Next Article in Journal
Improved Food-Processing Techniques to Reduce Isoflavones in Soy-Based Foodstuffs
Next Article in Special Issue
Antidiabetic, Antioxidative and Antihyperlipidemic Effects of Strawberry Fruit Extract in Alloxan-Induced Diabetic Rats
Previous Article in Journal
How to Effectively Reduce Honey Adulteration in China: An Analysis Based on Evolutionary Game Theory
Previous Article in Special Issue
Theobroma cacao and Theobroma grandiflorum: Botany, Composition and Pharmacological Activities of Pods and Seeds
Font Type:
Arial Georgia Verdana
Font Size:
Aa Aa Aa
Line Spacing:
Column Width:

The Possibility of Using Sulphur Shelf Fungus (Laetiporus sulphureus) in the Food Industry and in Medicine—A Review

Department of Fish, Plant and Gastronomic Technology, West Pomeranian University of Technology in Szczecin, 70-310 Szczecin, Poland
Foods 2023, 12(7), 1539;
Submission received: 28 February 2023 / Revised: 30 March 2023 / Accepted: 2 April 2023 / Published: 5 April 2023
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Health Benefits of Fruits and Vegetables - 2nd Edition)


Sulphur shelf fungus (Laetiporus sulphureus) has so far been largely underestimated as a potential raw material for the food industry. Many studies have demonstrated that the extracts obtained from this mushroom and some of their components have positive effects on human health. They have antioxidant, antibacterial, and anticancer properties and regulate human metabolism and digestive processes. Water extracts also have this effect. In addition, the substances contained in this mushroom have the ability to preserve food by inhibiting the growth of undesirable microorganisms. These properties have led to the situation that in some countries, shelf sulphur fungus is legally recognized as a raw material that meets the requirements of the food and processing industries. This paper is a review of the latest information (mainly for the period 2016–2023) on the chemical composition and the possibility of using L. sulphureus in the food industry and in medicine.

Graphical Abstract

1. Introduction

Sulphur shelf fungus (Laetiporus sulphureus) is a parasitic fungus with a characteristic yellow color and inhabits older trees. It occurs on all continents of the globe, but only in some regions is it used for culinary purposes. Due to its color, it is called “chicken of the woods” in the US. The fruiting bodies are a source of many substances valuable in culinary and medical fields. Due to the known method of cultivation of this mushroom, together with its rich chemical composition and beneficial effects for the human body, it is worth considering as a potential raw material for industry. The aim of this paper is to review the latest information (from 2016 to 2023) on the chemical composition of L. sulphureus fruiting bodies and the possibilities for their use in food production and in medicine.

2. Characteristics and Occurrence of Laetiporus sulphureus

Laetiporus sulphureus is a fungus belonging to the phylum Basidiomycota, family Polyporaceae. Its fruiting bodies are semicircular, up to 40 cm in diameter, with a short stem. They grow on tree trunks, are console-shaped and often overlap (grow in cascades). The bright, sulphur yellow to vivid yellow color is characteristic only of young fruiting bodies. The older fruiting bodies are strongly discolored, being light orange or white-orange, sometimes with brown spots. With age, they become dry, hard and compact (less brittle) (Figure 1). On the underside of the fruiting body is a layer of tubular hymenophores [1,2].
This fungus occurs naturally as a parasite on a variety of trees, causing brown rot (rot and holes form in the wood), which leads to their rapid death. Most often it inhabits deciduous trees (mainly of the genera Quercus, Robinia and Populus), and much less often, coniferous trees [3,4]. The infection of trees occurs as a result of their injury or through unprotected wounds that arise during maintenance treatments (crown adjustment) or natural damage to trees. The fruiting bodies are formed most often high on the trunk and less often on felled trees, just above the ground [5].
Occurrence. Laetiporus sulphureus is very common: most reports come from North America and Europe [6], but it has also been found in South America, Africa, Asia (including China, Laos and Thailand) and Australia [3,4,5,7,8]. It occurs in parks, forests and woodlots up to 2000 m above sea level [5,7].
Cultivation on culture media and in home conditions. Laetiporus sulphureus can also be cultivated. The type and composition of the substrate affects the appearance of the mycelium [9], the growth rate of the fungus [9,10,11,12], and thus also the formation of fruiting bodies. The best composition of the substrate and conditions for its cultivation have been determined, which make it possible to obtain fruiting bodies as early as 46–52 days after the establishment of the cultivation [13]. The growing medium should be sufficiently compact and densely packed so that the L. sulphureus mycelium can easily grow out of it. Therefore, a mixture, for example, of sawdust and straw, is a better substrate than a homogeneous substrate composed only of straw [11]. In the case of a substrate composed of wheat bran, the factor conducive to better growth of the mycelium was the addition of alder, larch and oak sawdust [9].
The process of formation of fruiting bodies can be induced. According to Pleszczyńska et al. [14], an effective method is to shock the mycelium with water or low temperature in winter. However, this failed in the case of cultivation conducted by Simoes [11] on wheat grains and various types of production substrates, despite testing various methods of inducing the formation of fruiting bodies. Although during continuous induction with low temperature, the mycelium formed structures similar to L. sulphureus fruiting bodies, they were not typically shaped fruiting bodies. The author of the research, however, stated that the reason for this may have been the difficulty in maintaining a constant high level of humidity.
Cultures for obtaining biomass of L. sulphureus mycelium intended for food purposes or for the extraction of selected substances (e.g., laetiporic acid) can be grown on nutrient media (mycelial cultures). Media solidified with agar are the most commonly used in the studies, e.g., PDA (potato dextrose agar) without additives or enriched with additional ingredients [9,10,11], MEA (malt extract agar) [10] or liquid media, e.g., PDB [11,12]. The best substrates were PDA media [9,10] enriched with four combinations of additives: (1)—dehydrated potato infusion and dextrose, (2)—malt and yeast extracts, glucose and peptone, (3)—malt extract, peptone and xylitol and (4)—extracts from beech sawdust and malt, peptone and xylose [9]. MEA with the addition of sorghum grains is also a valuable substrate. However, in the case of using other seeds (for example, pearl millet and barley), the addition of gypsum and CaCO3 is recommended [10]. According to Jasińska et al. [15], it is possible to grow this fungus on an agar medium with the addition of residues from biogas production (digestate), which promotes faster formation of fruiting bodies compared with other types of tested media. The optimal growth conditions are temperatures of 25–30 °C and pH 6–8 [10].
To date, the cultivation of this fungus has usually been carried out on a smaller scale, and the purpose was mainly to obtain raw material for obtaining enzymes. For culinary purposes, fruiting bodies occurring in the wild (in natural conditions) are used. However, home cultivation of L. sulphureus is now beginning to spread. Starters containing inoculum in liquid form [16] or solid (inoculum carrier is sawdust) [17] ready for direct application are available in online stores. The inoculum package comes with application and cultivation instructions. In home cultivation, the growing medium is usually a log of freshly cut hardwood, e.g., oak or ash. The inoculum should be applied on the planes of intersection of the wood or into drilled holes. After 2–3 months of incubation, the cultures are partially dug into the soil or left on the soil surface and covered with a thin layer of wood shavings. Fruiting bodies are obtained one year after inoculation of the substrate [16,17], and the harvesting is carried out for several subsequent years.
Several studies have investigated the genome of L. sulphureus. Two research teams working independently have successfully sequenced the genome of the fungus L. sulphureus [18,19]. One of the tested mushrooms came from the UK. During the study, the genome assembly was found to be 37.4 megabases long and made up of 14 chromosomes [19]. The second of the tested isolates (NWAFU-1) came from a natural site in China. During the study, it was found that there is variation within the genome between the subspecies of the fungus. Genes have been identified that encode the synthesis of carbohydrates, polysaccharides and secondary metabolites, i.e., substances responsible for the bioactivity of the fungus (e.g., eburicoic acid, trametenolic acid and its derivatives, laetiporic acid A, sulfurenic acid, and dehydrosulfurenic acid) and ergosteroids (e.g., ergost-5,7,22-trien-3-ol or ergosta-7,22-diene-3,5,6-triol). Sixteen compounds from the ergosteroids and lanostanoids groups were identified, of which seven were found only in fruiting bodies, eight only in the mycelium, and one (ergost -3,5,7,9(11),22-pentaen) in both structures: mycelium and fruiting bodies. In addition, L. sulphureus has been shown to have a tetrapolar mating system. Comparative studies of L. sulphureus strains have shown that the subspecies differ in terms of the ability to synthesize many different secondary metabolites, including terpenoids and polysaccharides. In the case of the analyzed isolate (NWAFU-1), this activity is high. The results of these studies give the opportunity to select the most valuable strains for obtaining substances of medical and economic importance [18].

