Can the Sick Speak? Global Health Governance and Health Subalternity
2. Trickle-Down Moral Failure
3. Defining Global Health and Its Governance
4. Epistemic Challenges
5. COVID-19 and the Power of GHG
Global Health Outcomes during COVID-19
6. Conditions of Legitimacy
- GHG regularly achieves better health and health equity through its policies.
- Populations regain agency over their bodies and lives and can imagine and realise routes to a healthy life within their own epistemic, cultural, and social frameworks.
- GHG policies and actions are verifiably intended, above all else, towards the objective improvement of peoples’ health and achievement of their potential.
- GHG ensures the balance of health policy with other priorities (economic, social, political, and cultural) consideration identified by the people affected by the policies.
- The demonstrated reactivity and accountability to people whose health is affected by such policies.
7. Elusive Legitimacy
7.1. A History of Failure
7.2. Serving Dominant Ideologies
7.3. Self-Perpetuating System of Power
8. Questioning the Intentions of Global Health Governance
9. Problematising Global Health Governance
10. The Politics of Life and Death in Global Health Governance
11. Spaces of Sickness
12. Health Subalternity
13. Conclusions and Ways Forward
- Within a hegemonic system such as GHG, the route to emancipation starts with people who are the victims of ill-health and global health governance. Hence, the first step would be an unadulterated and insistent pedagogical exercise of understanding where the knowledge is not only produced in the laboratories of Northern universities and pharmaceutical companies but by the people who suffer ill-health themselves. Unlike the mediated and largely selective exercise of “giving people voice” which is choreographed and selectively practised by global health actors, the scholar and the practitioner of global health can indeed hear, and act as a conduit of, the pure voice of the health subaltern11.
- Research, policymaking, and practice in global health governance cannot start from the current status quo as the only legitimate framework. Research that a priori accepts the failures of GHG and its functioning within the current hegemonic world order will fail to find emancipatory solutions. Global health scholarship should expand to cover all epistemic and political potentialities including the upending of and alternatives to the current global health governance regime.
- Practising global health on the ground should move from accepting that the only way to achieve the fleeting benefits of its programmes is a justification for its politics of life and death. An emancipatory global health does not only get enacted from headquarters in Geneva and New York but from the act of dissolving its power to the people who should benefit from it in every project, clinic, and community. An exercise of conscientization as described by Paulo Freire (2017) in his classic Pedagogy of the Oppressed has been implemented in educational contexts and should be a guiding rule for emancipatory global health governance.
- Finally, in transforming the dominant global health governance, reform is sorely needed. This is not an aesthetic reform that retains power in the hands of the same oligarchy, but is rather in different forms. This is a non-reformist reform as described by Andre Gorz (Bond 2008) and can be a guiding methodology that aims at reform without making the preservation of the current system a precondition.
Institutional Review Board Statement
Informed Consent Statement
Conflicts of Interest
Institution in the widest sense including governments, international organisations, civil society, academia, private businesses, religious authorities, the media, and informal or traditional institutions.
Johns Hopkins Coronavirus resource centre https://coronavirus.jhu.edu/map (accessed on 2 July 2022).
Budget and funding numbers are reported as of 29 October 2021. The budgets have been changed on the website. By 1 July 2022 the numbers became USD16.85 billion budgeted, USD5.63 billion received, and USD 11.22 billion gap. https://www.who.int/publications/m/item/access-to-covid-19-tools-tracker (accessed on 13 November 2021).
In June 2022, 40 LMICs had vaccine coverage below 20%, most of them in Sub-Saharan Africa. https://coronavirus.jhu.edu/vaccines/international (accessed on 30 June 2021).
Budget and funding numbers are reported as of 29 October 2021, https://www.who.int/publications/m/item/access-to-covid-19-tools-tracker (accessed on 13 November 2021). The budgets have been changed on the website. By 1 July 2022 the numbers became USD16.85 billion budgeted, USD5.63 billion received, and USD 11.22 billion gap.
https://www.reuters.com/business/healthcare-pharmaceuticals/world-has-entered-stage-vaccine-apartheid-who-head-2021-05-17 (accessed on 24 October 2021).
https://www.reuters.com/business/healthcare-pharmaceuticals/who-partners-seek-234-bln-new-covid-19-war-chest-2021-10-28 (accessed on 13 November 2021).
