Occupational Risk Assessment in Landfills: Research Outcomes from Italy
- definition of the accident causation model for workers involved in the characterization and management of landfills;
- definition of specific risk profiles for safety management in landfills.
2. Background Analysis
2.1. Effects of Landfills on Public Health and Environment
2.2. OHS Risk Assessment
3. Materials and Methods
- The first phase concerned data collection, where information is gained from the accident databases of the Italian Workers Compensation Authority (INAIL) and organized;
- In the second phase, a cluster analysis of a selected sample of accidents is carried out with the goal of identifying the main accident determinants and the related risks.
3.1. Data Collection
- Material agent of the deviation, which represents the object, material, etc., that generated the source of injury;
- Contact, which stands for the way the injury occurred;
- Material agent of contact, which is the object, material etc. that inflicted the injury;
- Workplace is the working area where the accident occurred;
- Working process is the company process which the performed activity is part of.
- Activity of the injured (D1), i.e., the whole of the irregular actions performed by the injured person during the incident;
- Activities of third parties (D2), i.e., inappropriate actions performed by other workers or people present in the incident area;
- Working materials (D3);
- Work equipment (D4), i.e., equipment of any type (or part of it) which caused the accident due to some critical issues, such as presence of dangerous elements, removal of protections, tampering with protections, etc.;
- Working environment (D5): this category includes the absence of barriers, protections, parapets, armor, and inadequate signage; the absence of safe routes; the presence of bulky, dangerous elements; the presence of electrical wires and electrical line; the absence of suitable lighting; the presence of gases, vapors or liquids;
- Working clothes and personal protective equipment (PPE) (D6).
- It must be noted that for the study’s purposes, the Infor.MO database was only used to define the accidents’ determinants, while the analyzed sample of accidents was derived from another database, called “Information Fluxes INAIL-Regions”.
3.2. Cluster Analysis
- Extraction of data related to a specific type of accident (i.e., accidents which occurred during working activities in landfills) from the database.
- Identification of the descriptive variables: the information available in the accident reports is codified into n variables and the related k descriptors according to the general model of cluster classification; in this case 4 descriptors were identified (i.e., the accidents’ determinants D1, D2, D3, and D4).
- Definition of the matrix of descriptors based on the accident determinants D1–D4: the n accident variables are converted into an algebraic vector through the Boolean coordinates. The Boolean values in the matrix are “1” if the accident is affected by a certain variable or “0” if the accident is not affected by that variable, in line with . In other words, such categorical information is transformed into dichotomous variables allowing us to define a set of algebraic vectors.
- Clustering: the set of vectors is partitioned into k (≤ n) sets, which represent the clusters (accidents’ aggregation cluster selected on the basis of the membership criterion—minimum Euclidean distance from the centroid): each vector is assigned to a certain cluster based on the criterion of “proximity” to the initial centroid. This is an iterative aggregation process that starts considering k = 4 (i.e., the number of variables). The significance of the results is performed through the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) test  and if the results related to k = 4 are not significant, the aggregation is performed again for k = 3, and so on.
- Identification of the first accident data sample from INAIL database (period 2008–2019), using as data filters the following criteria:
- INAIL compensation code related to “Cleaning up and urban waste cleaning” (code 0420);
- ESAW variables “workplace” and “working process” related, respectively, to: “industrial sites” (group code 010) and other working places (group code 999); “other activities, complementary to groups 10, 20, 30, 40” (group code 050);
- Economic sector of the company (i.e., by means of the ATECO codes) related to solid waste management or remediation activities.
- Screening of data (pre-elaboration) through the selection of the following elements:
- Accident occurred in the working place (not “in itinere”);
- INAIL compensation rate related to “Urban cleaning up, landfill and incinerators management” (code 0421);
- ATECO codes related to solid waste treatment and disposal (see Table A1);
- Working tasks, likely to be performed in landfills as indicated in the database (see Table A2).
- The geographic location of accidents, through five classes stated by INAIL (northeast, northwest, middle, southern Italy, and islands);
- ESAW variables “working place” and “working process”. However, the attention was focused only on files where the “working place” factor (i.e., landfill) was selected as the leading one to profile specific risks.
