Impact of Artificial Intelligence on Dental Education: A Review and Guide for Curriculum Update
- Impact on theoretical skillset, including soft skills and scientific research.
- Impact on practical/clinical skillset for the provision of dental health care.
- Basic definitions and terms, the reasoning behind AI and the principle of machine learning, the idea of training, validating, and testing models, the definition of reference tests, the contrast between dynamic and static AI, and the problem that AI is a black box and needs to be explained should be known.
- Use of case: the types of AI required for them should be taught.
- Consideration should be given to assessment measures, their interpretation, the relevant impact of AI on patient or community health, and relevant examples.
- Issues of generalizability and representativeness, explainability, autonomy and accountability, and the need for governance should be emphasized .
- The use of machine learning algorithms to automate the interpretation of dental imaging procedures, such as radiographs and CT scans, which have been studied since the 1980s.
- The development of AI-powered tools to automatically detect dental caries and other oral diseases has been an active area of research since the 1990s.
- The use of AI to support dental diagnosis and treatment planning, which has been explored more recently and is still in the early stages of development.
- A shift toward more evidence-based, data-driven dental diagnosis and treatment planning approaches.
- The use of digital diagnostic technologies, such as 3D imaging and machine learning algorithms, is greater in dental education.
- More emphasis is on training dental students to use and interpret AI-based diagnostic tools.
- The development of new educational resources and curricula that address AI and its applications in dentistry.
- Integrating AI-powered tools into dental simulations and other hands-on activities for dental students.
- What AI refers to, basic terminology, principles, and application examples.
- That AI is already used in all specializations in dentistry to help improve diagnosis, treatment planning, and other aspects of dental care.
- The use of AI in dentistry is still early, and more research is needed to determine its effectiveness, potential risks, and benefits.
- As future dental professionals using AI in their practice, they shall receive training and be aware of any potential ethical considerations.
- Using AI in dentistry will lead to more efficient and effective dental care. However, it is crucial to approach it cautiously and consider its potential impact on patients and the dental profession.
1.2. AI, Academia, and Legal Aspects
2. Materials and Methods
- Search strategy:
- Inclusion/exclusion criteria:
- Year of publication
- Type of document, and
- Disciplines associated with the source.
Can you rewrite the following title of a scientific review, “Curriculum for Dental Education in View of the Paradigm Shift Triggered by Artificial Intelligence”, more appropriately?
A more appropriate title for a scientific review on dental education in view of the paradigm shift triggered by artificial intelligence might be “Re-examining Dental Education in the Age of Artificial Intelligence”. This title more clearly conveys the focus of the review and emphasizes the relevance of Al to the topic of dental education. It also avoids using technical jargon like “paradigm shift” and makes the title more accessible to a broader audience.
- How many permanent teeth does an adult person normally have?
- Why is hypodontia becoming more common?
- Which teeth are esthetically the most important for a smile?
- Which teeth are not esthetically important for a smile?
- Theoretical education with soft skills, research, and publications.
- Practical/clinical education for direct patient care.
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Data Availability Statement
Conflicts of Interest
- Dawood, A.; Marti, B.M.; Sauret-Jackson, V.; Darwood, A. 3D Printing in Dentistry. Br. Dent. J. 2015, 219, 521–529. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Khorsandi, D.; Fahimipour, A.; Abasian, P.; Saber, S.S.; Seyedi, M.; Ghanavati, S.; Ahmad, A.; de Stephanis, A.A.; Taghavinezhaddilami, F.; Leonova, A.; et al. 3D and 4D Printing in Dentistry and Maxillofacial Surgery: Printing Techniques, Materials, and Applications. Acta Biomater. 2021, 122, 26–49. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Thurzo, A.; Šufliarsky, B.; Urbanová, W.; Čverha, M.; Strunga, M.; Varga, I. Pierre Robin Sequence and 3D Printed Personalized Composite Appliances in Interdisciplinary Approach. Polymers 2022, 14, 3858. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Afrashtehfar, K.I.; Yang, J.-W.; Al-Sammarraie, A.A.H.; Chen, H.; Saeed, M.H. Pre-Clinical Undergraduate Students’ Perspectives on the Adoption of Virtual and Augmented Reality to Their Dental Learning Experience: A One-Group Pre-and Post-Test Design Protocol. F1000Research 2021, 10, 473. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Afrashtehfar, K.I.; Maatouk, R.M.; McCullagh, A.P.G. Flipped Classroom Questions. Br. Dent. J. 2022, 232, 285. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Thurzo, A.; Urbanová, W.; Waczulíková, I.; Kurilová, V.; Mriňáková, B.; Kosnáčová, H.; Gális, B.; Varga, I.; Matajs, M.; Novák, B. Dental Care and Education Facing Highly Transmissible SARS-CoV-2 Variants: Prospective Biosafety Setting: Prospective, Single-Arm, Single-Center Study. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19, 7693. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Gamage, K.A.A.; Wijesuriya, D.I.; Ekanayake, S.Y.; Rennie, A.E.W.; Lambert, C.G.; Gunawardhana, N. Online Delivery of Teaching and Laboratory Practices: Continuity of University Programmes during COVID-19 Pandemic. Educ. Sci. 2020, 10, 291. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Gamage, K.A.A.; de Silva, E.K.; Gunawardhana, N. Online Delivery and Assessment during COVID-19: Safeguarding Academic Integrity. Educ. Sci. 2020, 10, 301. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Thurzo, A.; Stanko, P.; Urbanova, W.; Lysy, J.; Suchancova, B.; Makovnik, M.; Javorka, V. The WEB 2.0 Induced Paradigm Shift in the e-Learning and the Role of Crowdsourcing in Dental Education. Bratisl. Med. J. 2010, 111, 168–175. [Google Scholar]
- McAndrew, M.; Johnston, A.E. The Role of Social Media in Dental Education. J. Dent. Educ. 2012, 76, 1474–1481. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Linjawi, A.I.; Alfadda, L.S. Students’ Perception, Attitudes, and Readiness toward Online Learning in Dental Education in Saudi Arabia: A Cohort Study. Adv. Med. Educ. Pract. 2018, 9, 855. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Mattheos, N.; Stefanovic, N.; Apse, P.; Attstrom, R.; Buchanan, J.; Brown, P.; Camilleri, A.; Care, R.; Fabrikant, E.; Gundersen, S.; et al. Potential of Information Technology in Dental Education. Eur. J. Dent. Educ. 2008, 12, 85–92. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- OpenAI ChatGPT: Optimizing Language Models for Dialogue. Available online: https://openai.com/blog/chatgpt/ (accessed on 10 December 2022).
- Kasirzadeh, A.; Gabriel, I. In Conversation with Artificial Intelligence: Aligning Language Models with Human Values. arXiv 2022, arXiv:2209.00731. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Agüera, Y.; Arcas, B. Do Large Language Models Understand Us? Daedalus 2022, 151, 183–197. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Lee, M.; Liang, P.; Yang, Q. CoAuthor: Designing a Human-AI Collaborative Writing Dataset for Exploring Language Model Capabilities. Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. In Proceedings of the 2022 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, New Orleans, LA, USA, 29 April 2022; pp. 1–19. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Afrashtehfar, K.I.; Abu-Fanas, A.S.H. Metaverse, Crypto, and NFTs in Dentistry. Educ. Sci. 2022, 12, 538. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Thurzo, A.; Strunga, M.; Havlínová, R.; Reháková, K.; Urban, R.; Surovková, J.; Kurilová, V. Smartphone-Based Facial Scanning as a Viable Tool for Facially Driven Orthodontics? Sensors 2022, 22, 7752. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Thurzo, A.; Kurilová, V.; Varga, I. Artificial Intelligence in Orthodontic Smart Application for Treatment Coaching and Its Impact on Clinical Performance of Patients Monitored with AI-Telehealth System. Healthcare 2021, 9, 1695. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Lin, G.S.S.; Tan, W.W.; Afrashtehfar, K.I. Exploring the Learning Experience of High-Performing Preclinical Undergraduate Dental Students: A Qualitative Study. Educ. Sci. 2022, 12, 801. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Schwendicke, F.; Chaurasia, A.; Wiegand, T.; Uribe, S.E.; Fontana, M.; Akota, I.; Tryfonos, O.; Krois, J.; IADR e-oral health network and the ITU/WHO focus group AI for Health. Artificial Intelligence for Oral and Dental Healthcare: Core Education Curriculum. J. Dent. 2023, 128, 104363. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Schwendicke, F.; Samek, W.; Krois, J. Artificial Intelligence in Dentistry: Chances and Challenges. J. Dent. Res. 2020, 99, 769–774. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Thurzo, A.; Urbanová, W.; Novák, B.; Czako, L.; Siebert, T.; Stano, P.; Mareková, S.; Fountoulaki, G.; Kosnáčová, H.; Varga, I. Where is the Artificial Intelligence Applied in Dentistry? Systematic Review and Literature Analysis. Healthcare 2022, 10, 1269. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Halpern, B. The Difference Between ChatGPT and GPT-3—DEV Community. Available online: https://dev.to/ben/the-difference-between-chatgpt-and-gpt-3-19dh (accessed on 11 December 2022).
- Alex, S. 9 Things To Know about Chat Gpt. Available online: https://martechseries.com/mts-insights/staff-writers/9-things-to-know-about-chat-gpt/ (accessed on 11 December 2022).