See, for example, the proceeds of the People’s Health Hearing on the side of COP26. https://www.medact.org/event/peoples-health-hearing-2021 (accessed on 11 November 2021).
Necropolitics in Mbembe’s 2003 essay is about the war on terror post 9/11 and the ability to impose death as a form of sovereignty translated into violence. This sovereignty of imposing death and choosing who is allowed to live and who must die. This, for Mbembe, is more than the right to kill, it is the ability to keep some bodies in a state between life and death such as in the case of slavery and apartheid where those “living dead” inhabit “death-worlds” imposed on them.
https://donortracker.org/sector/global-health (accessed on 28 October 2021).
See People’s health hearing mentioned above in footnote 8.
- Abbey, Enoch J., Banda A. A. Khalifa, Modupe O. Oduwole, Samuel K. Ayeh, Richard D. Nudotor, Emmanuella L. Salia, Oluwatobi Lasisi, Seth Bennett, Hasiya E. Yusuf, Allison L. Agwu, and et al. 2020. The Global Health Security Index Is Not Predictive of Coronavirus Pandemic Responses among Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development Countries. PLoS ONE 15: e0239398. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Abimbola, Seye, and Madhukar Pai. 2020. Will Global Health Survive Its Decolonisation? Lancet 396: 1627–28. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Adams, Vincanne. 2013. 2. Evidence-Based Global Public Health: Subjects, Profits, Erasures. When People Come First: Critical Studies in Global Health. Edited by João Biehl and Adriana Petryna. Princeton: Princeton University Press, pp. 54–90. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Affun-Adegbulu, Clara, and Opemiposi Adegbulu. 2020. Decolonising Global (Public) Health: From Western Universalism to Global Pluriversalities. BMJ Global Health 5: e002947. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Akugizibwe, Paula. 2020. Global Health: From Dependency to Decolonization. The Republic. August 14. Available online: https://republic.com.ng/august-september-2020/purse-strings-attached/ (accessed on 9 September 2021).
- Alvarez, Claude. 2011. A Critique of Eurocentric Social Science and the Question of Alternatives. Economic and Political Weekly 46: 72–81. [Google Scholar]
- Banerjee, Subhabrata Bobby. 2002. Reinventing Colonialism: Biotechnology, Intellectual Property Rights and the New Economics of Sustainable Development. Victoria Falls: International Association for the Study of Common Property. [Google Scholar]
- Barclay, Eliza. 2008. Predicting the next Pandemic. The Lancet 372: 1025–26. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Barnes, Amy, and Garrett Wallace Brown. 2011. The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis, and Malaria: Expertise, Accountability, and the Depoliticisation of Global Health Governance. In Partnerships and Foundations in Global Health Governance. Edited by Simon Rushton and Owain David Williams. International Political Economy Series; London: Palgrave Macmillan UK, pp. 53–75. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Bates, Thomas R. 1975. Gramsci and the Theory of Hegemony. Journal of the History of Ideas 36: 351–66. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Bennhold, Katrin. 2021. Germany’s Fourth Covid Wave: “A Pandemic of the Unvaccinated”. The New York Times. November 11. Available online: https://www.nytimes.com/2021/11/11/world/europe/germany-covid-unvaccinated.html (accessed on 14 November 2021).
