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Ethnobotanical Study of Medicinal Plants Used as Anti-Obesity Remedies in the Nomad and Hunter Communities of Burkina Faso

Laboratory of Biochemistry and Applied Chemistry (LABIOCA), UFR/SVT, 09 BP 848 Ouagadougou 09, University of Ouagadougou, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso
Research Institute for Health Sciences (IRSS) 03 BP 7192 Ouagadougou 03, Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Medicines 2016, 3(2), 9;
Submission received: 10 February 2016 / Revised: 23 March 2016 / Accepted: 25 March 2016 / Published: 26 April 2016


Background: Obesity is a global epidemic that affects both developed and developing countries. According to World Health Organization (WHO), in 2014, over 1.9 billion adults were overweight. Burkina Faso, like other countries, faces the problem of obesity, with a prevalence of 7.3%. The main cause is excessive intake of caloric foods combined with low physical activity, although genetic, endocrine and environmental influences (pollution) can sometimes be predisposing factors. This metabolic imbalance often leads to multiple pathologies (heart failure, Type II diabetes, cancers, etc.). Drugs have been developed for the treatment of these diseases; but in addition to having many side effects, locally these products are not economically accessible to the majority of the population. Burkina Faso, like the other countries bordering the Sahara, has often been confronted in the past with periods of famine during which populations have generally used anorectic plants to regulate their food needs. This traditional ethnobotanical knowledge has not been previously investigated. An ethnobotanical survey was conducted in Burkina Faso in the provinces of Seno (North) and Nayala (Northwest) to list the plants used by local people as an anorectic and/or fort weight loss. Methods: The survey, conducted in the two provinces concerned traditional healers, herbalists, hunters, nomads and resourceful people with knowledge of plants. It was conducted over a period of two months and data were collected following a structured interview with the respondents. The approach was based on dialogue in the language of choice of the respondent and the use of a questionnaire. The data have been structured and then statistically analyzed. Results: The fifty-five (55) respondents of the survey were aged between 40 and 80 years. Sixty-one (61) plant species, belonging to thirty-one (31) families were listed as appetite suppressants and/or for their anti-obesity properties. The main families of plants are Mimosaceae, Rubiaceae, Asclepiadaceae and Cesalpiniaceae. Fruits are the most used part of the plant organs. Consumption in the raw state or as a decoction are the two main forms of preparation. Conclusion: The great diversity of plants cited by informants demonstrates the existence of rich local knowledge to address obesity in Burkina Faso. Evaluation of the biochemical activity of the extracts of the most cited species could allow the development of a phytomedicine economically accessible to the majority of the population. This could allow for the preservation of biodiversity in this region which is weakened by climate change because some of the species cited are in fragile state or are threatened with extinction.

Graphical Abstract

1. Introduction

Obesity is a condition that concerns people of all ages in both developed and developing countries. According to the World Health organization (WHO), in 2014, over 1.9 billion adults were overweight in the world. Burkina Faso has faced a fast growing obesity problem in the last decade, and today more than 7.3% of its population is affected [1]. In addition to being a social handicap, this metabolic imbalance is often associated with diseases such as hypertension, myocardial infarction, stroke, type II diabetes, dyslipidemia and certain cancers [2]. Excessive weight gain is usually caused by increased consumption of high caloric foods and decreased physical activity. Genetic (familial predisposition), biological (endocrine disorders), environmental (pollution) [3] factors may also contribute to this problem.
In Burkina Faso as in most developing countries, urbanization and socio-economic development are accompanied by a change in diet towards more with a high energy density foods (more meat, fat, salt and sugary foods) as well as a reduction in physical activity (mechanized transport) [4] resulting in increased storage of the excess calories as fat in adipose tissue. An aggravating cause of the situation in Africa is the antiquated traditional African conception of affluence, according to which obesity of women is a positive indicator of the material abundance of the family and of a good reproductive health. One can find, in the pharmaceutical market, some synthesis of chemical drugs that are used against obesity: Sibutral, Rimonabant, Isomeride, Xenical, Lorcaserin, Ponderal, Alli, and Qsymia. But the cost of these products generally puts them out of reach of most people; and worse, many of these products have many side effects [5].
That is the reason for the withdrawal from the market of some older drugs such as Sibutral, Rimonabant, Isomeride, Ponderal and Xenical [5,6]. The development of new antiobesity molecules from natural products has become a necessity. This seems realizable because in phytotherapy, several types of plants are used against this disease. The plant bioactive extracts would act through their inhibitory activities for digestive lipases, adipocyte differentiation, or by increasing thermogenesis and anorexia [7]. Burkina Faso, like other Sahelian countries, has often been confronted in the past with periods of famine. During these times of food shortage, people have generally used plants with anorectic effects to regulate their food and drink intake. Burkina Faso is also a savannah country with many nomadic and hunter societies. During their displacements or hunting parties, these people could be facing period of lack of food or water. These populations survived thanks to a strong ethnobotanical knowledge able to help in the management of satiety. However, in Burkina Faso there are few data on these plant species used as anorectics or against obesity. An ethnobotanical survey was conducted in the province of Seno (nomadic area in Burkina Faso northern area) and the Nayala (traditional hunting area in northwest of Burkina Faso) in order to collect information on plants used by local people as anorectics and/or to manage weight. This study aimed to establish an inventory of appetite suppressant or antiobesity plant species.