- 56 accidents in central Italy (8.81%);
- 108 accidents in Italian islands (16.98%);
- 89 accidents in the northeast of Italy (13.99%);
- 333 accidents in the northwest of Italy (52.36%);
- 50 accidents in southern Italy (7.86%).
- AC_23 and AC_24: damages to the musculoskeletal system due to picking up a heavy piece of equipment up (such as a garbage can, a large container, etc.);
- AC_35: slipping due to the physical effort related to picking up a heavy piece of equipment;
- AC_66: contact with an abrasive/sharp tool due to the loss of its control.
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
|INAIL Compensation Codes||ESAW Codes||ATECO Codes|
|0420: Cleaning up and urban waste cleaning|
0421: Urban cleaning up, landfill and incinerators management
010: industrial sites
999: other workplaces not mentioned in ESAW classification
050: Other activities, complementary to groups 10, 20, 30, 40
|E 38.21.09 urban solid waste treatment and disposal|
E 38.22.00 hazardous solid waste treatment and disposal
E 39.00.09 remediation and other solid waste management activities
|INAIL Working Tasks Code||Description|
|1132||Operator at urban solid waste landfills|
|381||Electrician for vehicles|
|797||Operator at press brakes|
|1094||Driver of waste compactors|
|1230||Operator at pump area|
|1321||Operations management worker|
- European Commission (EC). Circular Economy Action Plan. Available online: https://ec.europa.eu/environment/strategy/circular-economy-action-plan_en (accessed on 2 September 2022).
- Kaza, S.; Yao, L.; Bhada-Tata, P.; Van Woerden, F. What a Waste 2.0: A Global Snapshot of Solid Waste Management to 2050; World Bank Publications: Washington, DC, USA, 2018; ISBN 9781464813290. [Google Scholar]
- NSW—Environmental Protection Authority (EPA). Illegal Dumping Research Report. 2015. Available online: https://www.epa.nsw.gov.au/~/media/EPA/Corporate%20Site/resources/illegaldumping/150481-illegal-dumping-report.ashx (accessed on 2 September 2022).
- Limoli, A.; Garzia, E.; De Pretto, A.; De Muri, C. Illegal landfill in Italy (EU)—A multidisciplinary approach. Environ. Forensics 2019, 20, 26–38. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Mazza, A.; Piscitelli, P.; Neglia, C.; Rosa, G.D.; Iannuzzi, L. Illegal dumping of toxic waste and its effect on human health in Campania, Italy. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 6818–6831. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
- Triassi, M.; Alfano, R.; Illario, M.; Nardone, A.; Caporale, O.; Montuori, P. Environmental pollution from illegal waste disposal and health effects: A review on the “triangle of death”. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2015, 12, 1216–1236. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
- Njoku, P.O.; Edokpayi, J.N.; Odiyo, J.O. Health and environmental risks of residents living close to a landfill: A case study of thohoyandou landfill, Limpopo province, South Africa. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 2125. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Fazzo, L.; De Santis, M.; Beccaloni, E.; Scaini, F.; Iavarone, I.; Comba, P.; Airoma, D. A Geographic Information System-Based Indicator of Waste Risk to Investigate the Health Impact of Landfills and Uncontrolled Dumping Sites. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 5789. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Visvanathan, C.; Tränkler, J.; Kuruparan, P.; Basnayake, B.F.A.; Chiemchaisri, C.; Kurian, J.; Gonming, Z. Asian Regional Research Programme on Sustainable Solid Waste Landfill Management in Asia. In Proceedings of the Sardinia 2005, Tenth International Waste Management and Landfill Symposium, Cagliari, Italy, 3–7 October 2005. [Google Scholar]
- Hidalgo, D.; López, F.; Corona, F.; Martín-Marroquín, J.M. A novel initiative to counteract illegal dumping in rural areas of Valladolid Province (Spain). Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 2019, 26, 35317–35324. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Extraordinary Commissioner for the Remediation of Illegal Italian Landfills. Available online: http://www.commissariobonificadiscariche.governo.it/it/ (accessed on 28 October 2022).