- Berkley, Seth. 2021. COVAX: More than a Beautiful Idea. The Lancet 398: 388. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Biehl, João, and Adriana Petryna. 2014. Peopling Global Health. Saúde e Sociedade 23: 376–89. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Bond, Patrick. 2008. Reformist Reforms, Non-Reformist Reforms and Global Justice: Activist, NGO and Intellectual Challenges in the World Social Forum. Societies Without Borders 3: 4–19. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef][Green Version]
- Boston Review, ed. 2020. The Politics of Care: From COVID-19 to Black Lives Matter. London: Verso Books. [Google Scholar]
- Bosworth, David. 2011. The Cultural Contradictions of Philanthrocapitalism. Society 48: 382. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Bratton, Benjamin. 2021. The Revenge of the Real: Politics for a Post-Pandemic World. London: Verso Books. [Google Scholar]
- Briant Carant, Jane. 2017. Unheard Voices: A Critical Discourse Analysis of the Millennium Development Goals’ Evolution into the Sustainable Development Goals. Third World Quarterly 38: 16–41. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Büyüm, Ali Murad, Cordelia Kenney, Andrea Koris, Laura Mkumba, and Yadurshini Raveendran. 2020. Decolonising Global Health: If Not Now, When? BMJ Global Health 5: e003394. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Chakraborty, Debadrita. 2021. The “Living Dead” within “Death-Worlds”: Gender Crisis and Covid-19 in India. Gender, Work & Organization 28: 330–39. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Chaturvedi, Vinayak. 2012. Mapping Subaltern Studies and the Postcolonial (Mappings Series). London: Verso Books. [Google Scholar]
- Chaudhuri, Monica Mitra, Laura Mkumba, Yadurshini Raveendran, and Robert D. Smith. 2021. Decolonising Global Health: Beyond “Reformative” Roadmaps and towards Decolonial Thought. BMJ Global Health 6: e006371. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Chowdhury, Zafrullah, and Michael Rowson. 2000. The People’s Health Assembly: Revitalising the Promise of “Health for All”. BMJ 321: 1361–62. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Cimadamore, Alberto, Gabriele Koehler, and Thomas Pogge. 2016. Poverty and the Millennium Development Goals: A Critical Look Forward. London: Zed Books Ltd. [Google Scholar]
- da Silva, Diego Lopes, Alexandra Marksteiner, and Nan Tian. 2021. Trends in World Military Expenditure, 2020. Oxford: Fact Sheet SIPRI. [Google Scholar]
- Daley, Patricia. 2013. Rescuing African Bodies: Celebrities, Consumerism and Neoliberal Humanitarianism. Review of African Political Economy 40: 375–93. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Davis, Mike. 2022. The Monster Enters: COVID-19, Avian Flu, and the Plagues of Capitalism. London: Verso Books. [Google Scholar]
- El-Mohandes, Ayman, Trenton M. White, Katarzyna Wyka, Lauren Rauh, Kenneth Rabin, Spencer H. Kimball, Scott C. Ratzan, and Jeffrey V. Lazarus. 2021. COVID-19 Vaccine Acceptance among Adults in Four Major US Metropolitan Areas and Nationwide. Scientific Reports 11: 21844. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Erondu, Ngozi A., Dorothy Peprah, and Mishal S. Khan. 2020. Can Schools of Global Public Health Dismantle Colonial Legacies? Nature Medicine 26: 1504–5. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Fidler, D. 2009. After the Revolution: Global Health Politics in a Time of Economic Crisis and Threatening Future Trends. Global Health Governance 2: 1–21. [Google Scholar]
- Fleshman, Michael. 2005. Niger: A Famine Foretold. Africa Renewal. October 15. Available online: https://www.un.org/africarenewal/magazine/october-2005/niger-famine-foretold (accessed on 2 October 2021).
- Fofana, Mariam O. 2020. Decolonising Global Health in the Time of COVID-19. Global Public Health 16: 1155–66. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Freire, Paulo. 2017. Pedagogy of the Oppressed. New York: Penguin Books. [Google Scholar]
- Frenk, Julio, and Suerie Moon. 2013. Governance Challenges in Global Health. New England Journal of Medicine 368: 936–42. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Fukuda-Parr, Sakiko, Paulo Buss, and Alicia Ely Yamin. 2021. Pandemic Treaty Needs to Start with Rethinking the Paradigm of Global Health Security. BMJ Global Health 6: e006392. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Ghebreyesus, Tedros A. 2021. What Is the Missing Ingredient in Global Pandemic Preparedness and Response? The BMJ. September 16. Available online: https://blogs.bmj.com/bmj/2021/09/16/what-is-the-missing-ingredient-in-global-pandemic-preparedness-and-response/ (accessed on 7 November 2021).
- Global Health 50/50. 2021. The Global Health 50/50 Report 2021 Gender Equality: Flying Blind in a Time of Crisis. London: Global Health. Available online: https://globalhealth5050.org/2021-report/ (accessed on 21 July 2021).