3. Nutritional Value of Fruiting Bodies

The fungus Laetiporus sulphureus forms fruiting bodies on tree trunks, but its mycelium develops in the wood of the host plant and draws water, mineral salts and other substances from there. Due to the biology of the sulphur shelf fungus, and in particular the large variety of plant species on which it occurs, the chemical composition of this fungus is very rich (Table 1), and at the same time, it may slightly differ. The caloric value of Laetiporus sulphureus fruiting bodies is in the range 321.7–375.6 kcal dw [1,8,20,21,22], and the water content is 66.7–91.5 g/100 g of the fruiting body (Saha et al. [23] and Florczak et al. [24], respectively). Among the basic components of the dry matter, carbohydrates dominate, which constitute 64.9–74.5% of dw. The content of the other components is much lower: protein 8.6–21.0% dw; fat 2.3–5.9% dw; ash 4.0–9.0% dw; and fiber 4.1–15.2% of dry matter [1,8,20,21,22,23,24,25] (Figure 2). The largest fraction of neutral lipids were triglycerides [8].
Protein. The fruiting body protein has a high biological value with a high content of digestible protein (86.1% of crude protein) [1]. These mushrooms contain free amino acids beneficial for the human body with a content from 3.63 mg g–1 according to Turfan et al. [31] to 17.12 mg g−1 dw (i.e., 16.2% of crude protein) according to Kovacs and Vetter [1]. The protein is characterized by a composition of protein fractions typical of fungi, which is different from the distribution observed in plant materials. In the study of Kovacs and Vetter [1], the protein fraction included a high content of albumins (51.3% of crude proteins on average) and globulins (11.1%), and a low proportion of prolamine and prolamine-like substances (they accounted for a total of 7.3% of the crude protein on average). In addition, they reported a relatively high amount of glutelins and glutelin-like substances (30.3%).
These fruiting bodies contain about 3.25 g/100 g dw of total nitrogen, including 76.5% of protein nitrogen and a total of 30.7% of non-protein nitrogen (27.1% in water-soluble compounds and 3.6% in water-insoluble compounds) [24]. Turfan et al. [31] reported a total soluble protein content of 83.3 mg g–1 dw. The high proportion of albumins and globulins affects the speed and ease of digestion of these mushrooms and the absorption of the nutrients they contain. A similar share of individual protein fractions in the protein of L. sulphureus fruiting bodies was obtained by Petrowska [70]. Discrepancies in the content of individual components and fractions may result from the diversity of environmental conditions in which these fungi grew, and especially the species of the plant that hosts the fungus, as demonstrated by Kovacs and Vetter [1]. Bulam et al. [8], based on the analysis of the research results of Agafanova et al. [36], pointed out that slight differences in the composition of amino acids, especially essential amino acids, could also depend on the fungus strain (the size of the difference is usually below 0.5%). The greatest difference was found in the strains LS-BG-0804 and LS-UK-0704 for glutamic acid levels (0.9% and 0.4%, respectively) and tyrosine (0.3% and 0.8%, respectively). The fruiting bodies of L. sulphureus have also been shown to contain exogenous arginine, histidine, isoleucine, leucine, methionine, threonine and tryptophan, with minimal differences in their content in the two strains of fungus [36]. Wang [45] also showed the presence of aspartic acid, serine, glycine, alanine, cysteine, valine, phenylalanine, lysine and proline in the extract.
Fatty acids. Many studies have shown a favorable profile of fatty acids found in L. sulphureus; however, the amounts of individual fatty acids are variable. Oleic acid (C18:1) predominates, followed by palmitic (C16:0) and stearic (C18:0) acids, and there are significantly smaller quantities of linoleic (C18:2), myristic (C14:0) and palmitoleic (C16:1) acids [34]. Similar results were obtained by Palazzolo et al. [37]: oleic acid dominated in fruiting bodies, there was less linoleic acid, and palmitic and stearic acids had the smallest share. Bengu et al. [34] found that compared with other fungal species tested (Suillus luteus and Corrinus atramentarius), L. sulphureus fruiting bodies contained the most myristic acid, palmitic, steraic and oleic acids.
Based on the analysis of the results obtained by Agafanova et al. [36], Bulam et al. [8] showed a high level of unsaturated fatty acids in relation to saturated fatty acids (UFA/SFA > 3.4). In the fruiting bodies of L. sulphureus studied by them, linoleic acid was the most abundant, and there were slightly smaller quantities of oleic and palmitic acids [36]. Similar results were obtained by Petrovic et al. [21], Sinanoglou et al. [38] and Woldegiorgis et al. [35].
Carbohydrates. Laetiporus sulphureus fruiting bodies contain 57.3 mg g−1 dm total soluble saccharides. These mushrooms contain higher amounts of soluble oligosaccharides (56.0% total soluble saccharides; 32.1 mg g−1 dm) than soluble polysaccharides (44%; 25.2 mg g−1 dm) [1]. The content of water-soluble polysaccharides depends on the age of the fruiting bodies: a higher share of these substances was found in mature mushrooms, and the smallest share in aging mushrooms. The opposite pattern was observed in the case of base-soluble polysaccharides which were the most abundant in aging fruiting bodies [51]. Alkaline-soluble polysaccharides [71] and water-soluble endopolysaccharides (glucans, galactans, and glycoproteins) were also isolated from these fungi. Laetiporus sulphureus fruiting bodies contain arabinose, galactose, glucose, xylose, mannose, rhamnose and fucose [26]. In addition, the analysis of the composition of the post-culture medium showed the presence of the monosaccharides fucose, arabinose, xylose, mannose, galactose and glucose [27]. The fruiting bodies also contained six laetiporans (polysaccharides, which are marked with the letters A–F). Their content was different in individual fractions of the extract, but generally laetiporan A was the most abundant, although it constituted only 0.28% of the fruiting body weight, and laetiporan F had the lowest share (0.06%) [26]. Among the polysaccharides present in the extract from this mushroom, laminaran (β-glucan) and fucomannogalactan were also recognized [72].
Laetiporus sulphureus has one of the highest values of total soluble carbohydrates among the 15 compared mushroom taxa (266.8 mg g−1). Only Craterellus cornucopioides, Hericium erinaceus, Morchella conica, one of the strains of Pleurotus ostreatus and Lactarius deliciosus had a higher content. In addition, this mushroom also contained high levels of glucose (40.5 mg g−1), while the content of fructose was at an average level (6.3 mg g−1), and sucrose was one of the lowest (0.32 mg g−1) among the compared species. The high content of soluble carbohydrates and sugars in mushrooms causes their slightly sweetish taste. This feature was found to be desirable in mushrooms [31].
The quantity of glucans present in the sulphur shelf fungus and their type depends on the method of preparation of the tested extract. In aqueous extracts and extracts of partially purified polysaccharides, β-glucans dominated (they accounted for 92.0% and 90.8% of glucans present in the extract, respectively), while in extracts of hot alkaline extracted polysaccharides, α-glucans (67.1%) dominated. A positive correlation has been shown between the amount of α-glucan and antioxidant activity [49]. Polysaccharides from the group of α-(1→3)-glucans are substances of great importance for dentistry. Depending on the extraction method used, Wiater et al. [73] obtained from 32.1 to 56.9% of this fraction from the dry matter of the mycelium. The content of α-(1→3)-glucans in the walls of the sulphur shelf fungus depended on the development stage of the fruiting body: it was the lowest in young, immature fruiting bodies (17.3–37.6%), and the highest in mature fruiting bodies (bodies with mature spores; 42.8–47.8) [74]. In further research, Wiater et al. [75] isolated a water-soluble group of α-(1→3)-glucooligosaccharides from α-(1→3)-glucan and demonstrated its high probiotic importance for the human body.
The content of free carbohydrates changes depending on the age of the fruiting body: the lowest was in young mushrooms (13.9%), and the highest in aging mushrooms (27.2%). The mannite content also increased with the age of the fungus: it was 9% in young fruiting bodies and 25.2% in aging fruiting bodies [51]. According to Petrovic et al. [21], in the group of free sugars, trehalose (4.0 g/100 g dw) dominates, then mannitol (3.5 g/100 g dw), and fructose (0.5 g/100 g dw) is the least abundant. In addition, there are small amounts of glucose and sucrose in this mushroom [8]. Chitin content also changes with age: the lowest amount was found in mature mushrooms (2%), and the highest in aging mushrooms (4.9%) [51]. However, it should be recognized that this component is present in the fruiting bodies of L. sulphureus in very small amounts. Florczak et al. [24] reported it at a level of 0.1 g/100 g dw, and this value was very low compared with the amounts found in another mushroom species compared in their studies (e.g., fruiting bodies of Flammulina velutipes contained 8.2 g/100 g dw of chitin).
Based on the comparison of the nutritional values of selected edible mushrooms, it was found that L. sulphureus is the species that is the most protein-poor, but the most carbohydrate-rich. The other main components (fat, ash and fiber) are present in amounts similar to those found in other species of mushrooms (Figure 3).
Mineral elements. The content of mineral salts in mushrooms depends on the habitat in which the mushroom developed [8]. Due to the fact that L. sulphureus is an arboreal fungus, the host tree species and at the same time, the habitat of the fungus are important. Therefore, the nutritional status and health of the plant play an important role. Diseases of the host plant, both of bacterial and fungal etiology, can significantly affect the content of minerals in the fungus, and thus indirectly affect the size and rate of formation of fruiting bodies. Bulam et al. [8], based on the results of research conducted by, among others, Agafonova et al. [36], Ayaz et al. [20], Palazzolo et al. [37], Luangharn et al. [25], Saha et al. [23], Kovacs and Vetter [1], Turfan et al. [31] and Bengu [34], found that there is a relationship between the mineral content in the fruiting bodies of L. sulphureus and the time of mushroom harvesting, methods of cultivation and the adopted method of determining the content of a given component. Differences in the contents of particular mineral elements are shown in Table 2. However, according to research by Kovacs and Vetter [1], fruiting bodies of L. sulphureus have a similar mineral composition to other fungi growing on trees. They found that 99% of the total mineral content of this mushroom consists of potassium, phosphorus, calcium and magnesium. In addition, they showed that the fruiting bodies contain large amounts of phosphorus and potassium, satisfactory amounts of iron, zinc and copper, and very small amounts of elements toxic to humans: arsenic, chromium and nickel. Bengu [34] showed that the amount of iron in the fruiting bodies of L. sulphureus corresponds to the daily RDA dose and suggested that this mushroom could be included in the diet of people suffering from anemia.
Vitamins and organic acids. The content of vitamins in the fruiting bodies of L. sulphureus has been rarely studied. Among the tocopherols present in these mushrooms, the largest share, as much as 57.6%, consisted of α-tocopherol (its content in 100 g of dry weight of the fruiting body was 109.3 µg), and δ-tocopherol was the smallest share (9.7%; 18.4 µg). The remainder consisted of γ-tocopherol (62.1 µg) [21]. Szymański et al. [2] showed the presence of niacin in the fruiting bodies of L. sulphureus. Studies of other mushroom species have shown that these organisms are also a source of pantothenic acid, biotin, vitamins B12, D3 [8], ascorbic acid and β-carotene [81,82,83].
Ayaz et al. [20] determined and compared the content of chemical components in eight species of mushrooms. The fruiting bodies of L. sulphureus contained high levels of malic acid (3.7 g/kg), less citric acid (3.1 g/kg) and very little ascorbic acid (0.1 g/kg), but this mushroom had the lowest levels of these components among the compared species. The low content of ascorbic acid (514.2 µg/g dw) in these fruiting bodies was also shown in the research conducted by Acharya et al. [50]. Petrović and colleagues [21] determined the level of citric acid in this mushroom (1.2 g/100 g dw), oxalic acid (2.7 g/100 g dw), fumaric acid (0.3 g/100 g dw) and quinic acid (0.2 g/100 g dw). Sulphur yellow fungus also contains protocatechuic acid (measured at 17.7 µg/g dw [56] and 3.3 mg/100 g dw [47]), gallic acid (16.0 µg/g dw [53] and 0.4 mg/100 g dw [47]), chlorogenic acid (9.7 µg/g dw), caffeic acid (8.4 µg/g dw) and p-coumaric acid (8.0 µg/g dw) [53]. The presence of gallic and protocatechuic acids in extracts from L. sulphureus fruiting bodies was also demonstrated by Karaman et al. [55]. Among the phenolic acids and derivatives, the fruiting bodies of L. sulphureus also contained p-hydroxybenzoic acid (measured at 30.7 µg/100 g dw [21] and 4.1 mg/100 g dw [47]), cinnamic acid (144.6 µg/100 g dw) [21], kojic acid (0.02 mg/100 g dw) [47] and isovaleric acid [40].
The content of chemical components, including organic acids, in the fruiting bodies of L. sulphureus varies depending on the developmental stage of the fungus. The highest total content of organic acids was found in old mushrooms (5.1%), whereas adult mushrooms contained 3.1% and young mushrooms 3.3%. In all age groups of fruiting bodies, tartaric acid was always dominant, followed by malic acid. The greatest differences in the content of individual acids were found in young mushrooms (from 0.1% for succinic acid to 1.4% for tartaric acid). The greatest differences were observed for citric acid; the levels in the aging fruiting body were three times greater than in the young mushroom (1.5% and 0.5%, respectively). The reverse pattern was observed in the case of malonic acid. Its level in young mushrooms was high (1.1%), whereas in adult fruiting bodies it had decreased by almost half (to 0.6%), and in the old specimens, it increased strongly and reached the maximum value (1.3%) [51].
Other components. The presence of quercetin (1.1 μg/g d.w.), kaempferol (0.9 μg/g d.w.) and (+)-catechin (4.7 μg/g d.w.) has been reported in L. sulphureus fruiting bodies [53]. They also contain sterols, dominated by ergosterol (136.9 mg/100 g dw) and ergosterol peroxide (64.0 mg/100 g dw); L-tocopherol (0.16 mg/100 g dw) had a much smaller share. Indole derivatives are also important components of these mushrooms: relatively high amounts of L-tryptophan were found (14.1 mg/100 g dw), whereas 5-OH-L-tryptophan and tryptamine were present in small amounts (1.5 mg/100 g dw and 1.2 mg/100 g dw, respectively). However, the conducted research did not show the presence of melatonin [47]. An interesting component isolated from L. sulphureus is ±-laetirobin, a substance with great potential in medicine, especially in the treatment of cancer [57].