- EUR-Lex. European Parliament and Council Regulation 1013/2006. Off. J. Eur. Union 2006, 190, 1–98. Available online: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/ALL/?uri=celex%3A32006R1013 (accessed on 28 October 2022).
- EUR-Lex. European Parliament and Council Directive 2008/99/EC. Off. J. Eur. Union 2008, 328, 28–37. Available online: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX%3A32008L0099 (accessed on 28 October 2022).
- EUR-Lex. European Parliament and Council Directive 2018/850/EU Amending Directive 1999/31/EC on the Landfill of Waste. Off. J. Eur. Union 2018. Available online: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/IT/TXT/?uri=celex:32018L0850 (accessed on 28 October 2022).
- Fujikura, M. Japan’s Efforts Against the Illegal Dumping of Industrial Waste. Environ. Policy Gov. 2011, 21, 325–337. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Heng, L.L. The judiciary and and environmental governance in Singapore. J. Court Innov. 2010, 3, 133–155. [Google Scholar]
- NSW—Environmental Protection Authority (EPA). Illegal Dumping Prevention and Clean Up. 2011. Available online: https://www.epa.nsw.gov.au/-/media/epa/corporate-site/resources/illegaldumping/110002-prevention-cleanup.pdf (accessed on 28 October 2022).
- Al-Khatib, I.A.; Al-Sari, M.I.; Kontogianni, S. Assessment of Occupational Health and Safety among Scavengers in Gaza Strip, Palestine. J. Environ. Public Health 2020, 2020, 3780431. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
- Vaverková, M.D. Landfill impacts on the environment—Review. Geosciences 2019, 9, 431. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Senior, K.; Mazza, A. Italian “Triangle of death” linked to waste crisis. Lancet Oncol. 2004, 5, 525–527. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Zhan, L.T.; Zhang, Z.; Chen, Y.M.; Chen, R.; Zhang, S.; Liu, J.; Li, A.G. The 2015 Shenzhen catastrophic landslide in a construction waste dump: Reconstitution of dump structure and failure mechanisms via geotechnical investigations. Eng. Geol. 2018, 238, 15–26. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Lombardi, M.; Napoleoni, Q.; Mauro, F.; Fargnoli, M.; Berardi, S. Safety Management of the Characterization Activities of Illegal Dumpsites. In Proceedings of the 4th European International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Operations Management, IEOM 2021, Rome, Italy, 2–5 August 2021; IEOM Society: Southfield, MI, USA, 2021; pp. 126–137. [Google Scholar]
- United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP). Closing of an Open Dumpsite and Shifting from Open Dumping to Controlled Dumping and to Sanitary Landfilling. Training Modules. 2005. Available online: https://www.unep.org/resources/report/close-open-dumpsite-and-shifting-open-dumping-controlled-dumping-and-sanitary-land (accessed on 28 October 2022).
- Burger, J.; Gochfeld, M. Health Risks to Ecological Workers on Contaminated Sites-the Department of Energy as a Case Study. J. Community Med. Health Educ. 2016, 6, 427. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Lombardi, M.; Fargnoli, M.; Parise, G. Risk Profiling from the European Statistics on Accidents at Work (ESAW) Accidents′ Databases: A Case Study in Construction Sites. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 4748. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). Landfill Gas Basics (Chapter 2). In Landfill Gas Primer: An Overview for Environmental Health Professionals; ATSDR: Washington, DC, USA, 2008. Available online: https://www.atsdr.cdc.gov/hac/landfill/html/ch2.html (accessed on 28 October 2022).