2. Materials and Methods

2.1. Study Area

Burkina Faso (Figure 1) is a landlocked country located in the heart of West Africa and enclosed between six countries: Mali, Niger, Benin, Togo, Ghana and Cote d'Ivoire. It covers an area of approximately 274,000 km². It is located inside the loop of the Niger River between 10 ° and 15 ° north latitude and between 2° east and 5°30’ west longitude. Its capital city is Ouagadougou. The climate is characterized by a long dry season (from October to May) and an irregular rainy season (from June to September). Monthly average temperatures range between 22 °C and 42 °C. Except for the extreme north which consists of desert or semi-desert, Burkina Faso is a savannah country. The homogenous and seasonal-dependent vegetal landscape is constituted by Parkia biglobosa (Néré in French), Vitellaria paradoxa (Karité in French), Cassia sp and Andasonia digitata ecosystems. This country is divided into 45 provinces grouped into 13 regions.
The surveys were conducted in the two north provinces where nomadic or hunting populations reside.
Seno Province, whose capital is Dori, is located in the north eastern area of Burkina Faso. It has 215 villages and an area of 6979 km2 with a population of 264,815 people [8]. This locality has a Sahelian climate, characterized by a long dry season (May to October) and a short rainy season (average rainfall of 400 mm), with varying temperatures (10–43 °C), low humidity, wind and a large amounts of sunshine, typical of the Sahel. The vegetation is characterized by wooded and shrubby steppe that is heavily damaged. However, there are a few gallery forests which are generally located along the rivers (like the swamp of Dori or the Yakouta River). The dominant types of vegetation are thorn trees [9].
Famine is recurrent in this province. The predominant population is the Fulani group, who are nomadic herders. They have survived drought in this region through their knowledge of appetite suppressing plants.
Located in the northwest of Burkina Faso, Nayala province (whose capital is Toma) has an area of 3919 km2 with a population of 156,861 and a northern Sudanian climate. The vegetation consists of shrub or herbaceous savannah with some groves near villages. Soils are clayey [10]. Many hunter groups live in this province. It often happens that these hunters lose themselves in the bush tracking a hunted animal. To survive these situations (temporary lack of water or food, which can take days), they have developed a rich ethnobotanical knowledge on plants possessing appetite suppressing or thirst quenching properties.

2.2. Methods

2.2.1. Data Collection

The ethnobotanical survey was conducted in the provinces of Seno and Nayala during the period from August to September 2013. Over 70 interviews were conducted in different localities of these provinces. Data were collected following a structured interview with traditional healers, herbalists and hunters. These groups are located in each of these areas, organized in associations. A preliminary meeting was held during which they were informed about the objectives of the study. After information was provided, the people who agreed to participate in the survey were individually interviewed. The approach was based on a dialogue using the language of choice of the respondent and the use of a questionnaire. A field trip was organized and plants mentioned in the interview were collected with the help of the respondent in order to make the herbal constitution. The intervention of interpreters was necessary in some cases. The cited and harvested plant specimens were identified by Professor Jeanne Millogo-Rasolodimby (Botanist, Department of Ecology/University of Ouagadougou).

2.2.2. Data Analysis

Survey data were first extracted manually then entered and processed by Excel software. The citation frequencies of all data obtained from this study was subjected to descriptive statistical analysis by calculating of frequency of plant citations, using the formula:
F = N u m b e r   o f   p e o p l e   w h o   c i t e d   t h e   s p e c i e s   T o t a l   n u m b e r   o f   p e r s o n s   i n t e r v i e w e d   ×   100

2.2.3. The Use Value Index (UVI)

The use value index (UVI) of a species for each use class is evaluated to show the importance that people attach to a given species in the localities [11]. It is obtained by calculating the following:
Where U is the number of times that species is cited for a category of use and N the total number of informants.

3. Results

3.1. Results

3.1.1. Traditional Knowledge: Age and Gender

During the survey 55 people have been interviewed including 34 in Nayala and 21 in Seno. The mean age varies between 40 and 81 years and over 50% were between 50 and 70 years old (Figure 2). The practice time (in years) varies between 7 and 35. Men represented 92.7% of the respondents versus 7.3% what were women. All were traditional healers, herbalists, hunters or elderly nomadic person with knowledge on plants. In total 62 plant species belonging to 32 families were listed as having anorectic and/or anti-obesity activity. Table 1 shows the list and ethno-botanic characteristics of these plant species.

3.1.2. Part of Plant and Method of Preparation

The analysis of the mode of use of the various listed plants revealed that 53.6% of plants are appetite suppressants, 30.4% are used to lose weight and 15.9% are used as a thirst quencher. Most of the species cited are trees (59.6%), followed by shrubs (20.9%), herbs (14.5%) and creeping plants (4.8%) (Figure 3). Table 2, Table 3 and Table 4 present the species which are used as appetite suppressants, for weight reduction and as thirst quenchers; with the part used and the use value indexes. Raphionacme daronii Berhaut. (Asclepiadaceae) is the most commonly used species for appetite suppressant activity, with a use value index of 0.27; followed by Gardenia erubescens Stapf and Hutch. (Rubiaceae) with 0. 22 as its use value index. For slimming property, the species Tamarindus indica L. (Caesalpiniaceae) and Ozoroa insignis Del. (Anacardiaceae) are the most used with use value of 0.05. Raphhionacme daronii Berhaut. (Asclepiadaceae) and Brachystelma bingeri A. Chev. (Asclepiadaceae) with respective use value indexes of 0.27 and 0.16 are most commonly used as a thirst quencher. Concerning part of plants, fruits have the highest frequency of use (Figure 4). Decoctions (35.5%) and raw consumption (64.5%) (Figure 5) are the main forms of use. Oral ingestion is the main means of administration.

3.1.3. Families of Plants Used

The study indicates that Mimosaceae, Rubiaceae, Asclepiadaceae, Cesalpiniaceae, Anacardiaceae, Apogynaceae, Meliaceae, Combretaceae and Tiliaceae have been the most cited as appetite suppressant/anti-obesity plants (Figure 6). Raphionacme daronii (F = 25.4%), Gardenia erubescens (F = 20.3%), Brachystelma bingeri (F = 15.3%), Commiphora africana (F = 11.9%), Leptadenia hastata (F = 10. 2%), Balanites aegyptiaca (F = 10.2%) are the six species with the highest frequencies of use.

