereof) between masturbation frequency, pornography use, and delayed ejaculation are more clearly understood when analyzed in a multivariate context that controls for possible confounding effects. Full article
17 pages, 243 KiB  
Article
Sexual and Reproductive Health Service Provision to Adolescents in Edmonton: A Qualitative Descriptive Study of Adolescents’ and Service Providers’ Experiences
by Eliza Vass, Zia Bhanji, Bisi Adewale and Salima Meherali
Sexes 2022, 3(1), 98-114; https://doi.org/10.3390/sexes3010009 - 3 Feb 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2619
Abstract
The goal of adolescent sexual reproductive health (SRH) services is to provide information, education and healthcare to promote safe health practices and protect adolescents from negative health outcomes; however, access to timely, effective, and affordable SRH services by adolescents in Edmonton, Canada remains [...] Read more.
The goal of adolescent sexual reproductive health (SRH) services is to provide information, education and healthcare to promote safe health practices and protect adolescents from negative health outcomes; however, access to timely, effective, and affordable SRH services by adolescents in Edmonton, Canada remains relatively unknown. Our study sought to understand the perspectives and experiences of adolescent girls and service providers in relation to availability, accessibility, and quality of SRH services available in Edmonton. The study objectives were to explore SRH services adolescents seek, uncover barriers in accessing SRH services and identify areas to improve accessibility. Qualitative description design was employed to conduct this study. Five service providers specializing in SRH, and eight females (ages 17–20 years) that access SRH services were recruited from the Alberta Health Services Birth Control Centre (BCC). Semi-structured interviews took place via Zoom. Thematic analysis was conducted using NVIVO software. Findings consisted of four primary themes: (1) views and current SRH practices; (2) barriers to accessibility; (3) the effects of COVID-19 on accessibility; (4) identified gaps in SRH care. The findings from our study support the development of knowledge translation strategies and make recommendations to improve the present quality of SRH services in Edmonton. Full article
1 pages, 138 KiB  
Editorial
Acknowledgment to Reviewers of Sexes in 2021
by Sexes Editorial Office
Sexes 2022, 3(1), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/sexes3010008 - 29 Jan 2022
Viewed by 1676
Abstract
Rigorous peer-reviews are the basis of high-quality academic publishing [...] Full article
19 pages, 360 KiB  
Review
Beyond the Screen: Violence and Aggression towards Women within an Excepted Online Space
by Shireen Bernstein, Wayne A. Warburton, Kay Bussey and Naomi Sweller
Sexes 2022, 3(1), 78-96; https://doi.org/10.3390/sexes3010007 - 21 Jan 2022
Viewed by 4170
Abstract
This theoretical review explores the possibility that the consumption of internet pornography (IP) represents a credible risk factor in the perpetration of aggression and violence against women. Sexual violence, abuse, and degradation of women is commonly depicted in mainstream heterosexual IP. Despite the [...] Read more.
This theoretical review explores the possibility that the consumption of internet pornography (IP) represents a credible risk factor in the perpetration of aggression and violence against women. Sexual violence, abuse, and degradation of women is commonly depicted in mainstream heterosexual IP. Despite the violent tenor, the effect this material may have on beliefs, attitudes and behaviors is understudied, as are the reasons why violent and degrading IP is so widely viewed, enjoyed, and accepted. Both theory and empirical findings support the contention that depictions of violence in IP may contribute to real world aggression and violence against women, with two relevant spheres of inquiry proposed in this theoretical review. The first considers IP as a ‘zone of cultural exception’, in which the perpetration of violent and degrading acts against women are eroticized and celebrated, despite such behaviors being considered antisocial in wider society. It is suggested that this excepted status is enabled by the operation of the third person effect to negate the detrimental effects of IP. The second explores the objectification and dehumanization of women in IP and the use of moral disengagement by viewers to enable their disavowal of any harm in the depicted violence. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sexual Relationships, Sexual Behaviors and Gender-Based Violence)
10 pages, 477 KiB  
Article
Dyadic Satisfaction and Shared Affectivity Are Associated with Psycho-Sexual Functioning in Elderly Men and Women
by Erika Limoncin, Daniele Mollaioli, Andrea Sansone, Elena Colonnello, Giacomo Ciocca, Giancarlo Balercia, Nguyễn Hoài Bắc, Thắng Nguyễn Cao and Emmanuele Angelo Jannini
Sexes 2022, 3(1), 68-77; https://doi.org/10.3390/sexes3010006 - 12 Jan 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2597
Abstract
Objectives The quality of sexual life of elderly people represents an understudied topic of sexual medicine and of psycho-sexology. Hence, we aimed to evaluate the association of specific psycho-relational variables, such as intimacy, increased affective gestures towards a partner (AGtP), daily shared activities, [...] Read more.