- Nwachukwu, A.N.; Ephraim, B.E. Temperature Influence on the Variability and Emission of CH4 and CO2 from a Former Manchester Landfill. Pak. J. Anal. Environ. Chem. 2022, 23, 109–117. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Duncan, I.J. Does methane pose significant health and public safety hazards?—A review. Methane: Health and Public Safety Hazards. Environ. Geosci. 2015, 22, 85–96. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Boningari, T.; Smirniotis, P.G. Impact of nitrogen oxides on the environment and human health: Mn-based materials for the NOx abatement. Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. 2016, 13, 133–141. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Li, L.; Moore, P.K. Putative biological roles of hydrogen sulfide in health and disease: A breath of not so fresh air? Trends Pharmacol. Sci. 2008, 29, 84–90. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Lewis, R.J.; Copley, G.B. Chronic low-level hydrogen sulfide exposure and potential effects on human health: A review of the epidemiological evidence. Crit. Rev. Toxicol. 2015, 45, 93–123. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). Training Module: Closing an Open Dumpsite and Shifting from Open Dumping to Controlled Dumping and to Sanitary Land Filling. 2005. Available online: https://wedocs.unep.org/handle/20.500.11822/8444;jsessionid=E25B8C02034587C1988C23AEAE7784B4 (accessed on 28 October 2022).
- Jaishankar, M.; Tseten, T.; Anbalagan, N.; Mathew, B.B.; Beeregowda, K.N. Toxicity, mechanism and health effects of some heavy metals. Interdiscip. Toxicol. 2014, 7, 60–72. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
- Grisey, E.; Belle, E.; Dat, J.; Mudry, J.; Aleya, L. Survival of pathogenic and indicator organisms in groundwater and landfill leachate through coupling bacterial enumeration with tracer tests. Desalination 2010, 261, 162–168. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Davoli, E.; Fattore, E.; Paiano, V.; Colombo, A.; Palmiotto, M.; Rossi, A.N.; Il Grande, M.; Fanelli, R. Waste management health risk assessment: A case study of a solid waste landfill in South Italy. Waste Manag. 2010, 30, 1608–1613. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Vaccari, M.; Vinti, G.; Tudor, T. An analysis of the risk posed by leachate from dumpsites in developing countries. Environments 2018, 5, 99. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Patwary, M.A.; O’Hare, W.T.; Sarker, M.H. An illicit economy: Scavenging and recycling of medical waste. J. Environ. Manag. 2011, 92, 2900–2906. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Thirarattanasunthon, P.; Siriwong, W.; Robson, M.G.; Borjan, M.M. Health risk reduction behaviors model for scavengers exposed to solid waste in municipal dump sites in Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand. Risk Manag. Healthc. Policy 2012, 5, 97–104. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Nyathi, S.; Olowoyo, J.O.; Oludare, A. Perception of Scavengers and Occupational Health Hazards Associated with Scavenging from a Waste Dumpsite in Pretoria, South Africa. J. Environ. Public Health 2018, 2018, 9458156. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Wachukwu, C.K.; Mbata, C.A.; Nyenke, C.U. The health profile and impact assessment of waste scavangers (Rag pickers) in Port Harcourt, Nigeria. J. Appl. Sci. 2010, 10, 1968–1972. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Lavigne, F.; Wassmer, P.; Gomez, C.; Davies, T.A.; Sri Hadmoko, D.; Iskandarsyah, T.Y.W.M.; Gaillard, J.; Fort, M.; Texier, P.; Boun Heng, M.; et al. The 21 February 2005, catastrophic waste avalanche at Leuwigajah dumpsite, Bandung, Indonesia. Geoenviron. Disasters 2014, 1, 10. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Ismail, S.; Taib, A.M.; Rahman, N.A.; Hasbollah, D.Z.A.; Ramli, A.B. Slope stability of landfill with waste degradation. Int. J. Innov. Technol. Explor. Eng. 2019, 9, 393–398. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Reddy, K.R.; Hettiarachchi, H.; Gangathulasi, J.; Bogner, J.E.; Lagier, T. Geotechnical properties of synthetic municipal solid waste. Int. J. Geotech. Eng. 2009, 3, 429–438. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Chavan, D.; Lakshmikanthan, P.; Mondal, P.; Kumar, S.; Kumar, R. Determination of ignition temperature of municipal solid waste for understanding surface and sub-surface landfill fire. Waste Manag. 2019, 97, 123–130. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Polvara, E.; Essna ashari, B.; Capelli, L.; Sironi, S. Evaluation of Occupational Exposure Risk for Employees Working in Dynamic Olfactometry: Focus On Non-Carcinogenic Effects Correlated with Exposure to Landfill Emissions. Atmosphere 2021, 12, 1325. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Krystosik, A.; Njoroge, G.; Odhiambo, L.; Forsyth, J.E.; Mutuku, F.; LaBeaud, A.D. Solid wastes provide breeding sites, burrows, and food for biological disease vectors, and urban zoonotic reservoirs: A call to action for solutions-based research. Front. Public Health 2020, 7, 405. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Vinti, G.; Bauza, V.; Clasen, T.; Tudor, T.; Zurbrügg, C.; Vaccari, M. Health risks of solid waste management practices in rural Ghana: A semi-quantitative approach toward a solid waste safety plan. Environ. Res. 2023, 216 Pt 3, 114728. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Haber, N.; Fargnoli, M.; Lombardi, M. A fuzzy-QFD approach for the enhancement of work equipment safety: A case study in the agriculture sector. Int. J. Reliab. Saf. 2018, 12, 306. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Wilhelm, V. Occupational Safety at Landfills. In Contaminated Soil’90; Arendt, F., Hinsenveld, M., Van Den Brink, W.J., Eds.; Springer: Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1990. [Google Scholar]
- European Parliament and Council Regulation n. 349/2011/UE. Off. J. Eur. Union 2011, 97, 3–8. Available online: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/en/ALL/?uri=CELEX%3A32011R0349 (accessed on 28 October 2022).
- Jacinto, C.; Soares, C.G. The added value of the new ESAW/Eurostat variables in accident analysis in the mining and quarrying industry. J. Saf. Res. 2008, 39, 631–644. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Comberti, L.; Demichela, M.; Baldissone, G.; Fois, G.; Luzzi, R. Large occupational accidents data analysis with a coupled unsupervised algorithm: The S.O.M. k-means method. An application to the wood industry. Safety 2018, 4, 51. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Hoła, A.; Sawicki, M.; Szóstak, M. Methodology of classifying the causes of occupational accidents involving construction scaffolding using Pareto-Lorenz analysis. Appl. Sci. 2018, 8, 48. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Molinero-Ruiz, E.; Pitarque, S.; Fondevila-McDonald, Y.; Martin-Bustamante, M. How reliable and valid is the coding of the variables of the European Statistics on Accidents at Work (ESAW)? A need to improve preventive public policies. Saf. Sci. 2015, 79, 72–79. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Chokor, A.; Naganathan, H.; Chong, W.K.; Asmar, M. El Analyzing Arizona OSHA Injury Reports Using Unsupervised Machine Learning. Procedia Eng. 2016, 145, 1588–1593. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Raviv, G.; Shapira, A.; Fishbain, B. AHP-based analysis of the risk potential of safety incidents: Case study of cranes in the construction industry. Saf. Sci. 2017, 91, 298–309. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Ayhan, B.U.; Tokdemir, O.B. Predicting the outcome of construction incidents. Saf. Sci. 2019, 113, 91–104. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Ale, B.J.; Bellamy, L.J.; Baksteen, H.; Damen, M.; Goossens, L.H.; Hale, A.R.; Mud, M.; Oh, J.; Papazoglou, I.A.; Whiston, J.Y. Accidents in the construction industry in the Netherlands: An analysis of accident reports using Storybuilder. Reliab. Eng. Syst. Saf. 2008, 93, 1523–1533. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Alper, S.J.; Karsh, B. A systematic review of safety violations in industry. Accid. Anal. Prev. 2009, 41, 739–754. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Raviv, G.; Fishbain, B.; Shapira, A. Analyzing risk factors in crane-related near-miss and accident reports. Saf. Sci. 2017, 91, 192–205. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Palamara, F.; Piglione, F.; Piccinini, N. Self-Organizing Map and clustering algorithms for the analysis of occupational accident databases. Saf. Sci. 2011, 49, 1215–1230. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- European Parliament and Council Regulation (EC) N. 1893/2006 Establishing the Statistical Classification of Economic Activities NACE Revision 2. Off. J. Eur. Union 2006, 393, 1–39. Available online: https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/ALL/?uri=celex%3A32006R1893 (accessed on 28 October 2022).