4. Bioactivity of Laetiporus sulphureus

Bioactive substances. Substances responsible for the diverse positive effects of Laetiporus sulphureus include tocopherols, steroids, triterpenes, beauvericin, organic acids (including laetiporic and ascorbic acids), lectins, pigments, benzofurans, α-glucans, phenolic compounds, polysaccharides and monosaccharides [1,8,30,33,46,84,85,86]. The composition of bioactive substances found in L. sulphureus is similar to the composition of substances found in Pleurotus ostreatus [1]. Due to its bioactivity, the sulphur shelf fungus has long been used in traditional medicine [87]. Laboratory tests have proven its positive multidirectional effects on the human body (Figure 4).
Antioxidant properties of L. sulphureus. Due to their rich and diverse chemical composition, extracts obtained from L. sulphureus show antioxidant activity, which is most often assessed as high [79,80,85,88], especially when samples are obtained from dried mushrooms, not mycelium [84]. It is higher than the antioxidant activity of rosemary and coffee acids [80]. However, in some studies, this activity was rated as moderate or even low [89] (e.g., lower than the activity of the BHA control sample [85]).
The antioxidant activity of L. sulphureus extracts is similar to that of extracts obtained from the fruiting bodies of the fungus Pleurotus ostreatus [1], but three times higher than in the case of Trametes versicolor (free radical-scavenging capacity of the extract determined by the DPPH method; [79]). In another study, Laetiporus sulphureus was characterized by the lowest antioxidant activity (determined by the FRAP method) among five fungal species tested (3.5 mmol Trolox/kg dw). The highest activity in this study was found in Gleophyllum sepiarium (87.8 mmol Trolox/kg d.w.) (87.8 mmol Trolox/kg dw) [56].
The high antioxidant potential is influenced, among other factors, by the content of phenolic compounds and flavonoids. However, the total phenolic content in extracts prepared with 70% ethanol was considered very low (142.1 mg GAE/l) [89]. The content of polyphenols in water extracts was higher than in ethanol extracts (43.9 and 9.8 mg GAE/100 g DW, respectively) [90]. Bulam et al. [79] reported that a L. sulphureus extract contained more than three times more phenolic compounds and flavonoids than a Trametes versicolor extract (272.7 mg GAE/g and 44.3 mg QE/mg, respectively, in L. sulphureus, and 77.4 mg GAE/ g and 13.8 QE/mg, respectively, in T. versicolor). In the study of Nicolcioiu and colleagues [89], the total phenolic content in L. sulphureus was higher only than the amount found in Hericium coralloides (111.7 mg GAE/l), while the highest value was found in Agaricus campestris (489.2 mg GAE/l). Similarly, a small total of phenolic compounds (10.4 mg GAE/g DW) and total contents of phenolic acids (17.7 µg/g DW) were reported by Sułkowska-Ziaja et al. [56]. In another study, Fomitopsis pinicola (114.9 µg/g DW) contained the highest total content of phenolic acids, and Piptoporus betulinus did not contain them at all. The highest total of phenolic compounds was found in Fomitopsis pinicola (21.9 mg GAE/g DW), and the lowest in Daedaleopsis confragosa (6.9 GAE/g DW) [56]. Turfan et al. [31] showed that the total phenolics in L. sulphureus was 28.7 mg g−1, which was the lowest value among the 15 compared mushroom species (the highest content was found in Boletus edulis at 157.4 mg g−1). In addition, this mushroom contained few flavonoids (12.8 mg g−1; the highest levels were found in Ganoderma lucidum 30.7 mg g−1, and the lowest in Pleurotus ostreatus at 8.6 mg g−1).
The antioxidant activity of methanol extracts is also determined by the presence of p-hydroxybenzoic acid and cinnamic acid, but in the research of Petrović et al. [21], a higher antioxidant potential was shown by the polysaccharide extract than the methanol extract. A strong antioxidant effect of intracellular polysaccharides and exopolysaccharides derived from mycelium and filtrate has been demonstrated, and polysaccharides subjected to a prior fermentation process have been considered as a potential raw material for the food industry (for the production of health-promoting functional food) and for the pharmaceutical industry [91]. Zhao et al. [27] also showed that polysaccharides extracted with water or enzymatically from the waste mushroom substrate have antioxidant activity and the ability to reduce free radicals. In addition, lovastine isolated from L. sulphureus tissues has an antioxidant activity [92].
The antioxidant activity of this fungus has a beneficial effect on the body, as demonstrated by the example of chickens fed feed produced from fermented mycelium [93].
Antibacterial and antifungal effects. The antibacterial activity of the fungus L. sulphureus was tested using extracts obtained from fruiting bodies or mycelium using various solvents (aqueous (AeE), acetone (AcE), chloroform (ChE), cyclohexane (CyE), dicholoromethane (DmE), ethanol (EhE), ethyl acetate (EAE), and n-hexane (nHE), hydroalcoholic (HAE), methanol (ME) and pertoleum ether (EPE)), as well as selected ingredients isolated from them (glucans, laetiporin C, and laetiporin D). During the tests, the minimum concentration of inhibition and the diameters of the inhibition zone were determined.
The microorganisms used in the research belonged to both the G+ and G− groups of bacteria (mainly pathogenic to humans or causing spoilage of food products). The species whose reaction has been studied most frequently is Staphylococcus aureus. The antibacterial activity depended on the species of the tested microorganism, the type of substance used (the type of extract or its components) and the concentration of the tested substance. Inhibition of or reduction in the activity of the tested microorganisms, including the formation of bacterial biofilms [94,95], was most often observed.
AeE, AcE, ChE, CyE, DmE, EhE, EAE, nHE, HAE, ME and EPE L. sulphureus extracts reduced the activities of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa [21,33,38,40,80,85,95,96,97,98]. Positive effects of using extracts were also found in the case of Klebsiella pneumoniae (EhE, AeE, AcE, EAE and ChE [33]; ME, CyE and DmE [97]) and Salmonella typhimurium (AcE, AeE, EhE, ME and DmE [21,40]; ChE and nHE [38]). The Ehe extract also reduced the activities of Bacillus cereus [96], B. subtilis [85,96], Enterococcus faecalis [80,84], Micrococcus flavus, M. luteus, Morganella morgani, Proteus vulgaris, Salmonella enteridis [96], Shigella enterica, Streptococcus pyogenes [33], Staphylococcus epidermidis [84], and Yersinia enterecolitica [96]. The biological activities of B. subtilis, E. faecalis, L. monocytogenes, M. flavus, M. luteus, Sa. abony and St. epidermidis were similarly affected by ME, CyE and DmE extracts of L. sulphureus [21,40,97]. ME and DmE extracts effectively reduced the activity of Helicobacter pylori [97].
Interesting results were obtained in studies on the effect of α-(1→3)-glucooligosaccharides isolated from L. sulphureus tissues on the number and activity of intestinal bacteria (Bifidobacterium bifidum ATCC 29521, B. longum subsp. infantis ATCC 15697, Lactobacillus acidophilus DSMZ 20079, L. acidophilus PCM 2499, L. plantarum ATCC 14917, L. fermentum PCM 491, L. casei LBY, L. gallinarum DSMZ 10532, L. Johnsonii DSMZ 10533) and the pathogenic Escherichia coli DH5α and Enterococcus faecalis PCM 896. Their selective effect and promotion of the increase in the number of desirable microflora in the intestines (microorganisms of the Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus genera) and a negative effect on the activity of the tested undesirable bacteria (of the genera Escherichia and Enterococcus) were found [75].
In studies of antifungal activity, the most frequently used extracts of L. sulphureus were AeE, EhE, AcE and ChE, as well as selected components isolated from L. sulphureus tissues: polyenes (Seibold et al. 2020 after: [42]), laetiporin C and laetiporin D [60], and lovastine ([92]). The AcE, DmE and ME extracts inhibited the activity of Aspergillus fungi (A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger, A. ochraceus and A. versicolor) [21,33,40]. The AeE, AcE, EAE [33] and ChE [33,38] extracts had a similar effect on A. fumigatus and A. niger. The nHE extract reduced the growth of A. fumigatus, A. ochraceus and A. versicolor colonies [38]. In addition, the EhE extract decreased the biological activity of Candida albicans [33,80,84], C. paropsilopsis [84], C. tropicalis [80], Curvularia clavate, Geotrichum candidum and Fusarium oxysporum [33], and the AeE, EaE and ChE extracts inhibited the growth of C. albicans, C. clavate and G. candidum mycelia [33].
The ME, AcE and DmE extracts also inhibited the activity of fungi pathogenic to plants (Fulvia fulvum and Fusarium sporotrichoides) and Penicillium aurantiogriseum isolated from food [40]. The ME [21], ChE and nHE [38] extracts slowed the growth of mycelia of Penicillium ochrochloron, P. verrucosum var. cyclopium and Trichoderma viride. Parvu [99] showed the inhibitory effect of HAE on the development of Botrytis cinerea, F. oxysporum, Penicillium gladioli and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Laetiporin C also limited the development of Mucor hiemalis [60].
Sevindik et al. [88] and Sevindik [100] also demonstrated that ME extract has antiviral activity against HSV-1.
Antitumor effects. The anticancer effect depends on the type of substance used (the type of extract or component isolated from the fungus), the dose and the tested cancer cell line. Some cancer cells are highly sensitive to substances obtained from L. sulphureus. The cytotoxic effect of the test substance is manifested in several ways, such as stopping the cells’ proliferation at various stages of the cell cycle or seriously damaging them (Figure 5). In the case of cancer cells, this is very desirable during the treatment of cancer diseases.
In studies of anticancer activity, the effects of L. sulphureus extracts obtained with the use of various solvents have been most often analyzed, and less often the effects of selected isolated components (laetiporin C and laetiporin D [60], sulphureuine B [101], eburicoic acid [69] and lectin [102]). The most frequently studied extract is the ethanol extract, and the most frequently used cancer cell lines are HeLa (human cervical cancer), HCT116 (human colon cancer) and MCF-7 (human breast cancer). The anticancer activity, the migration ability (migration potential), effect on angiogenesis and changes in the levels of selected indicator parameters have been assessed in several studies.
Kim et al. [103] studied the effect of various solvent fractions obtained from methanol extract on the activity of YD-10B cells (human tongue cancer). They found a strong decrease in cell viability under the influence of fractions obtained using hexane and chloroform. Positive results were obtained in the study of ethanol extracts. They caused a strong reduction in the migration potential of HeLa cells and a pro-oxidative effect associated with a significant increase in the level of superoxide anion radicals [104]. Administration of ethanol extract for 45 days at a dose of 250 mg/kg resulted in a decrease in the level of AFP, CEA, MDA, cytochrome b5 and cytochrome P450. In HCC cells (hepatocellular carcinoma), activation of their apoptotic processes was observed, which was associated with a decrease in the expression of Bcl-2 genes and an increase in the expression of mRNA p53, caspases 3 and caspases 9. In general examinations of the condition of the liver tissue, there was a reduction in fat deposition, alleviation of inflammation in hepatocytes and improvement in the condition of the hepatic veins [105]. Similarly, Petrovic et al. [102] found that the ethanol extract inhibited angiogenesis and thus tumor growth of HCT-116 (human colon cancer), but its effect was weaker than that of the lectin isolated from L. sulphureus. The lectin also showed a strong anti-migration effect and strongly inhibited tumor metastasis.
Younis et al. [33] proved that aqueous, ethanolic, acetone, ethyl-acetate and chloroform extracts of L. sulphureus showed anti-proliferative activity against the cancer cell lines HeLa, HTC 116, MCF-7 and Hep G2 (human liver cancer), but the ethanol extract had the strongest effect on most cells. The aqueous extract also showed a strong antiproliferative effect. Kolundzic et al. [97] obtained a similar effect using cyclohexane and dichloromethane extracts on HeLa and NCI-N87 (gastric carcinoma) cells. Jovanovic et al. [106] found that the ethyl acetate extract changed the activity and inhibited the migration potential of cancer cells from the HCT-116 and HeLa lines, but did not show any cytotoxicity against them. This extract caused a strong increase in ROS and RNS in both cancer cell lines, but the strongest effect was shown against HeLa. In these cells, there was a marked activation of O2- production and a slight increase in GSH levels.
Chepkirui et al. [59] found an anticancer effect of dehydrosulfuric acid and sulfuric acid on A431 (epidermoid carcinoma), A549 (human lung adenocarcinoma), HeLa, MCF-7 and PC-3 (human prostate cancer) tumor cells and the cytotoxic effect of eburicoic acid on HeLa. Similar observations on eburicoic acid were made by He et al. [69]: this component was highly cytotoxic to A-549, HL-60 (human leukemia), SMMC-721 (human hepatocarcinoma) and SW-480 (colorectal cancer) tumor cells. In an earlier study, Lear et al. [57] showed that (±)-laetirobin showed a strong cytostatic effect on HeLa and HCT116 cells: it penetrated them very quickly, blocked divisions in the late stage of mitosis and caused apoptosis. Substances from the laetiporins group isolated from L. sulphureus were also tested. Laetiporin A and laetiporin B are cytotoxic to five human cancer cell lines (HeLa, A431, A549, MCF-7, and PC-3) [59], while laetiporin C and laetiporin D have a weak antiproliferative effect against A431, A549, PC-3, and MCF-7 cell lines [60]. Sulphureuine B caused a decrease in Bcl-2 levels and activation of caspase-8, PERK and ATF6α in human glioblastoma cells (U87MG). By changing the activity of mitochondria and receptors, this component inhibited the proliferation of cancer cells and induced their apoptosis [101].
The high antioxidant activity of extracts obtained from the fruiting bodies of this fungus indicates that they can protect DNA against damage [80].
Thrombolytic and anticoagulant effects. Studies conducted on human blood samples showed a very high (at the level of 69%) thrombolytic activity (TLA) of post-culture liquid left after L. sulphureus culture, which is a source of extracellular proteases used in the production of mycopharmaceuticals with TLA [107].
Anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects. Sulfurenolids B, C and D isolated from the tissues of the sulphur shelf fungus show anti-inflammatory activity; they have ability to reduce the level of NO in the tissues. A concentration of 50 µM of these substances had a stronger effect than the positive control (minocycline) [61,108]. The fermented ethanol extract also showed an immunomodulatory effect. It improved cell viability (inhibited by LPS), strongly reduced the production of i.a. NO and decreased levels of nuclear factor kappa B (NFkB) and interleukin (IL)-1b. On the other hand, its use favored a slight increase in the levels of TLR4, NFkB and iNOS mRNA [109]. LSL4 lectin (a glycoprotein) has shown a very strong immunomodulatory effect by promoting cell growth and increasing their viability: in vitro application on mouse macrophages resulted in an increase in phagocytic activity and an increase in the levels of NO, iNOS, IL-6, IL-10, IL-1β and TNF -α. According to the authors of the study, LSL4 lectin can be used in medicine (in shaping the activity of the immune system) and in food production (in composing products that meet the requirements of functional food) [110].
Neuroprotective effects. Substances contained in L. sulphureus make this fungus effective as a neuroprotective agent against diseases associated with the degeneration of the nervous system, for example, Alzeimer’s and Parkinson’s disease [111], according to Ćilerdzić et al., 2018 after: [107].
Hepatoprotective, gastric analgesic and probiotic roles. Glycyrrhetinic acid (enoxolone) that is present in the fruiting bodies of L. sulphureus effectively relieved stomach pain [35]. Polysaccharides extracted from the mushroom substrate, especially fucose, may find potential use in the prevention of ALD, a liver disease caused by alcohol abuse [27]. Wiater and his colleagues [75] found that alpha (1→3) glucans present in the tissues of sulphur shelf fungus can be used for probiotic purposes. They cause selective stimulation of the growth of the population of bacteria desirable in the human digestive system and negative selection of undesirable microorganisms.
Insulinogenic and metabolism-modulating effects. Polysaccharides produced extracellularly by L. sulphureus have an insulinogenic effect (Hwang et al., 2008 after [42]), thanks to which they have the ability to regulate cellular metabolism. In addition, the tepenoids (monoterpenes, diterpenes, sesquiterpenes and triterpenes) contained in this mushroom inhibit the activity of alpha-glucosidase. This, in turn, inhibits the formation of monosaccharide molecules and facilitates the formation of glycogen in the liver and muscles [97,112].
Prevention of gynecological problems. Glycyrrhetinic acid (enoxolone) present in the extract is used to prevent postpartum complications (by accelerating the removal of the placenta after childbirth) [35].
Dental prophylaxis. α(1→3) glucans isolated from the cell walls of sulphuric yellow fungus are inducers of mutanases. Their inhibitory effect on the formation of biofilms composed of bacterial cells causing tooth decay has been proven. This creates the possibility of using these substances in dental prophylaxis to remove bacterial biofilms from the surface of the teeth and from prosthetic devices [73].
Cosmetics effect. Laetiporus sulphureus contains a number of ingredients used in cosmetology. These ingredients have the ability to inhibit the activity of hyaluronidase and tyrosinase. In addition, they have, among others, astringent, UV protective, exfoliating, greasing, moisturizing, healing (sterols), pigmenting (indole derivatives) and whitening (kojic acid) properties [47]. The extract can be used topically to treat skin hyperpigmentation [113].
In summary, in recent years, the Laetiporus sulphureus has been subjected to intensive research to determine whether it can be used in the prevention and treatment of various diseases (Table 3). The review of the literature provides evidence that extracts of L. sulphureus and its selected components have great potential for many branches of medicine. Their antibacterial and antioxidant activity was found. Therapeutic effects have also been demonstrated in relation to civilization diseases related to the functioning of the circulatory system or cancer, neurodegenerative or metabolic diseases. Due to such a wide range of potential effects, this fungus should be used as a raw material for the production of medicines and dietary supplements.