Objectives The quality of sexual life of elderly people represents an understudied topic of sexual medicine and of psycho-sexology. Hence, we aimed to evaluate the association of specific psycho-relational variables, such as intimacy, increased affective gestures towards a partner (AGtP), daily shared activities, and dyadic satisfaction, with the psychosexual wellbeing of elderly people, expressed in terms of sexual satisfaction. Methods: A cohort of elderly people was selected from a sample of a broader study evaluating the role of sexual activity in protecting the emotional wellbeing of a population subjected to quarantine due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Specifically, the presence of sexual dysfunctions, the emotional wellbeing (i.e., absence of anxiety and/or depression), and the quality of the partners’ relationships were studied. For the study’s purpose, the Sexual Health Inventory for Males (SHIM), the Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), the Orgasmometer and the Orgasmometer-F, the Generalized Anxiety Disorder scale (GAD-7), the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), and the Dyadic Adjustment Scale were adopted. Results: A group of 124 elderly subjects (≥60) was selected for the study’s purposes. Among these, 84% were males (120/124), and 16% were females (20/124). All the subjects declared to be in a stable relationship and to be sexually active during the first lockdown period. Gender differences were found for the Dyadic Satisfaction subscale (males: 37.04 ± 6.57; females: 32.85 ± 10.04; p < 0.05) and the Orgasmometer (males: 7.64 ± 1.30; females: 6.60 ± 2.46; p < 0.01). Linear regression analysis showed the association between higher Orgasmometer scores and: (i) the absence of sexual dysfunctions (β = −1.213; SE = 0.271; p < 0.0001), (ii) higher dyadic satisfaction (β = 0.042; SE = 0.019; p < 0.05), and (iii) reduced shared activities with partner (β = −0.463; SE = 0.143; p < 0.01) and increased affective gestures towards partner (DAS measured AGtP) (β = 0.595; SE = 0.065; p < 0.0001). Post hoc analysis of ANCOVA with the Bonferroni correction method showed a significant difference in the Orgasmometer scores between subjects with and without sexual dysfunction (mean difference: 2.102; SE = 0.340; pBonf < 0.001), with healthy subjects reporting higher scores compared to dysfunctional ones. Conclusions: It is reasonable to suppose that, beyond the presence of sexual dysfunctions, the sexual health of elderly people may benefit from the quality of the relationship, and, specifically, from the presence of affective gestures towards the partner and the dyadic satisfaction. To the contrary, the quantity of time spent together, sharing specific activities, may be considered a factor worsening relational and sexual health. These data should be considered during the evaluation of sexual health among elderly people. Full article
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9 pages, 468 KiB  
Article
Sexual Receptivity Signal of Lordosis Posture and Intra-Sexual Competition in Women
by Farid Pazhoohi, Ray Garza and Alan Kingstone
Sexes 2022, 3(1), 59-67; https://doi.org/10.3390/sexes3010005 - 12 Jan 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 15999
Abstract
Previous research has shown that women may use self-enhancement strategies to compete with one other. Lumbar curvature in women is considered to enhance a woman′s attractiveness, potentially due to its role in bipedal fetal load and sexual receptiveness. The current study investigated the [...] Read more.