- Paullada, A.; Raji, I.D.; Bender, E.M.; Denton, E.; Hanna, A. Data and Its (dis) Contents: A Survey of Dataset Development and Use in Machine Learning Research. Patterns 2021, 2, 100336. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Abeba, B.; Deborah, R. ChatGPT, Galactica, and the Progress Trap|WIRED. Available online: https://www.wired.com/story/large-language-models-critique/ (accessed on 11 December 2022).
- Stephen, M. Will ChatGPT Kill the Student Essay?—The Atlantic. Available online: https://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2022/12/chatgpt-ai-writing-college-student-essays/672371/ (accessed on 11 December 2022).
- Cesur Aydin, K.; Gunec, H.G. Quality of Information on YouTube about Artificial Intelligence in Dental Radiology. J. Dent. Educ. 2020, 84, 1166–1172. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Yüzbaşıoğlu, E. Attitudes and Perceptions of Dental Students towards Artificial Intelligence. J. Dent. Educ. 2021, 85, 60–68. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Tekkesin, M.S.; Khurram, S.A. A New Dawn: The Impact of Digital Technologies in Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology. J. Exp. Clin. Med. 2021, 38, 81–85. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Maddahi, Y.; Kalvandi, M.; Langman, S.; Capicotto, N.; Zareinia, K. RoboEthics in COVID-19: A Case Study in Dentistry. Front. Robot. AI 2021, 8. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Shah, P.K.; Zhang, Q.; Chong, B.S. Get Smart—Technological Innovations in Endodontics Part 2: Case-Difficulty Assessment and Future Perspectives. Dent. Update 2021, 48, 556–562. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Gandedkar, N.H.; Wong, M.T.; Darendeliler, M.A. Role of Virtual Reality (VR), Augmented Reality (AR) and Artificial Intelligence (AI) in Tertiary Education and Research of Orthodontics: An Insight. Semin. Orthod. 2021, 27, 69–77. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Siddiqui, T.A.; Sukhia, R.H.; Ghandhi, D. Artificial Intelligence in Dentistry, Orthodontics and Orthognathic Surgery: A Literature Review. J. Pak. Med. Assoc. 2022, 72, S91–S96. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Tadinada, A.; Gul, G.; Godwin, L.; al Sakka, Y.; Crain, G.; Stanford, C.M.; Johnson, J. Utilizing an Organizational Development Framework as a Road Map for Creating a Technology-Driven Agile Curriculum in Predoctoral Dental Education. J. Dent. Educ. 2022, 1–7. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Saghiri, M.A.; Vakhnovetsky, J.; Nadershahi, N. Scoping Review of Artificial Intelligence and Immersive Digital Tools in Dental Education. J. Dent. Educ. 2022, 86, 736–750. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Joda, T.; Zitzmann, N.U. Personalized Workflows in Reconstructive Dentistry—Current Possibilities and Future Opportunities. Clin. Oral. Investig. 2022, 26, 4283–4290. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- LeResche, L. Commentary: The Changing Face of Dentistry. JDR Clin. Trans. Res. 2022, 7, 40S–46S. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Islam, N.M.; Laughter, L.; Sadid-Zadeh, R.; Smith, C.; Dolan, T.A.; Crain, G.; Squarize, C.H. Adopting Artificial Intelligence in Dental Education: A Model for Academic Leadership and Innovation. J. Dent. Educ. 2022, 86, 1545–1551. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Mladenovic, R.; Milosavljevic, M.; Stanisic, D.; Vasovic, M. Importance of Artificial Intelligence in the Analysis of Children’s CBCT Imaging by Dental Students. J. Dent. Educ. 2022, 1–3. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Adleberg, J.; Wardeh, A.; Doo, F.X.; Marinelli, B.; Cook, T.S.; Mendelson, D.S.; Kagen, A. Predicting Patient Demographics From Chest Radiographs With Deep Learning. J. Am. Coll. Radiol. 2022, 19, 1151–1161. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Gichoya, J.W.; Banerjee, I.; Bhimireddy, A.R.; Burns, J.L.; Celi, L.A.; Chen, L.C.; Correa, R.; Dullerud, N.; Ghassemi, M.; Huang, S.C.; et al. AI Recognition of Patient Race in Medical Imaging: A Modelling Study. Lancet Digit. Health 2022, 4, e406–e4142022, 4, e406–e414. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Latorre-Pellicer, A.; Ascaso, Á.; Trujillano, L.; Gil-Salvador, M.; Arnedo, M.; Lucia-Campos, C.; Antoñanzas-Pérez, R.; Marcos-Alcalde, I.; Parenti, I.; Bueno-Lozano, G.; et al. Evaluating Face2Gene as a Tool to Identify Cornelia de Lange Syndrome by Facial Phenotypes. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 1042. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Kalhan, R. ChatGPT Can Generate an Essay. But Could It Generate an “A”? Available online: https://www.nbcnews.com/tech/chatgpt-can-generate-essay-generate-rcna60362 (accessed on 11 December 2022).