5. Fruiting bodies of Laetiporus sulphureus in Food Production

Laetiporus sulphureus fruiting bodies are edible but valued as traditional food only in some places of occurrence [8,30]. Young fruiting bodies are soft and brittle [24]; hence, in some parts of the world, they are called chicken polypores [2]. Older ones are not suitable for consumption due to the fact that they become hard and difficult to digest [24].
Young fruiting bodies have a taste similar to tofu or turkey meat [63], but if the fruit body is not cooked before proper processing or if it is too ripe, then it has a sour taste and smell [24,63]. It is believed that this mushroom is not very aromatic; it has only a slight mushroom aroma. Due to its visual qualities, a yellow color that persists even after heat treatment, it is willingly added to dishes in which it is an interesting colorful ingredient [24]. This mushroom is of culinary importance only locally, e.g., in Germany, the USA or Romania [2]. In many countries (including Poland) its popularity is growing, although people often treat it as a kitchen experiment rather than as a regular ingredient of dinner dishes. On the other hand, in Italy this mushroom is not eaten.
Sulphur shelf fruit bodies can be a substitute for meat in a vegetarian diet. They are prepared in many different ways: they can be fried similar to pork chops (in breadcrumbs) or schnitzels, they can be baked after having been cut into narrow strips, stewed, baked in the oven, deep fried (similar to French fries) or marinated in spices (e.g., honey-spices). In addition, tripe soup, stew (similar to chicken stew), paprikash, and pâté are prepared from this mushroom. They can also be added to soups as an alternative to meat [2,63].
Occasionally, mild indigestion may occur after ingestion of L. sulphureus fruiting bodies [2,119,120,121], while other reactions have been reported very rarely: allergy, hives, dizziness, intestinal cramps, muscle spasms, vomiting, weakness or anaphylactic shock [119]. However, the symptoms of poisoning have been associated with the consumption of raw or undercooked mushroom [2]. Hence, Szczepkowski [63] recommended pre-scalding or short (2 min) cooking of these mushrooms, and then proper thermal processing, and Mortimer et al. [7] drew attention to the need for long thermal treatment (cooking), which greatly facilitates their digestion. The origin of the fruiting bodies is very important: only those that grow on deciduous trees should be collected, and collection from conifers, such as yew (Taxus), should be avoided. In the literature, one can find information that fruiting bodies of L. sulphureus collected from conifers may contain toxins present in these trees (Evans 1996 after [2,122,123]).
Thanks to its interesting chemical composition and positive impacts on the human health, this fungus was included in the list of species allowed for marketing or production of mushroom preserves and foodstuffs containing mushrooms in Poland (Regulation of the Min. Health, Journal of Laws of 18 November 2022, item 2365 [124]); however, it was only included in the list in November 2022. This inclusion makes it possible to introduce it on a large scale to the processing and food industry. It is also an opportunity to create products with an original composition that are rich in new bioactive ingredients and have new sensory values. It also opens up new prospects for mushroom growing companies.
Role in food preservation. Substances contained in the fruit bodies of L. sulphureus prevent the development of microorganisms that cause food spoilage. Volatile compounds extracted from fruiting bodies with various solvents (acetone, methanol and dichloromethane) were tested. All the extracts showed antimicrobial activity against the tested bacteria and fungi [21,40]; moreover, the extract with the strongest effect (methanol extract) clearly inhibited the development of Aspergillus flavus on the medium containing tomato puree [40] and on the medium containing poultry meat paste [21]. Aspergillus flavus is a microorganism toxic to humans and animals that has the ability to colonize various food products. Its harmfulness is associated with the production of aflatoxins [125,126,127]. Strong antibacterial and antifungal, and even antioxidant effects were associated with substances present in the polysaccharide extract [21]. The authors of the study suggest that extracts from the fruiting bodies of L. sulphureus may be a potential natural food preservative [21,40], which is also confirmed by the results of other studies [8,79].

6. Other Applications

Laetiporus sulphureus can be used in the food industry. It can be a source of antioxidants in functional foods, especially when used in the form of a hot alkaline extract [49]. In addition, it can also be an alternative to artificial food preservatives. Its inhibitory effect on the development of the fungus Aspergillus flavus, which causes the spoilage of tomato purees and concentrates, has been demonstrated [40].
One of the components isolated from this fungus, letiporic acid from the group of polyenes, is used in the clothing and textile industry as a non-toxic, natural dye for silk. It gives fabrics an orange-yellow color [42]. Sulphur shelf fungus is also used for the production of biopolymers, which can then be a raw material for various industries [52].
This fungus can be used in environmental protection, especially in sewage treatment. For this purpose, its ability to synthesize extracellular enzymes, such as manganese oxidase and linnocellulite enzymes, including lignin peroxidase, can be used [94,120]. Laetiporus sulphureus enzymatically decomposes waste and impurities containing lignin, hemicellulose and cellulose, and as a result, soluble compounds of low molecular weight are formed (Lim et al., 2013 after: [89]).

7. Conclusions

Recognizing the fungus L. sulphureus as a useful species and allowing it to be used in food processing and production is a challenge and, at the same time, a great opportunity for many areas of the economy. In the case of areas with a low degree of urbanization, including rural areas, it is an opportunity to create new jobs or find an additional source of income for residents. People with various degrees of education, including unskilled workers, can be employed in the cultivation of this mushroom. This gives them a great opportunity to raise their economic status. Cultivation of this mushroom is relatively simple (requiring only compliance with established rules) and does not require the operation of technologically advanced equipment.
Sulphur shelf fungus is a relatively cheap raw material because its cultivation can be carried out on a substrate consisting of cheap and easily available components. The components of the substrate may be, for example, the remains of crop plants from which biogas was previously obtained [15]; in such cases, cultivation is a form of agricultural waste management. The cultivation process does not require fertilization or heavy irrigation and there are no special thermal requirements related to the need to maintain a constant temperature, which results in additional cost reductions. Interestingly, a slight supercooling of the culture does not have a negative effect; on the contrary, it initiates the formation of fruiting bodies [14]. Sulphur shelf mycelium is widely available, and its propagation is not laborious and does not generate additional costs. This mushroom can be cultivated continuously (all year round), especially in mild winter climates. It is characterized by rapid growth. Less than 2 months after the inoculation of the substrate with mycelium, it forms numerous fruiting bodies of large weight [13].
Laetiporus sulphureus fruiting bodies are a relatively new raw material for the food industry. Due to their chemical composition, they are a rich source of fiber and many other bioactive ingredients. Many of the chemicals found in this mushroom can also be extracted. Studies have shown that some of the valuable ingredients are included in water extracts. This means that dishes prepared with L. sulphureus with the use of water (soups, sauces, stewed dishes) will have a health-promoting effects. Due to the protein content, this mushroom can be a partial or complete substitute for meat. It can be an interesting addition to meat products such as pâtés or sausages, vegetable spreads for sandwiches, bigos, letchos or fillings for tarts or stuffing for dumplings. It can be used in a cooked or dried form, in small pieces or in a highly fragmented (ground) form. Dried ground fruiting bodies can be a nutrient-rich addition to meat or vegetable dishes. Laetiporus sulphureus fruiting bodies can also be used to obtain natural chemicals, which can then be used in medicine and in the production of dietary supplements.
The color abstract features a photo by Congerdesign (source: Pixabay).


This research received no external funding.

Institutional Review Board Statement

The study did not require ethical approval.

Informed Consent Statement

Not applicable.

Data Availability Statement

Not applicable.


Many thanks are due to Pierino Bigoni and Renato Aldo Ferri for collecting and providing information about the culinary use of L. sulphureus in the regions of Europe where they live. Many thanks to Andrzej Chruslak and Pierino Bigoni for sharing photos with the right to publish.

Conflicts of Interest

The author declare no conflict of interest.