Previous research has shown that women may use self-enhancement strategies to compete with one other. Lumbar curvature in women is considered to enhance a woman′s attractiveness, potentially due to its role in bipedal fetal load and sexual receptiveness. The current study investigated the role of lumbar curvature on women’s perceptions of sexual receptiveness as well as its role in women’s intrasexual competitiveness. Study 1 (N = 138) tested and confirmed that women’s intrasexual competition influences their perception of sexual receptivity of women as a function of lordosis posture depicted in a standing posture. Study 2 (N = 69) replicated these results and extended them to other postures, namely, the quadruped and supine positions. Study 3 (N = 106), using a two-alternative forced-choice task, revealed that other women perceive relatively larger arched-back postures as more threatening to their relationship and frequently as being more attractive. Collectively, this work suggests that women consider a lordotic posture in other women as a signal of sexual receptivity and perceive it as a threat to their relationship. This research provides robust support for the sexually receptivity hypothesis of lumbar curvature, questioning the alternative morphological vertebral wedging hypothesis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Sexual Behavior and Attitudes)
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10 pages, 274 KiB  
Article
Dating Violence in Adolescence: Comparison between Scholars and Adolescents in Residential Care
by Maria Dosil-Santamaria, Joana Jaureguizar and Elena Bernaras
Sexes 2022, 3(1), 49-58; https://doi.org/10.3390/sexes3010004 - 10 Jan 2022
Viewed by 1982
Abstract
(1) Background: Dating violence (DV) among adolescents constitutes a serious problem, not only because of the magnitude of the phenomenon, but also because of the seriousness of the personal and social consequences derived from it. The objectives of this study were the following: [...] Read more.
(1) Background: Dating violence (DV) among adolescents constitutes a serious problem, not only because of the magnitude of the phenomenon, but also because of the seriousness of the personal and social consequences derived from it. The objectives of this study were the following: to analyze the prevalence of DV among adolescents in residential care and in schools, according to sex, age and origin, and to analyze the prevalence of the types of violence and victimization, according to the residential care resource and the school. (2) Methods: The sample consisted of adolescents in residential care in the Autonomous Community of the Basque Country (Spain) (n = 271) and adolescents in schools (n = 268) aged between 12 and 17 years. (3) Results: The results showed a higher prevalence of DV in adolescents in residential care than that found in other studies with a normative sample. (4) Conclusions: These results support the need for work and research with these minors in residential care. It also gives an important weight to sociodemographic variables, such as age and sex, and also to the types of violence and victimization, i.e., variables to be taken into account in the intervention with adolescents. Future educational programs should consider DV prevention and children in residential care. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Gender Studies)
9 pages, 238 KiB  
Article
Assessing Sexual Behavior Patterns among Student Athletes of Senior High Schools in the Upper East Region, Ghana
by Mahama Mubarik, John Elvis Hagan, Jr., Akaribo William Aduko, Kasenyi Sulley Abubakari, Oladokun Michael Yemisi and Prosper Asabia
Sexes 2022, 3(1), 40-48; https://doi.org/10.3390/sexes3010003 - 10 Jan 2022
Viewed by 2500
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to investigate the sexual behavior patterns of student athletes of senior high schools in the Upper East Region of Ghana and to assess the differences in sexual behavior patterns between male and females. A sample of 400 [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the sexual behavior patterns of student athletes of senior high schools in the Upper East Region of Ghana and to assess the differences in sexual behavior patterns between male and females. A sample of 400 student athletes using a convenience sampling technique from public senior high schools was drawn to complete a self-designed research study. Descriptive statistics and the Chi-square test tool were used to analyze the collected data. The results showed that student athletes practiced various forms of sexual behaviors such as celibacy, foreplay, vaginal-penile sex, sexual fantasy, masturbation, oral sex, and anal sex. The Chi-square analysis showed significant gender differences in prevalence of masturbation (χ2 (1, n = 400) = 4.6962, probability = 0.030) and sexual fantasy (χ2 (1, n = 400) = 6.8477, probability = 0.009), but not vaginal-penile intercourse (χ2 (1, n = 400) = 1.3197, probability = 0.251) and celibacy (χ2, (1, n = 400) = 0.0721, probability = 0.788). The study concludes that student athletes of senior high schools might be vulnerable to unplanned parenthood and are at risk of STIs, including HIV. Regular health promotion campaigns on sexual risk-taking behaviors are required to help reduce the prevalence of student athletes’ indulgence in risky sexual behavior patterns that can harm their health. It is essential to implement gender-specific interventions (e.g., decision-making skills) when addressing the problems of sexual behaviors among the student athletes in the region. Full article
20 pages, 369 KiB  
Review
Obesity, Body Image Dissatisfaction, and Sexual Dysfunction: A Narrative Review
by Sean M. McNabney
Sexes 2022, 3(1), 20-39; https://doi.org/10.3390/sexes3010002 - 6 Jan 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 5253
Abstract
With approximately two-thirds of the United States adult population classified as overweight or obese, obesity remains a critical public health concern. Obesity not only contributes to several health complications including type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease, but the condition is also associated [...] Read more.