- Herman, D. The End of High-School English. Available online: https://www.theatlantic.com/technology/archive/2022/12/openai-chatgpt-writing-high-school-english-essay/672412/ (accessed on 11 December 2022).
- Albright, J.; Kramer-Dahl, A. The Legacy of Instrumentality in Policy and Pedagogy in the Teaching of English: The Case of Singapore. Res. Pap. Educ. 2009, 24, 201–222. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Wiggers, K. OpenAI’s Attempts to Watermark AI Text Hit Limits|TechCrunch. Available online: https://techcrunch.com/2022/12/10/openais-attempts-to-watermark-ai-text-hit-limits/ (accessed on 13 December 2022).
- Ducret, M.; Mörch, C.M.; Karteva, T.; Fisher, J.; Schwendicke, F. Artificial Intelligence for Sustainable Oral Healthcare. J. Dent. 2022, 127. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Eschert, T.; Schwendicke, F.; Krois, J.; Bohner, L.; Vinayahalingam, S.; Hanisch, M. A Survey on the Use of Artificial Intelligence by Clinicians in Dentistry and Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. Medicina 2022, 58, 1059. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
|1||Schwendicke et al.||Article||Artificial Intelligence in Dentistry: Chances and Challenges…||24.02||Journal of Dental Research||||2020|
|2||Cesur et al.||Article||Quality of information on YouTube about artificial intellige… 2||0.83||Journal of Dental Education||||2020|
|3||Yüzbaşıoğlu et al.||Article||Attitudes and perceptions of dental students towards artific…||2.8||Journal of Dental Education||||2021|
|4||Tekkesin et al.||Review||A new dawn: The impact of digital technologies in oral and m…||Uncited 1||Journal of Experimental and Clinical Medicine||||2021|
|5||Maddahi et al.||Article||RoboEthics in COVID-19: A Case Study in Dentistry…||0.37||Frontiers in Robotics and AI||||2021|
|6||Shah et al.||Review||Get smart—Technological innovations in endodontics part 2:…||Uncited 1||Dental Update||||2021|
|7||Gandedkar et al.||Article||Role of virtual reality (VR), augmented reality (AR) and art… 2||3.06||Seminars in Orthodontics||||2021|
|8||Siddiqui et al.||Conference Paper||Artificial intelligence in dentistry, orthodontics and Ortho…||Uncited 1||Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association||||2022|
|9||Tadinada et al.||Article||Utilizing an organizational development framework as a road…||Uncited 1||Journal of Dental Education||||2022|
|10||Saghiri et al.||Review||Scoping review of artificial intelligence and immersive digi…||1.06||Journal of Dental Education||||2022|
|11||Joda et al.||Review||Personalized workflows in reconstructive dentistry—current p…||1.93||Clinical Oral Investigations||||2022|
|12||Thurzo et al.||Article||Dental Care and Education Facing Highly Transmissible SARS-C…||6.41||International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health||||2022|
|13||LeResche||Article||Commentary: The Changing Face of Dentistry…||2.13||JDR Clinical and Translational Research||||2022|
|14||Islam et al.||Article||Adopting artificial intelligence in dental education: A mode…||Uncited 1||Journal of Dental Education||||2022|
|15||Mladenovic et al.||Note||Importance of artificial intelligence in the analysis of chi… 2||Uncited 1||Journal of Dental Education||||2022|
Disclaimer/Publisher’s Note: The statements, opinions and data contained in all publications are solely those of the individual author(s) and contributor(s) and not of MDPI and/or the editor(s). MDPI and/or the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to people or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content.
© 2023 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Thurzo, A.; Strunga, M.; Urban, R.; Surovková, J.; Afrashtehfar, K.I. Impact of Artificial Intelligence on Dental Education: A Review and Guide for Curriculum Update. Educ. Sci. 2023, 13, 150. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13020150
Thurzo A, Strunga M, Urban R, Surovková J, Afrashtehfar KI. Impact of Artificial Intelligence on Dental Education: A Review and Guide for Curriculum Update. Education Sciences. 2023; 13(2):150. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13020150Chicago/Turabian Style
Thurzo, Andrej, Martin Strunga, Renáta Urban, Jana Surovková, and Kelvin I. Afrashtehfar. 2023. "Impact of Artificial Intelligence on Dental Education: A Review and Guide for Curriculum Update" Education Sciences 13, no. 2: 150. https://doi.org/10.3390/educsci13020150