  1. Kovács, D.; Vetter, J. Chemical composition of the mushroom Laetiporus sulphureus (Bull.) Murill. Acta Aliment. 2015, 44, 104–110. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  2. Szymański, M.; Kolendowicz, M.; Szymański, A. Badania wyciągów z owocników grzyba Laetiporus sulphureus (Bull.). Post. Fitoter. 2021, 22, 14–22. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  3. Elkhateeb, W.A.; El Ghwas, D.E.; Gundoju, N.R.; Somasekhar, T.; Akram, M.; Daba, G.M. Chicken of the Woods Laetiporus Sulphureus and Schizophyllum Commune Treasure of Medicinal Mushrooms. Open Access J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2021, 6, 000201. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  4. van den Brandhof, J.G.; Wösten, H.A.B. Risk assessment of fungal materials. Fungal. Biol. Biotechnol. 2022, 9, 3. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  5. Kuo, M. MushroomExpert.Com. Laetiporus sulphureus. 2017. Available online: (accessed on 23 February 2023).
  6. Discover Life. Available online: (accessed on 21 October 2022).
  7. Mortimer, P.E.; Xu, J.; Karunarathna, S.C.; Hyde, K.D. Mushrooms for Trees and People: A Field Guide to Useful Mushrooms of the Mekong Region; The World Agroforestry Centre, East Asia: Kunming, China, 2014; pp. 16–17. [Google Scholar]
  8. Bulam, S.; Üstün, N.S.; Pekşen, A. Nutraceutical and Food Preserving Importance of Laetiporus sulphureus. Turk. J. Agric.-Food Sci. Technol. 2019, 7, 94–100. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  9. Siwulski, M.; Pleszczyńska, M.; Wiater, A.; Wong, J.-J.; Szczodrak, J. The influence of different media on the Laetiporus sulphureus (Bull.: Fr.) Murr. mycelium growth. Herba Pol. 2009, 55, 278–284. [Google Scholar]
  10. Luangharn, T.; Karunarathna, S.C.; Hyde, K.D.; Chukeatirote, E. Optimal conditions of mycelia growth of Laetiporus sulphureus sensu lato. Mycology 2014, 5, 221–227. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  11. Simões, R. Isolation, Cultivation and Antioxidant Capacity of Laetiporus sulphureus. Master’s Thesis, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologias da Universidade de Coimbra, Coimbra, Portugal, 2019. [Google Scholar]
  12. Bergmann, P.; Frank, C.; Reinhardt, O.; Takenberg, M.; Werner, A.; Berger, R.G.; Ersoy, F.; Zschätzsch, M. Pilot-Scale Production of the Natural Colorant Laetiporic Acid, Its Stability and Potential Applications. Fermentation 2022, 8, 684. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  13. Maria Curie-Skłodowska University; Poznań University of Life Sciences; Biernacki Józef Krzysztof. A Method of Cultivating the Fruiting Bodies of the Sulfur Yellow (Laetiporus sulphureus). Application: 2 January 2012. Patent PL219753 B1, 31 July 2015. [Google Scholar]
  14. Pleszczyńska, M.; Wiater, A.; Siwulski, M.; Szczodrak, J. Successful large-scale production of fruiting bodies of Laetiporus sulphureus (Bull.: Fr.) Murrill on an artificial substrate. World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2013, 29, 753–758. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  15. Jasińska, A.; Dawidowicz, L.; Siwulski, M.; Kilinowski, P. Growth of Mycelium of Different Edible and Medicinal Mushrooms on Medium Supplemented with Digestate from AD Biogas Plant. Not. Bot. Horti. Agrobot. Cluj-Napoca 2017, 45, 498–506. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  16. Grown My Own Health Food. Available online: (accessed on 13 March 2023).
  17. Field and Forest Products. Available online: (accessed on 13 March 2023).
  18. Dong, W.; Wang, Z.; Feng, X.; Zhang, R.; Shen, D.; Du, S.; Gao, J.; Qia, J. Chromosome-Level Genome Sequences, Comparative Genomic Analyses, and Secondary-Metabolite Biosynthesis Evaluation of the Medicinal Edible Mushroom Laetiporus sulphureus. Microbiol. Spectr. 2022, 10, e02439-22. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  19. Wright, R.; Woof, K.; Douglas, B.; Gaya, E. The genome sequence of the chicken of the woods fungus, Laetiporus sulphureus (Bull.) Murrill, 1920. Wellcome Open Res. 2022, 7, 83. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  20. Ayaz, F.A.; Torun, H.; Özel, A.; Col, M.; Duran, C.; Sesli, E.; Colak, A. Nutritional value of some wild edible mushrooms from Black Sea Region (Turkey). Turk. J. Biochem./Turk Biyokim. Derg. 2011, 36, 213–221. [Google Scholar]
  21. Petrović, J.; Sojković, D.S.; Reis, F.S.; Barros, L.; Glamočlija, J.; Ćirić, A.; Ferreira, I.C.F.R.; Soković, M. Study on chemical, bioactive and food preserving properties of Laetiporus sulphureus (Bull.: Fr.) Murr. Food Funct. 2014, 5, 1441–1451. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Green Version]
  22. Teke, A.N.; Bi, M.E.; Ndam, L.M.; Kinge, T.R. Nutrient and mineral components of wild edible mushrooms from the Kilum-Ijim forest, Cameroon. Afr. J. Food Sci. 2021, 15, 152–161. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  23. Saha, D.; Sundriyal, M.; Sundriyal, R.C. Diversity of food composition and nutritive analysis of edible wild plants in a multi-ethnic tribal land, Northeast India: An important facet for food supply. Indian J. Tradit. Knowl. 2014, 13, 698–705. [Google Scholar]
  24. Florczak, J.; Karmańska, A.; Karwowski, B. Niektóre składniki żółciaka siarkowego Laetiporus sulfureus (Bull.) Murrill. Bromat. Chem. Toksykol. 2015, 48, 210–215. [Google Scholar]
  25. Luangharn, T.; Hyde, K.D.; Chukeatirote, E. Proximate Analysis and Mineral Content of Laetiporus sulphureus Strain MFLUCC 12-0546 from Northern Thailand. Chiang Mai J. Sci. 2014, 41, 765–770. [Google Scholar]
  26. Olennikov, D.N.; Agafonova, S.V.; Borovskii, G.B.; Penzina, T.A.; Rokhin, A.V. Water-soluble endopolysaccharides from the fruiting bodies of Laetiporus sulphureus (Bull.: Fr.) Murr. Appl. Biochem. Microbiol. 2009, 45, 536–543. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  27. Zhao, H.; Lan, Y.; Liu, H.; Zhu, Y.; Liu, W.; Zhang, J.; Jia, L. Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Activities of Polysaccharides from Spent Mushroom Substrates (Laetiporus sulphureus) in Acute Alcohol-Induced Mice. Oxid. Med. Cell. Longev. 2017, 2017, 5863523. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Green Version]
  28. ChemSpider Search and Share Chemistry. Available online: (accessed on 23 February 2023).
  29. PubChem Explore Chemistry. Available online: (accessed on 6 January 2023).
  30. Khatua, S.; Ghosh, S.; Acharya, K. Laetiporus sulphureus (Bull.: Fr.) Murr. as Food as Medicine. Pharmacogn. J. 2017, 9, s1–s15. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  31. Turfan, N.; Pekşen, A.; Kibar, B.; Űnal, S. Determination of natural and bioactive properties in soma selected wild growing and cultivated mushrooms from Tukey. Acta Sci. Pol. Hortorum Cultus 2018, 17, 57–72. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  32. Sułkowska-Ziaja, K.; Muszyńska, B.; Gawalska, A.; Sałaciak, K. Laetiporus sulphureus–chemical composition and medicinal value. Acta Sci. Pol. Hortorum Cultus 2018, 17, 87–96. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  33. Younis, A.M.; Yosri, M.; Stewart, J.K. In vitro evaluation of pleiotropic properties of wild mushroom Laetiporus sulphureus. Ann. Agric. Sci. 2019, 64, 79–87. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  34. Bengu, A.S. Some elements and fatty acid profiles of three different wild edible mushrooms from Tokat province in Turkey. Prog. Nutr. 2019, 21, 189–193. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  35. Woldegiorgis, A.Z.; Abate, D.; Haki, G.D.; Ziegler, G.R.; Harvatine, K.J. Fatty Acid Profile of Wild and Cultivated Edible Mushrooms Collected from Ethiopia. J. Nutr. Food Sci. 2015, 5, 360. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  36. Agafanova, S.V.; Olennikov, D.N.; Borovskii, G.B.; Penzina, T.A. Chemical composition of fruiting bodies from two strains of Laetiporus sulphureus. Chem. Nat. Compd. 2007, 43, 687–688. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  37. Palazzolo, E.; Gargano, M.L.; Venturella, G. The nutritional composition of selected wild edible mushrooms from Sicily (southern Italy). Int. J. Food Sci. 2012, 63, 79–83. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  38. Sinanoglou, V.J.; Zoumpoulakis, P.; Heropoulos, G.; Proestos, C.; Ćirić, A.; Petrovic, J.; Glamoclija, J.; Sokovic, M. Lipid and fatty acid profile of the edible fungus Laetiporus sulphurous. Antifungal and antibacterial properties. J. Food Sci. Technol. 2014, 52, 3264–3272. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Green Version]
  39. Yilmaz, H.C.; Işik, H.; Bengü, A.S.; Türkekul, I. Fatty acid contents of two edible mushroom species (Cyclocybe aegerita and Hygrophorus eburneus) collected from Tokat Region. Middle East J. Sci. 2020, 6, 37–43. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  40. Petrović, J.; Glamočlija, J.; Sojković, D.S.; Ćirić, A.; Nikolić, M.; Bukvički, D.; Guerzoni, M.E.; Soković, M.D. Laetiporus sulphureus, edible mushroom from Serbia: Investigation on volatile compounds, in vitro antimicrobial activity and in situ control of Aspergillus flavus in tomato paste. Food Chem. Toxicol. 2013, 59, 297–302. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  41. Weber, R.W.S.; Mucci, A.; Davoli, P. Laetiporic acid, a new polyene pigment from the wood-rotting basidiomycete Laetiporus sulphureus (Polyporales, Fungi). Tetrahedron Lett. 2004, 45, 1075–1078. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  42. Zschätzsch, M.; Steudler, S.; Reinhardt, O.; Bergmann, P.; Ersoy, F.; Stange, S.; Wagenführ, A.; Walther, T.; Berger, R.G.; Werner, A. Production of natural colorants by liquid fermentation with Chlorociboria aeruginascens and Laetiporus sulphureus and prospective applications. Eng. Life Sci. 2021, 21, 270–282. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  43. Davoli, P.; Mucci, A.; Schenetti, L.; Weber, R. Laetiporic acids, a family of non-carotenoid polyene pigments from fruit-bodies and liquid cultures of Laetiporus sulphureus (Polyporales, Fungi). Phytochemistry 2005, 66, 817–823. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  44. Fan, Q.-Y.; Yin, X.; Li, Z.-H.; Li, Y.; Liu, J.-K.; Feng, T.; Zhao, B.-H. Mycophenolic acid derivatives from cultures of the mushroom Laetiporus sulphureus. Chin. J. Nat. Med. 2014, 12, 685–688. [Google Scholar] [PubMed]