3.2. Discussion

The survey has allowed identifying 62 species of plants which have anorectic and/or anti-obesity activity. Most interviewees were men; female healers or hunters are rare in these provinces. In Africa these activities are mainly the responsibility of men and the knowledge is transmitted very often from father to son. The 62 species listed have already been studied for some properties (Table 5).
Eight species, namely Leptadenia hastata, Balanites aegyptiaca, Zizyphus mauritiana, Tamarindus indica, Khaya senegalensis, Brachystelma bingeri, Azadirachta indica, and Adansonia digitata have been cited both in Nayala and Seno. So, these plants grow well in a Sahelian or in a Sudanian climate. In this study Raphionacme daronii (F = 25.4%), Gardenia erubescens (F = 20.3%), Brachystelma bingeri (F = 15.3%), Commiphora africana (F = 11.9%) Leptadenia hastata (F = 10.2%) and Balanites aegyptiaca (F = 10.16%) are the six species which have presented the highest frequency of citation and greater use value indexes in the group of appetite suppressant plants species. This indicates the importance given to these plants by these populations in the treatment of obesity or as an anorectic.
Raw fresh material directly and decoctions are the two main forms of consumption. Anorectic or thirst quenching plants are usually eaten raw as they are most often used to immediately remedy a situation of hunger or thirst. The preparations generally involve a single plant material, but sometimes mixtures can also be used. In the latter, a synergistic effect may be supposed [12].
There are some differences in the methods of preparation and parts of plants used according to each locality. For example, the decoction of bark and fruits of Tamarindus indica is used in Seno while the decoction of roots is used in Nayala. Also, fruits of Zizuphus mauritiana are prescribed as an appetite suppressant in both localities but the roots are used for weight loss in Seno.
According to the literature, Zizyphus mauritiana, Tamarindus indica and Moringa oleifera have previously been tested for anti-obesity activity [140,141,142]. This could be linked to a widespread use of these species in many regions for the same indication.
The most cited plants have already been studied for various activities:
Balan ites aegyptiaca is mainly consumed in dearth times by the population [143], and it contains carbohydrates, steroidal saponines, fiber, gum [37] alkaloids and flavonoids [32]. It also contains galactose, mannose, arabinose, xylose, rhamnose and glucuronic acid [31]. Their fruits are used against diabetes [30,144] as well as the seeds [145]. The plant is also known having anti-tumor activity [33] and an anti-infertility property [146].
Leaves of Leptadenia hastata are rich in tannins, glycosides, alkaloids, carbohydrates and flavonoids. [98]. d-Cymarose and d-oleandrose were also isolated [97]. They are used against diabetes 97] and supposed havingantibacterial activity [98] and anti-androgen property [99].
Commiphora africana contains cardiac glycosides and reducing sugars [147]. It has antimicrobial activity and is traditionally used against diarrhea [54].
Fruit and young leaves of Gardenia erubescens are consumed during dearth periods [148]. These fruits contain carbohydrates and fibers [149] and they are also rich in anthraquinones, tannins, sterols and triterpenes [77]. The leaves contain tannins, triterpene saponins, other triterpenoids, iridoids and sterols. The bark is rich in triterpene saponins, triterpenoids and sterols [37]. The leaves are used for the treatment of digestive parasites in small ruminants [78] and the bark of the trunk has analgesic and diuretic activity [79].
Gardenia erubescens is traditionally used against hepatitis [150].
Raphionacme daronii is a plant used during times of famine; it is eaten raw [148,151]. The tuber contains sugars and starch [114].
The tuber of Brachystelma bingeri is used against insufficient sperm and male sexual asthenia, and it is very nutritious, stimulating and can act as a tonic [37]. It is consumed during famine periods [143] and is rich in carbohydrates, saponins, triterpenes and sterols [37].
The most cited plants listed during the survey have not been investigated for an anti-obesity study. So, there is a need to test their bioactivity and eventually study the phytochemistry and pharmacological profile of these plants in order to scientifically support traditional ethnobotanical and to secure their use.

4. Conclusions

The ethnobotanical survey revealed the presence of an enormous biodiversity of plants used in these two north provinces of Burkina Faso to modulate appetite and thirst. This rich ethnobotanical background indicates the high potential of traditional knowledge to serve for the development of natural product-derivates as affordable medicines. This may contribute to the preservation of traditional knowledge on anti-obesity herbs of these two provinces of Burkina Faso. Twenty-two species cited are in fragile state or are threatened with extinction. This requires taking safeguard measures. It is therefore useful to study the ecology of these species, evaluate the resources and the natural regeneration potential. Reforestation with these species requires the mastery of the production of seeds and planting in areas of high use. This is an important endeavour that could help to fight against the massive destruction of these plants, in the context of climate change and the unprecedented human pressure on the environment. Investigation into these six most cited and not yet studied species could lead to the discovery of new products to address the obesity epidemic.


the authors would liket to thank Dr. Willibald Schliemann for his assistance and advices for the paper language improvement.

Author Contributions

A.H. conceived and designed the project and D.P. performed the fieldwork survey. For data analysis D.P., A.H., S.G. and N.O. contributed. For the paper design D.P. and A.H. contributed. For the paper reading and improving D.P., A.H., S.G. and N.O. contributed.

Conflicts of Interest

We declare that we have no conflict of interest.