- INAIL Database Infor.Mo. Available online: https://www.inail.it/cs/internet/attivita/ricerca-e-tecnologia/area-salute-sul-lavoro/sistemi-di-sorveglianza-e-supporto-al-servizio-sanitario-naziona/informo.html (accessed on 28 October 2022).
- Campo, G.; Cegolon, L.; De Merich, D.; Fedeli, U.; Pellicci, M.; Heymann, W.C.; Pavanello, S.; Guglielmi, A.; Mastrangelo, G. The italian national surveillance system for occupational injuries: Conceptual framework and fatal outcomes, 2002–2016. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 7631. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Goyal, K.; Kumar, S. Financial literacy: A systematic review and bibliometric analysis. Int. J. Consum. Stud. 2021, 45, 80–105. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Punj, G.; Stewart, D.W. Cluster analysis in marketing research: Review and suggestions for application. J. Mark. Res. 1983, 20, 134–148. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Harb, H.; Makhoul, A.; Couturier, R. An enhanced K-means and ANOVA-based clustering approach for similarity aggregation in underwater wireless sensor networks. IEEE Sens. J. 2015, 15, 5483–5493. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- IBM SPSS Statistics 28 Documentation. Available online: https://www.ibm.com/support/pages/ibm-spss-statistics-28-documentation#en (accessed on 31 October 2022).
- Coelho, C.; Mojtahedi, M.; Kabirifar, K.; Yazdani, M. Influence of Organisational Culture on Total Quality Management Implementation in the Australian Construction Industry. Buildings 2022, 12, 496. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Sen, S.; Yildirim, I. A Tutorial on How to Conduct Meta-Analysis with IBM SPSS Statistics. Psych 2022, 4, 640–667. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Schreiber, J.B.; Pekarik, A.J. Using Latent Class Analysis versus K-means or Hierarchical Clustering to understand museum visitors. Curator Mus. J. 2014, 57, 45–59. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Dien, Y.; Dechy, N.; Guillaume, E. Accident investigation: From searching direct causes to finding in-depth causes—Problem of analysis or/and of analyst? Saf. Sci. 2012, 50, 1398–1407. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Lane, R.; Stanton, N.A.; Harrison, D. Applying hierarchical task analysis to medication administration errors. Appl. Ergon. 2006, 37, 669–679. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Fargnoli, M.; Lombardi, M.; Puri, D. Applying Hierarchical Task Analysis to Depict Human Safety Errors during Pesticide Use in Vineyard Cultivation. Agriculture 2019, 9, 158. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Khanal, A.; Sondhi, D.A.; Giri, S. Use of personal protective equipment among waste workers of Sisdol landfill site of Nepal 1. Int. J. Occup. Saf. Health 2021, 11, 158–164. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Vigoroso, L.; Caffaro, F.; Cavallo, E. Warning against Critical Slopes in Agriculture: Comprehension of Targeted Safety Signs in a Group of Machinery Operators in Italy. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2019, 16, 611. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
- Bohm, J.; Harris, D. Risk Perception and Risk-Taking Behavior of Construction Site Dumper Drivers Risk Perception and Risk-Taking Behavior of Construction Site Dumper Drivers. Int. J. Occup. Saf. Ergon. 2010, 16, 55–67. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed][Green Version]