  45. Wang, Y.; Wu, B.; Shao, J.; Jia, J.; Tian, Y.; Shu, X.; Ren, X.; Guan, Y. Extraction, purification and physicochemical properties of a novel lectin from Laetiporus sulphureus mushroom. LWT-Food Sci. Technol. 2018, 91, 151–159. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  46. Quintero-Cabello, K.P.; Lugo-Flores, M.A.; Rivera-Palafox, P.; Silva-Espinoza, B.A.; González-Aguilar, G.A.; Esqueda, M.; Gaitán-Hernández, R.; Ayala-Zavala, J.F. Antioxidant Properties and Industrial Uses of Edible Polyporales. J. Fungi 2021, 7, 196. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  47. Sułkowska-Ziaja, K.; Grabowska, K.; Apola, A.; Kryczyk-Poprawa, A.; Muszyńska, B. Mycelial culture extracts of selected wood-decay mushrooms as a source of skin-protecting factors. Biotechnol. Lett. 2021, 43, 1051–1061. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  48. Sigma Aldrich. Karta Charakterystyki Zgodnie z Rozporządzeniem WE 1907/2006. Available online: (accessed on 15 January 2023).
  49. Klaus, A.; Kozarski, M.; Niksic, M.; Jakovljevic, D.; Todorovic, N.; Stefanoska, I.; van Griensven, L.J.L.D. The edible mushroom Laetiporus sulphureus as potential source of natural antioxidants. Int. J. Food Sci. Nutr. 2013, 64, 599–610. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  50. Acharya, K.; Ghosh, S.; Khauta, S.; Mitra, P. Pharmacognostic standardization and antioxidant capacity of an edible mushroom Laetiporus sulphureus. J. Verbrauch. Lebensm. 2016, 11, 33–42. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  51. Olennikov, D.N.; Agafonova, S.V.; Nazarova, A.V.; Borovskii, G.B.; Penzina, T.A. Organic acids and carbohydrates from Laetiporus sulphureus fruiting bodies. Brief Communications. Chem. Nat. Compd. 2008, 44, 762–763. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  52. Bari, E.; Sistani, A.; Morrell, J.J.; Pizzi, A.; Akbari, M.R.; Ribera, J. Current Strategies for the Production of Sustainable Biopolymer Composites. Polymers 2021, 13, 2878. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  53. Olennikov, D.N.; Tankhaeva, L.M.; Agafonova, S.V. Antioxidant Components of Laetiporus sulphureus (Bull.: Fr.) Murr. Fruit Bodies. Appl. Biochem. Microbiol. 2011, 47, 419–425. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  54. Nowacka, N.; Nowak, R.; Drozd, M.; Olech, M.; Los, R.; Malm, A. Analysis of phenolic constituents, antiradical and antimicrobial activity of edible mushrooms growing wild in Poland. LWT-Food Sci. Technol. 2014, 59, 689–694. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  55. Karaman, M.; Jovin, E.; Malbaša, R.; Matavuly, M.; Popowić, M. Medicinal and Edible Lignicolous Fungi as Natural Sources of Antioxidative and Antibacterial Agents. Phytother. Res 2010, 24, 1473–1481. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  56. Sułkowska-Ziaja, K.; Muszyńska, B.; Motyl, P.; Pasko, P.; Ekiert, H. Phenolic Compounds and antioxidant activity in some species of polyporoid mushrooms from Poland. Int. J. Med. Mushrooms 2012, 14, 385–393. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  57. Lear, M.J.; Simon, O.; Foley, T.L.; Burkart, M.D.; Baiga, T.J.; Noel, J.P.; DiPasuale, A.G.; Rheingold, A.L.; La Clair, J.L. Laetirobin from the Parasitic Growth of Laetiporus sulphureus on Robinia pseudoacacia. J. Nat. Prod. 2009, 72, 1980–1987. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  58. Ericsson, D.; Ivonne, J. Sterol composition of the macromycete fungus Laetiporus sulphureus. Chem. Nat. Compd. 2009, 45, 193–196. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  59. Chepkirui, C.; Matasyoh, J.C.; Decock, C.; Stadlera, M. Two cytotoxic triterpenes from cultures of a Kenyan Laetiporus sp. (Basidiomycota). Phytochem. Lett. 2017, 20, 106–110. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  60. Hassan, K.; Kemkuignou, M.B.; Stadler, M. Two New Triterpenes from Basidiomata of the Medicinal and Edible Mushroom, Laetiporus sulphureus. Molecules 2021, 26, 7090. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  61. Khalilov, Q.; Numonov, S.; Sukhrobov, P.; Bobakulov, K.; Sharopov, F.; Habasi, M.; Zhao, J.; Yuan, T.; Aisa, H.A. New Triterpenoids from the Fruiting Bodies of Laetiporus sulphureus and Their Anti-Inflammatory Activity. ACS Omega 2022, 7, 27272–27277. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  62. HMDB: The Human Metabolome Database. Available online: (accessed on 13 January 2023).
  63. Szczepkowski, A. Grzyby nadrzewne w innym świetle–użytkowanie owocników. Stud. Mater. CEPL Rogowie 2012, 32, 171–189. [Google Scholar]
  64. Chemical Book. Available online: (accessed on 15 January 2023).
  65. Feng, W.; Yang, J.; Xu, X.; Liu, Q. Quantitative Determination of Lanostane Triterpenes in Fomes officinalis and their Fragmentation Study by HPLC-ESI. Phytochem. Anal. 2010, 21, 531–538. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  66. SpectraBase. Open access Spectral Database. Available online: (accessed on 16 January 2023).
  67. Saba, E.; Son, Y.; Jeon, B.R.; Kim, S.-E.; Lee, I.-K.; Yun, B.-S.; Rhee, M.H. Acetyl Eburicoic Acid from Laetiporus sulphureus var. miniatus Suppresses Inflammation in Murine Macrophage RAW 264.7 Cells. Mycobiology 2015, 43, 131–136. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  68. Duan, Y.; Qi, J.; Gao, J.; Liu, C. Bioactive components of Laetiporus species and their pharmacological effects. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2022, 106, 5929–5944. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  69. He, J.-B.; Tao, J.; Miao, X.-S.; Bu, W.; Zhang, S.; Dong, Z.-J.; Li, Z.-H.; Feng, T.; Liu, J.-K. Seven new drimane-type sesquiterpenoids from cultures of fungus Laetiporus sulphureus. Fitoterapia 2015, 102, 102. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  70. Petrovska, B.B. Protein Fraction in Edible Macedonian Mushrooms. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 2001, 212, 469–472. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  71. Olennikov, D.N.; Agafonova, S.V.; Borovskii, G.B.; Penzina, T.A.; Rokhin, A.V. Alkali-Soluble Polysaccharides of Laetiporus Sulphureus (Bull.: Fr.) Murr Fruit Bodies. Appl. Biochem. Microbiol. 2009, 45, 626–630. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  72. Alquini, G.; Carbonero, E.R.; Rosado, F.R.; Cosentino, C.; Iacomini, M. Polysaccharides from the fruit bodies of the basidiomycete Laetiporus sulphureus (Bull.: Fr.) Murr. FEMS Microbiol. Lett. 2004, 230, 47–52. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  73. Wiater, A.; Pleszczyńska, M.; Szczodrak, J.; Próchniak, K. α-(1→3)-Glukany ściany komórkowej żółciaka siarkowego-Laetiporus sulphureus (Bull.: Fr.) Murrill-izolacja, charakterystyka i zastosowanie do indukcji syntezy mutanazy. Biotechnologia 2008, 2, 174–189. [Google Scholar]
  74. Wiater, A.; Pleszczyńska, M.; Szczodrak, J.; Janusz, G. Comparative Studies on the Induction of Trichoderma harzianum Mutanase by α-(1→3)-Glucan-Rich Fruiting Bodies and Mycelia of Laetiporus sulphureus. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13, 9584–9598. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  75. Wiater, A.; Waśko, A.; Adamczyk, P.; Gustaw, K.; Pleszczyńska, M.; Wlizło, K.; Skowronek, M.; Tomczyk, M.; Szczodrak, J. Prebiotic Potential of Oligosaccharides Obtained by Acid Hydrolysis of α-(1→3)-Glucan from Laetiporus sulphureus: A Pilot Study. Molecules 2020, 25, 5542. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  76. Dimopoulou, M.; Kolonas, A.; Mourtakos, S.; Androutsos, O.; Gortzi, O. Nutritional Composition and Biological Properties of Sixteen Edible Mushroom Species. Appl. Sci. 2022, 12, 8074. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  77. Teke, A.N.; Bi, M.E.; Ndam, L.M.; Kinge, T.R. Nutrient and Mineral Contents of Wild Edible Mushrooms from the Kilum-Ijim Forest, Cameroon. Nutr. Food Sci. J. 2020, 3, 128. [Google Scholar]
  78. Ćirić, A.; Kruljević, I.; Stojković, D.; Fernandes, A.; Barros, L.; Calhelha, R.C.C.; Ferreira, I.C.F.R.; Soković, M.; Glamočlija, J. Comparative investigation on edible mushrooms Macrolepiota mastoidea, M. rhacodes and M. procera: Functional foods with diverse biological activities. Food Funct. 2019, 10, 7678–7686. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  79. Bulam, S.; Karadeniz, M.; Bakir, T.K.; Ünal, S. Assessment of total phenolic, total flavonoid, metal contents and antioxidant activities of Trametes versicolor and Laetiporus sulphureus. Acta Sci. Pol. Hortorum Cultus 2022, 21, 39–47. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  80. Sevindik, M.; Akgul, H.; Dogan, M.; Akata, I.; Selamoglu, Z. Determination of antioxidant, antimicrobial, DNA protective activity and heavy metals content of Laetiporus sulphureus. Fresenius Environ. Bull. 2018, 27, 1946–1952. [Google Scholar]
  81. Barros, L.; Ferreira, M.-J.; Queirós, B.; Ferreira, I.C.F.R.; Baptista, P. Total phenols, ascorbic acid, carotene and lycopene in Portuguese wild edible mushrooms and their antioxidant activities. Food Chem. 2007, 103, 413–419. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  82. Ferreira, I.; Barros, L.; Abreu, R. Antioxidants in wild mushrooms. Curr. Med. Chem. 2009, 16, 1543–1560. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed] [Green Version]
  83. Vamanu, E.; Nita, S. Bioactive Compounds, Antioxidant and Anti-inflammatory Activities of Extracts from Cantharellus cibarius. Rev. Chim 2014, 65, 372–379. [Google Scholar]
  84. Popa, G.; Cornea, C.P.; Luta, G.; Gherghina, E.; Israel-Roming, F.; Bubueanu, C.; Toma, R. Antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of Laetiporus sulphureus (Bull.) Murrill. AgroLife Sci. J. 2016, 5, 168–173. [Google Scholar]
  85. Zhang, J.; Lv, J.; Zhao, L.; Shui, X.; Wang, L.-A. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and chemical composition of submerged cultivated mycelia of Laetiporus sulphureus. Chem. Nat. Compd. 2018, 54, 1187–1188. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  86. Shelest, A. Methods of Increasing Biosynthetic Activity of the Strain LS-0917 Laetiporus sulphureus (Bull.) Murril–Carotenoid Producer. Master’s Thesis, Vytautas Magnus University, Kaunas, Lithuania, 2020. [Google Scholar]
  87. Frljak, J.; Mulabećirović, A.H.; Isaković, S.; Karahmet, E.; Toroman, A. Biological Active Components of Selected Medical Fungi. Open J. Prev. Med. 2021, 11, 9–22. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  88. Sevindik, M.; Akgul, H.; Selmoglu, Z.; Braidy, N. Antioxidant, antimicrobial and neuroprotective effects of Octaviania asterosperma in vitro. Mycology 2021, 12, 128–138. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  89. Nicolcioiu, M.B.; Popa, G.; Matei, F. Biochemical investigations of different mushroom species for their biotechnological potential. Proc. Conf. Agric. Life Life Agric. 2018, 1, 562–567. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  90. Florczak, J.; Karmańska, A.; Karwowski, B. Badanie zawartości związków polifenolowych oraz aktywności przeciwutleniającej niektórych jadalnych gatunków grzybów wielkoowocnikowych. Bromat. Chem. Toksykol. 2016, 49, 719–724. [Google Scholar]