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Figure 1. Maps of the survey area.
Figure 1. Maps of the survey area.
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Figure 2. Age group of informants.
Figure 2. Age group of informants.
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Figure 3. Applied share of different categories of plants.
Figure 3. Applied share of different categories of plants.
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Figure 4. Using part of different plant organs.
Figure 4. Using part of different plant organs.
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Figure 5. Use of various preparation methods.
Figure 5. Use of various preparation methods.
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Figure 6. Cited plant families.
Figure 6. Cited plant families.
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Table 1. Plants listed after the survey in Seno and Nayala.
Table 1. Plants listed after the survey in Seno and Nayala.
Species and FamilyLocal NameFrequency Citation (%)Parts UsedIndicationPreparation and Use MethodsPosology
1. Acacia laeta Benth. (Fabaceae)Gon sablega (mo)1.7barkweight lossdecoctionND
2. Acacia nilotica (L.) Delile (Fabaceae) 1.7barkweight lossdecoctionND
3. Acacia senegal (L.) Willd. (Fabaceae)Gommier (Fran)3.4gumappetite suppressant and thirst quencherraw gum consumptionND
4. Acacia seyal Del. (Fabaceae)Gon-miougou1.7barkweight lossdecoctionND
5. Adansonia digitata L. (Bombacaceae)Baobab (fran)3.4root and barkthirst quencherraw root and bark consumptionND
6. Afzelia africana Smith ex Pers. (Fabaceae)Para (san)1.7leavesweight lossdecoction of a mixture of afzelia africana leaves and roots of cochlospermum tinctorium is used as a drinkND
7. Annona senegalensis Pers. (Annonaceae)Guinikou (san)3.4fruitsappetite suppressantraw fruits consumptionND
8. Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Meliaceae)Kakki (ful)1.7leavesweight lossdecoction of the bark and use as a drink before mealND
9. Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Delile (Balanitaceae)Tanèè (ful), sinbèlè (san)10.16fruitsappetite suppressantraw fruits consumption ND
10. Bauhinia rufescens Lam. (Fabaceae)Tipoiga (mo)3.4barkweight lossdecoctionND
11. Boscia angustifolia A. Rich. (Capparaceae)Haasu carè (sonrai)3.4young leavesweight lossreduce young dried leaves in powder and mix this powder with porridge and drinkND
12. Brachystelma bingeri A.Chev. (Asclepiadaceae)Sensenega (mo), Daffio (tmac)15.25rootsappetite suppressant and thirst quencherraw root consumption ND
13. Cadaba farinosa Forsk. (Capparidaceae)Moussilèè (san)3.4leavesappetite suppressantraw leaves consumptionCauses fart
14. Ceratotheca sesamoides Endl. (Pedaliaceae)Dou (san)6.78leavesappetite suppressant and thirst quencherraw leaves consumptionND
15. Ceropegia senegalensis H. (Apocynaceae)Kirimougoin (san)3.4rootsappetite suppressantraw root consumption ND
16. Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad. (Cucurbitaceae)Dènè (ful)8.47fruitsappetite suppressant and thirst quencherraw fruits consumption ND
17. Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm.) Swingle (Rutaceae) 3.4fruitsweight lossdecoction of the leaves of combretum micranthum then add fruit juice of citrus aurantifolia and use as a drink 1 liter per day for 2 to 3 months
18. Cochlospermum planchonii Hook. f. ex Planch. (Cochlospermaceae)Biripin (san)3.4rootsweight lossdecoctionND
19. Cochlospermum tinctorium Perrier ex A. Rich. (Cochlospermaceae)Gotoro (san)1.7rootsweight lossdecoction of afzelia africana leaves and roots of cochlospermum tinctorium and use as a drinkND
20. Combretum micranthum G. Don. (Combretaceae)Randega (mo)1.7leavesweight lossdecoction of the leaves of combretum micranthum then add the fruit juice of citrus aurantifolia and use as a drink1 liter per day for 2 to 3 months
21. Commiphora africana (A. Rich.) Endl. (Curceraceae)Nbadadi (ful)11.86rootsappetite suppressant and thirst quencherraw roots consumptionND
22. Cordia africana Lam. (Boraginaceae) 1.7fruitsappetite suppressantraw fruits consumptionND
23. Detarium microcarpum Guill. et Perr. (Fabaceae)Koro (san)3.4fruitsappetite suppressantraw fruits consumptionND
24. Digitaria exilis (Kippist) Stapf (Poaceae)Pii (san)1.7seedsweight losscooking and eatND
25. Dioscorea bulbifera L. (Dioscoreaceae)Kou (san)1.7rootsappetite suppressantraw root consumptionND
26. Diospyros mespiliformis Hochst. ex A.DC (Ebenaceae) 1.7fruitsappetite suppressantraw fruits consumptionND
27. Entada africana Guill et Perr. (Fabaceae)Séremanan (san)1.7leavesweight lossdecoctionND
28. Fadogia agrestis Schweinf. ex Hiern (Rubiaceae) 1.7rootsappetite suppressantraw consumptionND
29. Ficus sycomorus L. (Moraceae)Goro (san)3.4fruitsappetite suppressantraw fruits consumptionND
30. Gardenia aqualla Stapf & Hutch (Rubiaceae)Kowin (san)1.7fruitsappetite suppressantraw fruits consumptionND