- Mukherjee, S.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Hashim, M.A.; Gupta, B.S. Contemporary Environmental Issues of Landfill Leachate: Assessment and Remedies. Crit. Rev. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2015, 45, 472–590. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Rudakov, M.; Gridina, E. Risk-Based Thinking as a Basis for Efficient Occupational Safety Management in the Mining Industry. Sustainability 2021, 13, 470. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Hoła, B.; Szóstak, M. Modeling of the Accidentality Phenomenon in the Construction Industry. Appl. Sci. 2019, 9, 1878. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Ning, X.; Qi, J.; Wu, C. A quantitative safety risk assessment model for construction site layout planning. Saf. Sci. 2018, 104, 246–259. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Mishra, H.; Karmakar, S.; Kumar, R.; Singh, J. A Framework for Assessing Uncertainty Associated with Human Health Risks from MSW Landfill Leachate Contamination. Risk Anal. 2017, 37, 1237–1255. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Gotvajn, A.Z.; Tisler, T.; Koncan, J.Z. Comparison of different treatment strategies for industrial landfill leachate. J. Hazard. Mater. 2009, 162, 1446–1456. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Fargnoli, M.; De Minicis, M.; Di Gravio, G. Knowledge Management integration in Occupational Health and Safety systems in the construction industry. Int. J. Prod. Dev. 2011, 14, 165–185. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Gunduz, M.; Laitinen, H. A 10-step safety management framework for construction small and medium-sized enterprises. Int. J. Occup. Saf. Ergon. 2017, 23, 353–359. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Li, J.; Dong, Q.; Yu, K.; Liu, L. Asbestos and asbestos waste management in the Asian-Pacific region: Trends, challenges and solutions. J. Clean. Prod. 2014, 81, 218–226. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Jibiri, N.N.; Isinkaye, M.O.; Momoh, H.A. Assessment of radiation exposure levels at Alaba e-waste dumpsite in comparison with municipal waste dumpsites in southwest Nigeria. J. Radiat. Res. Appl. Sci. 2014, 7, 536–541. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
|Landfill Emissions||Main Hazards||Effects on Public Health and Environment|
|Landfill gas||CO2||nausea, vomiting, headache, loss of coordination, and high blood pressure; CH4: coma and death due to asphyxia at very high levels|
|NOx||respiratory diseases and heart illnesses|
|H2S||neurological symptoms and deficits, vascular and respiratory diseases; extremely flammable; bad odors|
|Leachate||Chemicals (e.g., heavy metals, acids) and microorganisms||Contamination of soil, surface and/or groundwater, and, accordingly, of food reservoirs|
|Uncovered solid waste||Sharps; flammable waste; pathogens; geotechnical instability||Waste slides; open burning; illnesses; injuries; changes in biodiversity|
|Topographic measures||solid waste, cutting objects, toxic gases, electricity, bacteria, and pathogens||biologic risk, fire risk, chemical risk, electric shock|
|Sampling||solid waste, cutting objects, toxic gases, geotechnical instability, leachate, flammable waste, machinery, bacteria, and pathogens||biologic risk, chemical risk, slipping and tripping, fire risk, risk of falling from height, risk of falling materials, risks related to machinery|
|Preliminary site visits||solid waste, cutting objects, toxic gases, leachate, bacteria, and pathogens, geotechnical instability||risk of falling materials, slipping and tripping, fire risk, biological risk, chemical risk|
|Working area set up||solid waste, cutting objects, machinery, contemporary presence of different contractors||risk of falling materials, slipping and tripping, machinery-related risks, interferential risks|
|Remediation activities||solid waste, cutting objects, toxic gases, leachate, bacteria and pathogens, machinery, geotechnical instability||risk of falling materials, biological risk, chemical risk, slipping and tripping, fire risk, machinery-related risks|
|Logistics/transportation||machinery, vehicles, contemporary presence of several workers||machinery-related risks, transportation-related risks|
|Accident Factors||Accident Categories|
|Activity; contact; deviation; material agent of activity; material agent of contact; material agent of deviation; working process; workplace||Dynamics|
|Working task; age range; sex; nationality; level of working experience||Injured worker|