  91. Lung, M.-Y.; Huang, W.-Z. Antioxidant properties of polysaccharides from Laetiporus sulphureus in submerged cultures. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 2012, 11, 6350–6358. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  92. Mahmoud, O.A.; Abdel-Hadi, S.Y. Extraction and Purification of Lovastatin from the Edible Mushroom Laetiporus sulphureus and its Antioxidant Activity. Egypt. J. Bot. 2022, 62, 169–175. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  93. Lin, W.C.; Lee, T.T. The Laetiporus sulphureus Fermented Product Enhances the Antioxidant Status, Intestinal Tight Junction, and Morphology of Broiler Chickens. Animals 2021, 11, 149. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  94. de Carvalho, M.P.; Türck, P.; Abraham, W.-R. Secondary Metabolites Control the Associated Bacterial Communities of Saprophytic Basidiomycotina Fungi. Microbes Environ. 2015, 30, 196–198. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  95. Čuvalová, A.; Strapáč, I.; Handrová, L.; Kmeť, V. Antibiofilm activity of mushroom extracts against Staphylococcus aureus F. J. Rosen. Ann. Univ. Paedagog. Crac. Stud. Nat. 2018, 3, 17–23. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  96. Turkoglu, A.; Duru, M.E.; Mercan, N.; Kivrak, I.; Gezer, K. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Laetiporus sulphureus (Bull.) Murrill. Food Chem. 2007, 101, 267–273. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  97. Kolundzić, M.D.; Grozdanić, N.D.; Stanojković, T.P.; Milenković, M.T.; Dinić, M.R.; Golić, N.E.; Kojić, M.; Kundaković, T.D. Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activities of the Sulphur Shelf Medicinal Mushroom, Laetiporus sulphurous (Agaricomycetes), from Serbia. Int. J. Med. Mushrooms 2016, 18, 469–476. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  98. Gavryushina, I.A.; Gromovykh, T.I.; Feldman, N.B.; Lutsenko, S.V.; Ponomarenko, V.I.; Kisil, O.V.; Sadykova, V.S. Antimikrobnyje cbojstwa wodorastworimych polisacharidow i spirtowych ekstraktow micelija Laetiporus sulphureus (Bull.) Murrill i razrabotka biotechnołogii jego połuczenija w immobilizowannoj kulturie na bakterioalnoj celljulozje. Antibiot. Chim. 2020, 65, 10–14. [Google Scholar]
  99. Pârvu, M.; Andrei, A.-S.; Roşca-Casian, O. Antifungal activity of Laetiporus sulphureus mushroom extract. Contrib. Bot. 2010, 45, 65–70. [Google Scholar]
  100. Sevindik, M. Mushrooms as natural antiviral sources and supplements foods against coronavirus (COVID-19). J. Bacteriol. Mycol. 2021, 9, 73–76. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  101. Zhang, J.-W.; Wen, G.-L.; Zhang, L.; Duan, D.-M.; Ren, Z.-H. Sulphureuine B, a drimane type sesquiterpenoid isolated from Laetiporus sulphureus induces apoptosis in glioma cells. Bangladesh J. Pharmacol. 2015, 10, 844–853. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  102. Petrović, J.; Glamočlija, J.; Ilić-Tomić, T.; Sojković, M.; Robajac, D.; Nedić, O.; Pavić, A. Lectin from Laetiporus sulphureus effectively inhibits angiogenesis and tumor development in the zebrafish xenograft models of colorectal carcinoma and melanoma. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2020, 148, 129–139. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  103. Kim, E.-J.; Yoo, K.-H.; Kim, Y.-S.; Seok, S.-J.; Kim, J.-H. Hexane and Chloroform Fractions of Laetiporus sulphrueus var. miniatus Inhibit Thrombin-treated Matrix Metalloproteinase-2/9 Expression in Human Oral Squamous Carcinoma YD-10B Cells. Kor. J. Mycol. 2017, 45, 175–187. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  104. Pecić, K.; Jovanović, M.; Arsenijević, D.; Pavić, J.; Grujović, M.; Mladenović, K.; Virijević, K.; Živanović, M.; Šeklić, D. Laetiporus sulphureus Affects Migration and Superoxide Anion Radical Levels in HeLa Cervical Cancer Cells. Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2022, 18, 16. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  105. Gunasekaran, S.; Mayakrishnan, V.; Al-Ghamdi, S.; Alsaidan, M.; Geddawy, A.; Abdelaziz, M.A.; Mohideen, A.P.; Bahakim, N.O.; Ramesh, T.; Ayyakannu, U.R.N. Investigation of phytochemical profile and in vivo anti-proliferative effect of Laetiporus versisporus (Lloyd) Imazeki mushroom against diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatocellular carcinoma. J. King Saud Univ. Sci. 2021, 33, 101551. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  106. Jovanović, M.M.; Virijević, K.; Grujić, J.; Živanović, M.; Šeklić, D.S. Extract of Edible Mushroom Laetiporus sulphureus Affects the Redox Status and Motility of Colorectal and Cervical Cancer Cell Lines. Biol. Life Sci. Forum 2021, 6, 82. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  107. Badalyan, S.; Rapior, S. Agaricomycetes mushrooms (Basidiomycota) as potential neuroprotectants. IJM-Ital. J. Mycol. 2021, 50, 30–43. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  108. Khalilov, Q.; Li, L.; Liu, Y.; Liu, W.; Numonov, S.; Aisa, H.A.; Yuan, T. Brassinosteroid analogues from the fruiting bodies of Laetiporus sulphureus and their anti-inflammatory activity. Steroids 2019, 151, 108468. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  109. Lin, W.C.; Lee, M.T.; Lin, L.J.; Chng, S.C.; Lee, T.T. Immunomodulation Properties of Solid-State Fermented Laetiporus sulphureus Ethanol Extracts in Chicken Peripheral Blood Monocytes In Vitro. Braz. J. Poult. Sci. 2019, 21, 001–010. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  110. Wang, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Shao, J.; Wu, B.; Li, B. Potential immunomodulatory activities of a lectin from the mushroom Latiporus sulphureus. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2019, 130, 399–406. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  111. Ćilerdžić, J.; Galić, M.; Vukojević, J.; Stajic, M. Pleurotus ostreatus and Laetiporus sulphureus (Agaricomycetes): Possible Agents against Alzheimer and Parkinson Diseases. Int. J. Med. Mushrooms 2019, 21, 275–289. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  112. Das, A.; Chen, C.-M.; Mu, S.-C.; Yang, S.-H.; Ju, Y.-M.; Li, S.-C. Medicinal Components in Edible Mushrooms on Diabetes Mellitus Treatment. Pharmaceutics 2022, 14, 436. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  113. Pavic, A.; Ilic-Tomic, T.; Glamočlija, J. Unravelling Anti-Melanogenic Potency of Edible Mushrooms Laetiporus sulphureus and Agaricus silvaticus In Vivo Using the Zebrafish Model. J. Fungi 2021, 7, 834. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  114. Badalyan, S.; Barkhudaryan, A.; Rapior, S. The Cardioprotective Properties of Agaricomycetes Mushrooms Growing in the Territory of Armenia (Review). Int. J. Med. Mushrooms 2021, 23, 21–31. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  115. Šiljegović, J.; Stojković, D.S.; Nikolić, M.M.; Glamočlija, J.M.; Soković, M.D.; Ćirić, A.M. Antimicorbial activity of aqueous extract of Laetiporus sulphureus (Bull.:Fr.) Murill. Proc. Nat. Sci. Matica Srpska Novi Sad. 2011, 120, 297–303. [Google Scholar]
  116. Hassan, F.; Ni, S.; Becker, T.L.; Kinstedt, C.M.; Abdul-Samad, J.L.; Actis, L.A.; Kennedy, M.A. Evaluation of the Antibacterial Activity of 75 Mushrooms Collected in the Vicinity of Oxford, Ohio (USA). Int. J. Med. Mushrooms 2019, 21, 131–141. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  117. Martinez-Medina, G.A.; Chavez-González, M.L.; Verma, D.K.; Prado-Barragan, L.A.; Martínez-Hernandez, J.L.; Flores-Gallegos, A.C.; Thakur, M.; Srivastav, P.P.; Aguilar, C.N. Bio-funcional components in mushrooms, a health opportunity: Ergothionine and huitlacohe as recent trends. J. Funct. Foods 2021, 77, 104326. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  118. Mtui, G.; Masalu, R. Extracellular enzymes from brown-rot fungus Laetiporus sulphureus isolated from mangrove forests of coastal Tanzania. J. Sci. Res. Essay 2008, 3, 154–161. [Google Scholar]
  119. de Figueiredo, F.L.; de Oliveira, A.C.P.; Terrasan, C.R.F.; Gonçalves, T.A.; Gerhardt, J.A.; Tomazetto, G.; Persinoti, G.F.; Rubio, M.V.; Peña, J.A.T.; Araújo, M.F.; et al. Multi-omics analysis provides insights into lignocellulosic biomass degradation by Laetiporus sulphureus ATCC 52600. Biotechnol Biofuels 2021, 14, 96. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
  120. Beug, M.W. North American Mushroom Poisonings and Adverse Reactions to Mushrooms 2018–2020. Fungi 2021, 14, 17–22. [Google Scholar]
  121. Łuczaj, Ł.; Wilde, M.; Townsend, L. The Ethnobiology of Contemporary British Foragers: Foods They Teach, Their Sources of Inspiration and Impact. Sustainability 2021, 13, 3478. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  122. First Nature: Laetiporus sulphureus (Bull.) Murrill-Chicken-of-the-Woods. Available online: (accessed on 3 November 2022).
  123. Woodland Trust: Chicken on the woods. Available online: (accessed on 7 December 2022).
  124. Regulation of the Minister of Health of 3 November 2022 amending the regulation on mushrooms admitted to trading or production of mushroom preserves, foodstuffs containing mushrooms and the qualifications of a mushroom classifier and mushroom expert. J. Laws Repub. Pol. 2022, 2365.
  125. Klich, M.A. Pathogen profile. Aspergillus flavus: The major producer of aflatoxin. Mol. Plant Pathol. 2007, 8, 713–722. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
  126. Mariutti, L.R.B.; Valente Soares, L.M. Survey of aflatoxins in tomato products. Cienc. Tecnol. Aliment. Camp. 2009, 29, 431–434. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [Green Version]
  127. Kumar, P.; Gupta, A.; Mahato, D.K.; Pandhi, S.; Pandey, A.K.; Kargwal, R.; Mishra, S.; Suhag, R.; Sharma, N.; Saurabh, V.; et al. Aflatoxins in Cereals and Cereal-Based Products: Occurrence, Toxicity, Impact on Human Health, and Their Detoxification and Management Strategies. Toxins 2022, 14, 687. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Figure 1. Fruiting bodies of Laetiporus sulphureus in different age stages: young (at the top), mature (bottom left) and aging fruit body (bottom right). Authors of the photos: Andrzej Chruślak (top and bottom left) and Pierino Bigoni (bottom right).
Figure 1. Fruiting bodies of Laetiporus sulphureus in different age stages: young (at the top), mature (bottom left) and aging fruit body (bottom right). Authors of the photos: Andrzej Chruślak (top and bottom left) and Pierino Bigoni (bottom right).