31. Gardenia erubescens Stapf & Hutch (Rubiaceae)Kouin (san)20,34fruitsappetite suppressantraw fruits consumptionND
32. Grewia bicolor Juss. (Tiliaceae)Keli (ful)1.7fruitsappetite suppressantraw fruits consumptionND
33. Grewia flavescens Juss. (Tiliaceae) 1.7fruitsappetite suppressantraw fruits consumptionND
34. Grewia villosa Willd. (Tiliaceae)Kiborlohi (ful)1.7fruitsappetite suppressantraw fruits consumption1 glass of fruit has anorectic effects for a half day
35. Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Malvaceae)Fouon (san)5.08seedsappetite suppressantdecoctionND
36. Holarrhena floribunda (G.Don) T.Durand & Schinz var. florinbunda (Apocynaceae)Ninogga (mo)1.7leavesweight lossdecoctionND
37. Hyphaene thebaica (L.) Mart (Arecaceae)Gelohi (ful)1.7fruitsappetite suppressantraw fruits consumptionND
38. Khaya senegalensis (Desv.) A.Juss. (Meliaceae)Kuka (mo)1.7barkweight lossdecoctionND
39. Lannea microcarpa Engl. & K. Krause (Anacardiaceae)Touo (san)1.7fruitsappetite suppressantraw fruits consumptionND
40. Leptadenia hastata Vatke (Asclepiadaceae)Toun (sa)
Tatola (tmac)
10.16leaves and fruitsappetite suppressantraw fruits consumptionND
41. Mitragyna inermis (Willd.) Kuntze (Rubiaceae)Kadioli (ful)1.7leaves and barkweight lossdecoction of the bark or leaves and use as a drunkND
42. Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringaceae)Basankoé (san)1.7principal rootweight lossmake a decoction of the dried primary root and use as a drinkND
43. Ozoroa insignis Del. (Anacardiaceae)Bouwélèbondan (san)5.08leavesweight lossdecoction of the leaves and use for drinking and washingND
44. Panicum laetum Kunth (Poaceae) 1.7seedsappetite suppressantdecoctionND
45. Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) G.Don (Fabaceae)Koussi (san)3.4bark, rootweight lossdecoction of the roots of ximenia americana and bark of parkia biglobosa, drinking and wash with decoctionND
46. Phoenix dactylifera L. (Arecaceae)Datte (fran)1.7fruitsappetite suppressantraw fruit consumptionND
47. Pseudocedrela kotschyi (Schweinf.) Harms (Meliaceae)Siguédré (mo)1.7small branchesthirst quencherraw small branches consumptionND
48. Raphionacme daronii Berhaut (Asclepiadaceae)Goin (sa)25.42rootappetite suppressant and thirst quencherraw root consumptionND
49. Saba senegalensis (A.DC.) Pichon var. senegalensis (Apocynaceae)Mara (san)3.4fruitsappetite suppressantraw fruits consumptionND
50. Sarcocephalus latifolius (Sm.) E.A.Bruce (Rubiaceae) 3.4fruitsappetite suppressantraw fruits consumptionND
51. Sclerocarya birrea (A.Rich.) Hochst. (Anacardiaceae)Nobga (Mo)3.4fruitsthirst quencherraw fruits consumptionND
52. Sterculia setigera Delile (Sterculiaceae) 1.7gumappetite suppressantraw gum consumptionND
53. Strychnos spinosa Lam. Lam (Loganiaceae)Kartountoun (sa)3.4fruitsappetite suppressant and thirst quencherraw fruits consumptionExcess fruit gives stomach bloating
54. Tamarindus indica L. (Fabaceae)Inguètabi (ful)5.08bark, fruits rootweight loss1. decoction of the bark powder and dried fruit and use as drink
2. decoction of the roots and use as a drink
Take half glass of tea decoction in the morning and noon before meals
55. Terminalia avicennioides Guill. & Perr. (Combretaceae)Sounsoun (san)1.7rootthirst quencherraw roots consumptionND
56. Terminalia macroptera Guill. & Perr. (Combretaceae)Kouon (san)3.4young leavesappetite suppressantraw leaves consumptionND
57. Vernonia kotschyana Sch.Bip. ex Walp. (Astéraceae)Yirimassa (diou)5.08rootappetite suppressantraw root consumption (fresh or dried)
58. Vitellaria paradoxaC.F.Gaertn. (Sapotaceae)Kouu (san)5.08fruitsappetite suppressantraw fruits consumptionND
59. Vitex doniana Sweet (Verbenaceae)Koutiin (san)3.4fruitsappetite suppressantraw fruits consumptionND
60. Ximenia americana L. (Olacaceae)Marafoo (san)1.7rootweight lossdecoction of the roots of ximenia americana and bark of parkia biglobosa, drink and wash with decoctionND
61. Xysmalobium heudelotianum Decne. (Asclepiadaceae)Kirimougoin (san)1.7rootappetite suppressantraw root consumptionND
62. Zizyphus mauritiana Lam. (Rhamnaceae)Guiabè (ful), tomon (san)6.78fruits, rootappetite suppressantraw fruits consumption, boil the roots and take the decoction beverageTake ½ glass of decoction on morning and evening
Table 2. Species with supposed appetite suppressant activity, their use value index and the parts used.
Table 2. Species with supposed appetite suppressant activity, their use value index and the parts used.
SpeciesUse value IndexParts Used
1. Annona senegalensis0.036Fruits
2. Balanites aegyptiaca0.109Fruits
3. Brachystelma bingeri0.163Tuber
4. Cadaba farinosa0.036Leaves
5. Ceratotheca seésamoiïdes0.072Leaves
6. Ceropeogia senegalensis0.036Roots
7. Citrullus colocynthis0.090Fruits
8. Commiphora africana0.127Bark
9. Cordia africana0.018Fruits
10. Detarium microcarpum0.036Fruits
11. Dioscorea bulbifera0.018Tuber
12. Diospyros mespiliformis0.018Fruits
13. Fadogia agrestis0.018Roots
14. icus sycomorus0.036Fruits