|INAIL compensation rate; ATECO code (i.e., the Italian classification of Economic Activities ); type of company; number of employees||Employer|
|Type of accident; type of injury; part of the body injured; lost days at work||Consequences|
|“In itinere” accident (yes/no); road accident; geographic accident location (region); year of the event; accident compensation||Other features|
|Accident Code (AC)||Worker’s|
|Algorithm||K-means, combined with ANOVA tests|
|Variables||Determinants: Activity of the injured (D1), Materials (D2), Working equipment (D3), Environment (D4).|
As suggested by IBM, determinants D1–D4 were considered “categorical variables” and, more in detail, “nominal variables”
|Max number of clusters||Equal to the number of determinants (D = 4)|
|Criteria||Minimum Euclidean Distance from the centroids|
|Material Agent||Physical Activity|
|V1||Piece of Construction (i.e., stairs, floor, etc.)||V10||Operations on machinery|
|V3||Utensils||V12||Working with utensils|
|V4||Machinery||V13||Manual transport of items|
|V5||Means of transport||V14||Body movements|
|V9||Other material agent|
|V16||Contact with flame/thermic source||V22||Material loss|
|V17||Crushing||V23||Breaking of material|
|V18||Hit by an external item||V24||Control loss|
|V19||Contact with sharp or abrasive materials||V25||Falling|
|V20||Physical effort||V26||Body movements|
|V30||Building works||V39||Storage area|
|V35||Circulation (with/without means of transport)|
|Number of |
|Driver of the excavator||22||Slipping, handling of loads, falling from heights, falling materials, road crushes, being run over|
|Maintenance operator||6||Falling, crushing, contact with sharp or abrasive surfaces|
|Electrician for vehicles||2||Contact with sharp or abrasive surfaces|
|Operations management worker||1||Contact with sharp or abrasive surfaces|
|Driver of waste compactors||1||Physical effort|
|Operator at MSW landfills||4||Slipping, manual handling of loads, and contact with sharp or abrasive surfaces|
|Work equipment misuse||0.00||0.72||0.14||0.00|
|Clustering validity value|
|cluster 1||9||cluster 2||47||cluster 3||14||cluster 4||8|
|Valid values||78||Missing values||0|
|System management||Lack of training (provided)||🔲||🔲|
|Lack of barriers||🔲||🔲|
|Lack of planning of the machinery circulations||🔲||🔲|
|Lack of a system for collecting rainwater||🔲||🔲|
|Lack of a system for collecting leachate||🔲||🔲|
|Lack of a system for collecting gases||🔲||🔲|
|Lack of capping||🔲||🔲|
|Lack of machinery protection systems (ROPS, seatbelts)||🔲||🔲|
|Lack of filters against dust, gases, and vapors||🔲||🔲|
|Worker||Misuse of personal protective equipment (PPE)||🔲||🔲|
|Lack of training (copy)||🔲||🔲|
|Sharp surfaces, edges||🔲||🔲|
|Lack of stability||🔲||🔲|
|Toxic materials (e.g., asbestos)||🔲||🔲|
|Environment||Toxic gases and vapors||🔲||🔲|
|Floods and hydro-geo risks||🔲||🔲|
|Lack of stability||🔲||🔲|
|Extreme temperatures (hot, cold)||🔲||🔲|
Disclaimer/Publisher’s Note: The statements, opinions and data contained in all publications are solely those of the individual author(s) and contributor(s) and not of MDPI and/or the editor(s). MDPI and/or the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to people or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content.
© 2023 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Lombardi, M.; Mauro, F.; Fargnoli, M.; Napoleoni, Q.; Berardi, D.; Berardi, S. Occupational Risk Assessment in Landfills: Research Outcomes from Italy. Safety 2023, 9, 3. https://doi.org/10.3390/safety9010003
Lombardi M, Mauro F, Fargnoli M, Napoleoni Q, Berardi D, Berardi S. Occupational Risk Assessment in Landfills: Research Outcomes from Italy. Safety. 2023; 9(1):3. https://doi.org/10.3390/safety9010003Chicago/Turabian Style
Lombardi, Mara, Francesca Mauro, Mario Fargnoli, Quintilio Napoleoni, Davide Berardi, and Simona Berardi. 2023. "Occupational Risk Assessment in Landfills: Research Outcomes from Italy" Safety 9, no. 1: 3. https://doi.org/10.3390/safety9010003