Foods 12 01539 g001
Figure 2. Nutritional value of fruiting bodies of Laetiporus sulphureus (% dw). Cited for: Ayaz et al. [20], Petrović et al. [21], Florczak et al. [24], Kovacs and Vetter [1] and Teke et al. [22].
Figure 2. Nutritional value of fruiting bodies of Laetiporus sulphureus (% dw). Cited for: Ayaz et al. [20], Petrović et al. [21], Florczak et al. [24], Kovacs and Vetter [1] and Teke et al. [22].
Foods 12 01539 g002
Figure 3. Comparison of selected nutrients in selected species of mushrooms (data on Agaricus bisporus, Boletus edulis, Cantharellus cibarius and Morchella elata—TEI and University of Thessaly, after: [76], Auricularia polytricha and Laetiporus sulphureus [77], Macrolepiota procera [78]).
Figure 3. Comparison of selected nutrients in selected species of mushrooms (data on Agaricus bisporus, Boletus edulis, Cantharellus cibarius and Morchella elata—TEI and University of Thessaly, after: [76], Auricularia polytricha and Laetiporus sulphureus [77], Macrolepiota procera [78]).
Foods 12 01539 g003
Figure 4. Bioactivity of Laetiporus sulphureus. Image source: Pixabay; authors of images: Amberrose Nelson, Kevin and Rihajin. Modified by: Iwona Adamska.
Figure 4. Bioactivity of Laetiporus sulphureus. Image source: Pixabay; authors of images: Amberrose Nelson, Kevin and Rihajin. Modified by: Iwona Adamska.
Foods 12 01539 g004
Figure 5. The effects of substances contained in Laetiporus sulphureus on cancer cells.
Figure 5. The effects of substances contained in Laetiporus sulphureus on cancer cells.
Foods 12 01539 g005
Table 1. The richness of chemical components found in Laetiporus sulphureus.
Table 1. The richness of chemical components found in Laetiporus sulphureus.
ComponentSource of Information about Presence of ComponentChemical GroupMolecular FormulaMolecular Weight (g/mol)Source of Information about Properties of Component
Carbohydrates and their derivatives
  • monosaccharides
  • deoxy sugars
  • disaccharides
  • polysaccharides
  • sugar alcohols (polyol)
Matsutakic acid (masutakic acid)[32]acetylenic acidsC10H16O4200.23[29]
Egonol glucosideYoshikawa et al., 2001 after: [33]glucosidesC25H28O10488.48[28,29]
Linoleic acid[21,30,34,35,36,37,38]
  • unsaturated fatty acids
Oleic acid[21,30,33,34,35,36,37,38,39]C18H34O2282.46[28,29]
Palmitoleic acid[34]C16H30O2254.41[28,29]
Isovaleric acid[40]
  • saturated fatty acids
Myristic acid[34]C14H28O2228.37[28,29]
Palmitic acid[21,30,34,35,36,37,38]C16H32O2256.42[28,29]
Stearic acid[34,37]C18H36O2284.48[28,29]
9-Octadecenoic acid (Z)-, 2-hydroxy-1-(hydroxymethyl)ethyl ester; (2-Oleoylglycerol)[33]
  • glycerolipids
Ethyl cholate[33]
  • steroids
Laetiporic acid [41,42]polyenesC27H32O4420.50[28,29]
2-dehydro-3-deoxylaetiporic acid A[43]C27H30O3402.53[28,29]
6-((2E, 6E)-3, 7-dimethyldeca-2, 6-dienyl)-7-hydroxy-5-methoxy-4-methylphtanlan-1-one [44]C22H30O5374.21[44]
Amino acids and peptides
  • exogenous amino acids
Methionine [30,36]C5H11NO2S149.21[28,29]
  • endogenous amino acids
Aspartic acid[45]C4H7NO4133.10[28,29]
BeauvericinDel et al., 1978 after: [32]peptidesC45H57N3O9783.95[28,29,48]
Carboxylic acids
Ascorbic acid [32,46,49,50] C6H8O6176.13[28,29]
Cinnamic acid[3,21]C9H8O2148.16[28,29]
Citric acid [3,20,21,32,51]C6H8O7192.12[28,29]
Enoxolone (glycyrrhetinic acid)[36]C30H46O4470.68[28,29,48]
Fumaric acid[21]C4H4O4116.07[28,29]
Lactic acid (polylactic acid PLA)[52]C3H6O390.08[28]
Malic acid [20,32]C4H6O5134.09[28,29]
Malonic acid[51] C3H4O4104.06[28,29]
Oxalic acid[3,21]C2H2O490.03[28,29]
Quinic acid[21]C7H12O6192.17[28,29]
Tartaric acid[51]C4H6O6150.09[28,29]
Cyanocobalamin[8]B12C₆₃H₈₈CoN₁₄O₁₄P1 355.38[29]
Caffeic acid[53]Phenolic acidsC9H8O4180.16[28,29]
Chlorogenic acid[53]C16H18O9354.31[28,29]
p-Coumaric acid [53,54]C9H8O3164.16[28,29]
Gallic acid[47,53,55]C7H6O5170.12[28,29]
4-Hydroxybenzoic acid[3,21,47,54]C7H6O3138.12[28,48]
Kojic acid[47]C6H6O4142.11[28,29]
Protocatechuic acid[47,54,55,56]C7H6O4154.12[28]
Salicylic acid[54]C7H6O3138.12[28]
EgonolYoshikawa et al., 2001 after: [33]Benzofurans and derivatesC19H18O5326.34[28,29]
DemethoxyegonolYoshikawa et al., 2001 after: [33]C18H16O4296.32[28,29]
Egonol gentiobiosideYoshikawa et al., 2001 after: [33]C31H38O15650.6[29]
Matsutakeside I[32]C30H36O14620.60[29]
(±)-Laetirobin (Laetiporina)[57]C44H32O12752.72[28,29]
Ergosterol (Provitamin D2)[46]SterolsC28H44O396.65[28,29]
Ergost-3,5,7,9(11),22-pentaen [58]C28H40376.60[29]
24-methylenelanost-8-en-3-ol (obtusifoldienol) [58]C31H52O440.74[28,29]
Ergosterol peroxide[58]C28H44O3428.65[28,29]
triol (cerevisterol)
Laetiporin A[59]TriterpenoidsC31H49O3469.37[59]
Laetiporin B[59]C34H53O7573.38[59]
Laetiporin C[60]C31H50NaO5525.35[60]
Laetiporin D[60]C31H48NaO5523.34[60]
Fomefficinic acid[60]C31H48O4484.70[29]
Eburicoic acid[60,61]C31H50O3470.73[29,61]
Dehydroeburicoic acid[59]C31H48O3468.71[28,29]
15 α-hydroxytrametenolic acid[60]C30H48O4472.7[29]
Trametenolic acid[60]C30H48O3456.70[28,62]
Sulphurenic acid[63]C31H50O4486.73[28,29]
Sulphurenoid A[61]C27H42O5445.30[61]
Sulphurenoid B[61]C27H40O5443.27[61]
Sulphurenoid C[61]C27H44O5447.31[61]
Sulphurenoid D[61]C30H44O4467.32[61]
15α-hydroxy-3-oxolanosta-8,24-dien-21-oic acid [61]C30H46O3454.68[64]
3-keto-dehydrosulfurenic acid[61]C31H46O4481.3[65]
3-oxolanosta-8,24-dien-21- oic acid (pinicolic acid A)[61]C30H46O3454.70[29,66]
5α-hydroxytrametenolic acid[61]C30H48O4472.7[63]
3- oxosulfurenic acid[61]C31H48O4484.7[66]
Dehydrosulphurenic acid[61]C31H48O4484.7[66]
Acetyl eburicoic acid (LSM-H7)Leon et al., 2004 after: [33,67]C33H52O4512.8[29,67]
Acetyl trametenolic acidLeón et al., 2004 after: [68]C32H50O4498.70[29]
Versisponic acid AYoshikawa et al., 2000 after: [68]C30H48O5488.70[28,29]
Versisponic acid BYoshikawa et al., 2000 after: [68]C32H48O5512.72[28,29]
Versisponic acid CYoshikawa et al., 2000 after: [68]C33H50O5526.75[28,29]
Versisponic acid DYoshikawa et al., 2000 after: [68]C33H52O5528.76[28,29]
Versisponic acid EYoshikawa et al., 2000 after: [68]C35H54O5554.80[28]
3β-hydroxylanosta-8,24-dien-21-oic acid[61]C30H48O3456.70[28]
laricinolic acid[61]SesquiterpenoidsC15H24O3252.35[28]
Sulphureuine A[69]C15H22O2234.33[28,29,69]
Sulphureuine B[69]C15H28O4272.20[69]
Sulphureuine C[69]C15H28O4272.20[69]
Sulphureuine D[69]C15H26O3254.19[69]
Sulphureuine E[69]C15H24O4268.17[69]
Sulphureuine F[69]C15H24O3252.17[69]
Sulphureuine G[69]C15H28O3256.20[69]
Sulphureuine H[69]C15H26O3254.18[69]
Agripilol A[69]C15H28O4272.38[28,29]
Table 2. Content of selected minerals in L. sulphureus fruiting bodies.
Table 2. Content of selected minerals in L. sulphureus fruiting bodies.
et al. [79]
(mg/kg dw)
et al. [22]
(mg/kg−1 dw)
Bengu [34] (mg/kg−1 dw)Sevindik
et al. [80]
(mg/kg−1 dw)
et al. [31]
(mg/kg−1 dw)
et al. [24]
(mg/ kg−1 dw)
Kovacs and Vetter [1] (mg/kg−1 dw)Luangharn
et al. [25]
(mg/kg dw)
Ca0.49 ± 0.0113.04 ± 0.11ndnd18.78 ± 0.061.02 ± 0.77765 ± 55.12.59 ± 0.01
Knd433.62 ± 4.28ndnd5752.54 ± 8.32nd28,940 ± 2174nd
Mg4.59 ± 0.0113.85 ± 0.79ndnd16.86 ± 0.902.90 ± 0.451001 ± 15.51.09
P24.52 ± 0.09542.88 ± 4.26ndnd1524.50 ± 4.32nd4890 ± 575nd
Na1.88 ± 0.014.20 ± 0.58ndnd8.00 ± 0.30nd209.9 ± 141.011.01 ± 0.12
Cu0.04 ± 0.0011.15 ± ± 1.2214.35 ± 0.110.52 ± 0.0939.72 ± 4.900.14 ± 0.01
Fe0.49 ± 0.028.69 ± 0.46162.92138.44 ± 21.2280.62 ± 0.542.88 ± 0.1250.9 ± 17.302.28 ± 0.03
Zn0.21 ± 0.0012.66 ± 0.1828.36047.42 ± 6.60113.63 ± 9.470.22 ± 0.01256.5 ± 6.101.20
Al0.89 ± 0.01ndndnd27.96 ± 0.18nd34.57 ± 23.00nd
Ba0.07 ± 0.09ndndndndnd3.04 ± 1.89nd
As0.01 ± 0.001ndndnd2.04 ± 0.02ndbdnd
Mn0.03 ± 0.001nd19.360nd99.49 ± 0.41nd5.18 ± 1.100.35 ± 0.02
B0.04 ± 0.001ndndndndndndnd
Co0.001 ± 0.001ndndnd1.76 ± 0.40nd0.33 ± 0.13nd
Cd0.003 ± 0.001ndndnd0.41 ± 0.02nd1.79 ± 2.00nd
Pb0.004 ± 0.001ndnd1.73 ± 0.892.45 ± 0.01ndndnd
Ni0.042 ± 0.001ndnd0.00 ± 009.54 ± 0.15nd1.36 ± 0.69nd
Cr0.008 ± 0.001ndndnd4.03 ± 0.03nd0.55 ± 0.07nd
Symbols: nd—no data; bd—below detection.
Table 3. Research on the activity of Laetiporus sulphureus.
Table 3. Research on the activity of Laetiporus sulphureus.
Body System (or Part)Documented EffectSource of Information
1. Anti-aging effect
  • Antioxidant effect
2. Anti-cancer effect
  • Cytotoxic
  • Anti-proliferating
  • Protective for DNA
  • Anti-inflammatory
  • Antibacterial
  • Antifungal
  • Antiviral
  • Antimalarial
  • Immunomodulating
[24,33,38,40,54,60,63,80,94,95,96,97,98,100,111,115,116,117], Seibold et al., 2020 after: [42]
  • Hypoglycemic
  • Hipolipemic
  • Insulinogenic
[49,112], Hwang et al., 2008 after: [42]
Digestive system
  • Prebiotic (improves digestion)
  • Antiulcer
  • Hepatoprotective
  • Relieving stomach pains
Circulatory system
  • Antithrombin
  • Anticoagulant
  • Haemolyzing
Nervous system
  • Acetylocholinesterase inhibiting
  • Antidepressant and neuroprotective
  • Prevention of Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases
Reproductive system
  • Reducing the incidence of postpartum problems in women
  • Healing
  • Whitening
  • Pigmenting
  • Exfoliating epidermis
  • Moisturizing
  • Protective
  • Anti-sweat
  • Astringent
  • Inhibition of melanogenesis
Dental prophylaxis
  • Elimination of bacterial biofilms causing tooth decay
Possible industrial applications
Food technology
  • Food preservative
Material industry
  • Production of biopolymer composites
Clothing and textile industry
  • Yellow dye for dyeing textiles
Chemical industry (production of agents used to protect the environment)
  • Biological preparations accelerating the decomposition of cellulose impurities
[118,119], Lim et al. after: [90]
Disclaimer/Publisher’s Note: The statements, opinions and data contained in all publications are solely those of the individual author(s) and contributor(s) and not of MDPI and/or the editor(s). MDPI and/or the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to people or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content.

Share and Cite

MDPI and ACS Style

Adamska, I. The Possibility of Using Sulphur Shelf Fungus (Laetiporus sulphureus) in the Food Industry and in Medicine—A Review. Foods 2023, 12, 1539.

AMA Style

Adamska I. The Possibility of Using Sulphur Shelf Fungus (Laetiporus sulphureus) in the Food Industry and in Medicine—A Review. Foods. 2023; 12(7):1539.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Adamska, Iwona. 2023. "The Possibility of Using Sulphur Shelf Fungus (Laetiporus sulphureus) in the Food Industry and in Medicine—A Review" Foods 12, no. 7: 1539.

Note that from the first issue of 2016, this journal uses article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Metrics

Back to TopTop