With approximately two-thirds of the United States adult population classified as overweight or obese, obesity remains a critical public health concern. Obesity not only contributes to several health complications including type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease, but the condition is also associated with sexual dysfunction in both women and men. Despite evidence linking obesity and its concomitant pathophysiology to sexual problems, the potential roles of psychosocial factors such as body image are understudied. This narrative review evaluates the research linkages between obesity and sexual dysfunction, with particular attention to the potential effects of body image dissatisfaction. A literature search of biomedical and psychological databases was used to identify research pertaining to obesity, sexual function, and/or body image constructs. The pathophysiological effects of obesity on sexual function are well-documented in mechanistic studies and animal trials, often with corroboration in human clinical samples. However, very few studies examine obesity, body image, and sexual function in tandem. Body image dissatisfaction appears to independently impinge upon the sexual response cycle and mental health outcomes, irrespective of body weight. While obesity is often associated with negative body image appraisal, it is unclear whether these constructs exert additive, synergistic, or antagonistic effects on sexual responsivity. Additionally, overweight/obese individuals who exhibit higher levels of body image satisfaction or self-confidence appear to be protected from the deleterious effects of obesity on sexual satisfaction, at least to some extent. Greater reliance upon conceptual/theoretical models from the body image literature may better clarify the relationships between these constructs. Full article
19 pages, 1692 KiB  
Article
Associations between Fluctuating Shame, Self-Esteem, and Sexual Desire: Comparing Frequent Porn Users and a General Population Sample
by Piet van Tuijl, Peter Verboon and Jacques J. D. M. van Lankveld
Sexes 2022, 3(1), 1-19; https://doi.org/10.3390/sexes3010001 - 22 Dec 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 7345
Abstract
In the present study, we explore the proposed cyclic models for problematic hypersexuality (PH) that involve shame, self-esteem, and sexual desire. These cyclic models are characterized by temporal associations but have not been investigated previously with intensive longitudinal designs. In this study, we [...] Read more.
In the present study, we explore the proposed cyclic models for problematic hypersexuality (PH) that involve shame, self-esteem, and sexual desire. These cyclic models are characterized by temporal associations but have not been investigated previously with intensive longitudinal designs. In this study, we collected up to 70 measurements per participant within a period of seven consecutive days, which allowed us to investigate associations between fluctuations of shame, self-esteem, and sexual desire. Participants were divided in four subgroups: (1) women (n = 87); (2) men (n = 46) from a general population convenience sample; (3) men watching porn >2 times per week, showing non-problematic hypersexuality (NH; n = 10); and (4) men watching porn >2 times per week, experiencing PH (n = 11). Multilevel analyses, including cross-level interactions, were used to investigate between-group differences in intraindividual processes. Results showed that prior increases in shame forecasted higher current sexual desire for men with PH, but not for the other groups, suggesting that men with PH use sexual desire to downregulate dysphoric feelings of shame. Differences between groups in associations between self-esteem and sexual desire were also found. Based on our results, we propose the Split Pleasure/Shame model, which represents emotion dysregulation in PH, and juxtapose this with the pleasurable experience of sex by non-PH groups. Further intensive longitudinal research is necessary to test this model and, more generally, to investigate the fluctuating nature of sexual desire. Full article
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