15. Gardenia aqualla0.018Fruits
16. Gardenia erubescens0.218Fruits
17. Grewia bicolor0.018Fruits
18. Grewia flavescens0.018Fruits
19. Grewia villosa0.018Fruits
20. Hibiscus sabdariffa0.054Seeds
21. Hyphaene thebaica0.018Fruits
22. Lannea microcarpa0.018Fruits
23. Leptadenia hastata0.109Leaves
24. Panicum laetum0.018Seeds
25. Phoenix dactylifera0.018Fruits
26. Raphionacme daronii0.272Tuber
27. Sarcocephalus latifolus0.036Fruits
28. Sclerocarya birrea0.036Fruits
29. Sterculia setigera0.036Gum
30. Strychnos spinosa0.018Fruits
31. Saba senegalensis0.018Fruits
32. Terminalia macroptera0.036Leaves
33. Tamarindus indica0.054Fruits
34. Vernonia kotschyana0.054Roots
35. Vitellaria paradoxa0.054Fruits
36. Vitex doniana0.036Fruits
37. Xysmalobuium heudelotianum0.018Tuber
38. Zizyphus mauritiana0.072Fruits
Table 3. Plants having weight reduction potential, their use value index and the parts used.
Table 3. Plants having weight reduction potential, their use value index and the parts used.
SpeciesUse Value IndexParts Used
1. Acacia laeta 0.018Bark
2. Acacia nilotica0.018Bark
3. Acacia seyal0.018Bark
4. Afzelia africana0.018Leaves
5. Azadirachta indica0.018Leaves
6. Bauhinia rufescens0.036Bark
7. Boscia angustifolia0.036Young leaves
8. Citrus aurantiifolia0.036Fruits
9. Cochlospermum planchonii0.036Root
10. Cochlospermum tinctorium0.018Root
11. Combretum micranthum0.018Leaves
12. Digitaria exilis0.018Seeds
13. Entada africana0.018Leaves
14. Holarrhena floribunda0.018Leaves
15. Khaya senegalensis0.018Bark
16. Mitragyna inermis0.018Leaves and bark
17. Moringa oleracea0.018Root
18. Ozoroa insignis0.054Leaves
19. Parkia biglobosa0.036Bark and seeds
20. Tamarindus indica0.054Bark and fruits
21. Ximenia americana0.018Root
Table 4. Thirst quencher Species with supposed thirst quenching activity, their usual value an the parts used.
Table 4. Thirst quencher Species with supposed thirst quenching activity, their usual value an the parts used.
SpeciesUse Value IndexParts Used
1. Acacia senegal 0.036Gum
2. Adansonia digitata0.036Bark
3. Brachystelma bingeri0.163Tuber
4. Ceratotheca sesamoides0.072Leaves
5. Citrullus colocynthis0.090Fruits
6. Commiphora africana0.127Bark
7. Pseudocedrela kotschyi0.018Stem
8. Raphionacme daronii0.272Tuber
9. Sclerocarya birrea0.036Fruits
10. Strychnos spinosa0.036Fruits
11. Terminalia avicennioides0.018Seeds
Table 5. Pytocemistry and pharmacoloy of plants cited.
Table 5. Pytocemistry and pharmacoloy of plants cited.
Species and familyWild or Cultivated StatusAvailability Information/Threat StatusPhytochemistryPharmacological properties
1. Acacia laeta Benth. (Fabaceae)wildavailable speciescarbohydrate [13]anti microbial activity [14]
2. Acacia nilotica (L.) Delile (Fabaceae)wildavailable speciesalkaloids, glycosides, anthraquinones, cardiac glycosides [15]antiplasmodial activity [16], antidiabetic activity [17]
3. Acacia senegal (L.) Willd. (Fabaceae)wildavailable speciesalkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids [18]antidiabetic activity [19] hepatoprotective activity [20]
4. Acacia seyal Del. (Fabaceae)wildavailable speciesproteins, phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanin [13]antibacterial activities [21]
5. Adansonia digitata L. (Bombacaceae)wildthreatened speciesprotein, carbohydrate, fat, fibre, ash, vitamin C, A [22]antidiarrhoeal activity [23],anti-tumor action [24]
6. Afzelia africana Smith ex Pers. (Fabaceae)wildthreatened specieslipide, carbohydrate [25] alkaloids [26]antidiabetic and haematological effect [27] anthelmintic effect [26]
7. Annona senegalensis Pers. (Annonaceae)wildavailable speciesrutin, quercetin, quercetrin, anonaïne, tannin glycosides, proteins [27]anticonvulsant properties [28]
8. Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Meliaceae)wild/cultivatedavailable speciesreducing sugar, glycosides, alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids, saponin [29]antibacterial activity [29]
9. Balanites aegyptiaca (L.) Delile (Balanitaceae)wildavailable speciesgalactose, mannose, arabinose, xylose, rhamnose [30]; alkaloids, flavonoids [31]; saponoside steroidal [32]anti-tumor activity [33]
10. Bauhinia rufescens Lam. (Fabaceae)wildavailable speciescarbohydrate, crude fibre, crude proteins cyanogenic glucoside [34] menisdaurin, oxepin [35]antibacterial effects [34]
11. Boscia angustifolia A. Rich. (Capparaceae)wildthreatened speciesalkaloids and saponins [36]antibacterial activity [36]
12. Brachystelma bingeri A.Chev. (Asclepiadaceae)wildthreatened speciessaponins, triterpens, sterols [37]treatment of insufficient sperm, male sexual asthenia, as tonicorstimulant [37]
13. Cadaba farinosa Forsk. (Capparidaceae)wildavailable speciescadabicine [38]
14. Ceratotheca sesamoides Endl. (Pedaliaceae)wild/cultivatedavailable speciesflavonolignans, triterpene saponins, isoflavones, triterpenoids [37] and phenylpropanoid lignan [39]antiplasmodial activity [40]
15. Ceropegia senegalensis H. (Apocynaceae)wildavailable species
16. Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Schrad. (Cucurbitaceae)wild/cultivatedavailable speciesβ-sitosterol [41]antidiabetic effect [42] analgesic activities [43]
17. Citrus aurantifolia (Christm.) Swingle (Rutaceae)cultivatedavailable species5-geranyloxypsoralen; 5-geranyloxy-7-methoxycoumarin; 5,7-dimethoxycoumarin; 5-methoxypsoralen; and 5,8-dimethoxypsoralen [44]anti-cancer activity [45], anti-mycobacterium tuberculosis activity [44]
18. Cochlospermum planchonii Hook. f. ex Planch. (Cochlospermaceae)wildavailable speciescardiac glycosides, cardenolides and dienolides, alkaloids, steroids, and tannins, flavonoid, phlobatannins [46]anti-ulcerogenic activity [47]
19. Cochlospermum tinctorium Perrier ex A.Rich. (Cochlospermaceae)wildavailable speciesalkaloids, flavonoids, tannins and cardiac glycoside [48]antimicrobial activity [49], hepatoprotective activity [50]
20. Combretum micranthum G. Don. (Combretaceae)wildthreatened speciesepicatechin and catechin as penta-acetates; epigallocatechin, gallocatechin and bartogenic acid 28-β-d-glucoside [51]antihyperglycaemic activity [52], antibacterial [53]
21. Commiphora africana (A. Rich.) Endl. (Curceraceae)wildthreatened speciescardiac glycosides [54]; α-oxobisabolene [55]antimicrobial activity [54]
22. Cordia africana Lam. (Boraginaceae)wildavailable speciesalkaloids, flavonoids, total phenols and tannins [56]antibacterial activities [57])
23. Detarium microcarpum Guill. et Perr. (Fabaceae)wildthreatened speciesphenols, flavonoids, saponins, triterpenes/steroids and glycosides [58]against hepatitis c virus [59]
24. Digitaria exilis (Kippist) Stapf (Poaceae)wildavailable speciesapigenin and luteolin [60]postprandial hyperglycemia [61]
25. Dioscorea bulbifera L. (Dioscoreaceae)cultivatedavailable speciescarbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, fats, oils, steroids, glycosides, alkaloids, tannins and phenolics [62]antifungal actions [63] antibacterial activities [64]
26. Diospyros mespiliformis Hochst. ex A.DC (Ebenaceae)wildthreatened speciesflavonoids [65]antipyretic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory [66]
27. Entada africana Guill et Perr. (Fabaceae)wildavailable speciesalkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, glycosides, anthraquinone, terpenes, phenols, resins and saponins [67]anti-angiogenic activity [68] anti-hepatitis C [69]
28. Fadogia agrestis Schweinf. ex Hiern (Rubiaceae)wildavailable speciesmonoterpene glycosides [70]analgesic and anti-inflammatory effects [71] antidiabetic [72]
29. Ficus sycomorus L. (Moraceae)wildavailable speciestannins, alkaloids, reducing compounds, saponins, flavonoids, steroid, terpenoids and anthracenoside [73]sedative and anticonvulsant effects [74]
30. Gardenia aqualla Stapf & Hutch (Rubiaceae)wildavailable speciesflavonoids, phytosterols, phenolics, carbohydrates, tannins, triterpenoids, antraquinone [75]anticancer activities [76] antimicrobial activity [75]
31. Gardenia erubescens Stapf & Hutch (Rubiaceae)wildthreatened speciesfibers [77] anthraquinons, tannins, sterols and triterpens. [78]analgesic and diuretic activity. [79].
32. Grewia bicolor Juss. (Tiliaceae)wildavailable speciesβ-sitosterol, triterpene ester, triterpenes lupeol and betulin, beta-sitosterol glucoside, harmane, 6-methoxyharmane and 6-hydroxyharmane [80]anticonvulsant and anxiolytic properties [81]
33. Grewia flavescens Juss. (Tiliaceae)wildavailable speciesflavonoids, phytosterols, phenolics, carbohydrates, tannins, triterpenoids [82]anti-diabetic [82]
34. Grewia villosa Willd. (Tiliaceae)wild triterpenoids, steroids, glycosides, flavones, lignanes, phenolics, alkaloids, lactones [83]anti-bacterial and analgesic effect [83]
35. Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Malvaceae)cultivatedavailable speciesalkaloids, tannins, saponnins, glycosides, phenols and flavonoids, glycosides [84]diuretic activity [85] anti-obesity effects [86]
36. Holarrhena floribunda (G.Don) T.Durand & Schinz var. florinbunda (Apocynaceae)wildavailable speciesfat, fiber, protein, carbohydrates, alkaloid, saponin, tannin and cardiac glycosides [87]hypoglycaemic activity [88]
37. Hyphaene thebaica (L.) Mart (Arecaceae) available speciestannins, steroids and moderate level of saponins, carbohydrates, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, and terpinoids [89]antimicrobial properties [90] hypoglycaemic properties [89]
38. Khaya senegalensis (Desv.) A.Juss. (Meliaceae)wildthreatened speciesalkaloids, saponins, tannins and flavonoids [91]hepatoprotective activity [92]
39. Lannea microcarpa Engl. & K. Krause (Anacardiaceae)wildthreatened speciesanthocyanosides [93] 4α-methoxy-myricetin 3-α-l-rhamnopyranoside, myricetin 3-α-l-rhamnopyranoside, myricetin 3-β-d-glucopyranoside, vitexin, isovitexin, gallic acid and epi-catechin [94]anti-inflammatory activities [95]
40. Leptadenia hastata Vatke (Asclepiadaceae)wildavailable speciesd-cymarose and d-oleandrose [96]. tannins, glycosides, alkaloids, flavonoids. [97]diabetes [96] antibacterial activity [98] anti-androgen property [99].
41. Mitragyna inermis (Willd.) Kuntze (Rubiaceae)wildavailable speciessterol, triterpene, polyphenol, flavonoïd, catechic tannin, saponoside and alkaloid [100]anticonvulsant properties [101] hepatoprotective activity [102]
42. Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringaceae)cultivatedavailable speciesglucose, fructose [103]antiobesity and hypolipidemic activity [104]
43. Ozoroa insignis Del. (Anacardiaceae)wildavailable speciesmethyl 3α,24S-dihydroxytirucalla-8,25-dien-21-oate; methyl 3α-hydroxy-24-oxotirucalla-8,25-dien-21-oate [105]antimicrobial activity, cytoprotective effect [106]
44. Panicum laetum Kunth (Poaceae)wildavailable speciesproteins, carbohydrates [107]
45. Parkia biglobosa (Jacq.) G.Don (Fabaceae)wildthreatened speciescardiac glycosides, steroids, tannins and alkaloids [108]antiplasmodial activities [109] the antisnake venom activities [110]
46. Phoenix dactylifera L. (Arecaceae)wildavailable speciescarbohydrate, vitamins, proteins [111]nephroprotective, antibacterial, antidiabetic activities [111]
47. Pseudocedrela kotschyi (Schweinf.) Harms (Meliaceae)wildavailable speciestannins, saponins [112]nephroprotective activities [113]
48. Raphionacme daronii Berhaut (Asclepiadaceae)wildavailable speciessugars and starch [114].
49. Saba senegalensis (A.DC.) Pichon var. senegalensis (Apocynaceae)wildthreatened speciesmalic acid, protein, vitamin c [115], tannins, flavonoids, saponins, coumarins, anthocyanosides, triterpenes and sterols [116]anti-inflammatory, analgesic effect [116]
50. Sarcocephalus latifolius (Sm.) E.A.Bruce (Rubiaceae)wildavailable species21-O-ethylstrictosamide aglycone, strictosamide, angustine, nauclefine, angustidine, angustoline, 19-O-ethylangustoline, naucleidinale, 19-epi-naucleidinale [117]anti-microbial activities [118]
51. Sclerocarya birrea (A. Rich.) Hochst. (Anacardiaceae)wildavailable speciescellulose, proteins, [119] anthocyanins, flavonoids, tannins, saponins [120]hypoglycemic activity [121]
52. Sterculia setigera Delile (Sterculiaceae)wildthreatened speciessaponins, steroidal, sterols and flavonoids [122]antiplasmodial, anti-inflammatory activity [123]
53. Strychnos spinosa Lam. Lam (Loganiaceae)wildavailable speciessaringosterol and 24-hydroperoxy-24-vinylcholesterol [124]antitrypanosomal activity [125]
54. Tamarindus indica L. (Fabaceae)wildthreatened species9β, 19-Cyclo-4 β4, 4, 14, x-trimethyl-5α-cholestan-3β-ol, 24R-Ethyl cholest-5-ene [126]antiobesity effect [127]
55. Terminalia avicennioides Guill. & Perr. (Combretaceae)wildavailable speciessteroids, glycosides, flavonoids, tannins, ellagic acids arjunolic acid, α-amyrin, 2,3,23-trihydroxylolean-12-ene [128]antimycobacterial activty [128]
56. Terminalia macroptera Guill. & Perr. (Combretaceae)wildthreatened species3,3’di-O-methylellagic acid, 3,4,3’,4’-tetra-O-methylellagic acid, terflavine A [129]anti-helicobacter pylori activity [130]
57. Vernonia kotschyana Sch.Bip. ex Walp. (Astéraceae)wildthreatened speciesarabinogalactane pectin [131], vernoniosides D1, D2, D3, F1 and F2 and a new androst-8-ene glucoside [132]antiulcer activity [133]
58. Vitellaria paradoxa C.F.Gaertn. (Sapotaceae)wild/cultivatedthreatened speciesanthocyanins, flavonoids, catechol tannins, saponins [134]emmenagogue [134]
59. Vitex doniana Sweet (Verbenaceae)wildthreatened speciesflavonoids, anthracene derivatives, essential oil, pigments, tannins, terpenes glycosides, triterpenes [135]antimicrobial activities [136]
60. Ximenia americana L. (Olacaceae)wildthreatened speciestriterpen (mediagenic acid; oleanen glucoside) and steroidal compounds (6–7 hydrositosteron;sitosteroside) [137]antimicrobial, antitrypanosomal, molluscicide and analgesic [137]
61. Xysmalobium heudelotianum Decne. (Asclepiadaceae)wildthreatened species
62. Zizyphus mauritiana Lam. (Rhamnaceae)wildthreatened speciestannins, sterols and triterpenes, flavonoids, leucoanthocyanins [138]anti hyperglycemic activities, antihypertensive, and diuretic activity [139]

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MDPI and ACS Style

Pare, D.; Hilou, A.; Ouedraogo, N.; Guenne, S. Ethnobotanical Study of Medicinal Plants Used as Anti-Obesity Remedies in the Nomad and Hunter Communities of Burkina Faso. Medicines 2016, 3, 9.

AMA Style

Pare D, Hilou A, Ouedraogo N, Guenne S. Ethnobotanical Study of Medicinal Plants Used as Anti-Obesity Remedies in the Nomad and Hunter Communities of Burkina Faso. Medicines. 2016; 3(2):9.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pare, Dramane, Adama Hilou, Noufou Ouedraogo, and Samson Guenne. 2016. "Ethnobotanical Study of Medicinal Plants Used as Anti-Obesity Remedies in the Nomad and Hunter Communities of Burkina Faso" Medicines 3, no. 2: 9.

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