- Gostin, Lawrence O. 2015. World Health Organization Reform: Lessons Learned from the Ebola Epidemic. Hastings Center Report 45: 6–7. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Grosfoguel, Ramón. 2013. The Structure of Knowledge in Westernized Universities: Epistemic Racism/Sexism and the Four Genocides/Epistemicides of the Long 16th Century. Human Architecture: Journal of the Sociology of Self-Knowledge 11: 73–90. Available online: https://scholarworks.umb.edu/humanarchitecture/vol11/iss1/8 (accessed on 11 June 2021).
- Hall, John J., and Richard Taylor. 2003. Health for All beyond 2000: The Demise of the Alma-Ata Declaration and Primary Health Care in Developing Countries. Medical Journal of Australia 178: 17–20. Available online: https://www.mja.com.au/journal/2003/178/1/health-all-beyond-2000-demise-alma-ata-declaration-and-primary-health-care?0=ip_login_no_cache=33e236e116ee3ad9eb91e00c1d678a08 (accessed on 11 June 2021). [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Harries, Anthony D. 2005. Predicting the Failure of 3 by 5. The Lancet 366: 117. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Hobson, John M. 2017. Eurocentric Pitfalls and Paradoxes of International Paternalism: Decolonizing Liberal Humanitarianism 2.0. In Paternalism beyond Borders. Edited by Michael N. Barnett. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 99–131. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Hoffman, Steven J., and Clarke B. Cole. 2018. Defining the Global Health System and Systematically Mapping Its Network of Actors. Globalization and Health 14: 38. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Illich, Ivan. 1974. Medical Nemesis: The Expropriation of Health. New York: Pantheon. [Google Scholar]
- Kay, Adrian, and Owain Williams. 2009. Introduction: The International Political Economy of Global Health Governance. In Global Health Governance: Crisis, Institutions and Political Economy. Edited by Adrian Kay and Owain David Williams. International Political Economy Series; London: Palgrave Macmillan UK, pp. 1–23. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Keikelame, Mpoe Johannah, and Leslie Swartz. 2019. Decolonising Research Methodologies: Lessons from a Qualitative Research Project, Cape Town, South Africa. Global Health Action 12: 1561175. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Kenny, Katherine E. 2015. The Biopolitics of Global Health: Life and Death in Neoliberal Time. Journal of Sociology 51: 9–27. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Kentikelenis, Alexander, Lawrence King, Martin McKee, and David Stuckler. 2015. The International Monetary Fund and the Ebola Outbreak. The Lancet Global Health 3: e69–e70. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Khan, Mishal, Seye Abimbola, Tammam Aloudat, Emanuele Capobianco, Sarah Hawkes, and Afifah Rahman-Shepherd. 2021. Decolonising Global Health in 2021: A Roadmap to Move from Rhetoric to Reform. BMJ Global Health 6: e005604. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Kim, Hani. 2021. The Implicit Ideological Function of the Global Health Field and Its Role in Maintaining Relations of Power. BMJ Global Health 6: e005620. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Kim, Hani, Uros Novakovic, Carles Muntaner, and Michael T. Hawkes. 2019. A Critical Assessment of the Ideological Underpinnings of Current Practice in Global Health and Their Historical Origins. Global Health Action 12: 1651017. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Koplan, Jeffrey P., T. Christopher Bond, Michael H. Merson, K. Srinath Reddy, Mario Henry Rodriguez, Nelson K. Sewankambo, and Judith N. Wasserheit. 2009. Towards a Common Definition of Global Health. The Lancet 373: 1993–95. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Lakoff, Andrew. 2017. Unprepared: Global Health in a Time of Emergency. Berkeley: Univ. of California Press. [Google Scholar]
- Lasco, Gideon. 2020. Medical Populism and the COVID-19 Pandemic. Global Public Health 15: 1417–29. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Lasco, Gideon, and Nicole Curato. 2019. Medical Populism. Social Science & Medicine 221: 1–8. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Lee, Kelley. 2009. Understandings of Global Health Governance: The Contested Landscape. In Global Health Governance: Crisis, Institutions and Political Economy. Edited by Adrian Kay and Owain David Williams. International Political Economy Series; London: Palgrave Macmillan UK, pp. 27–41. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Lee, Kelley, and Adam Kamradt-Scott. 2014. The Multiple Meanings of Global Health Governance: A Call for Conceptual Clarity. Globalization and Health 10: 28. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Lord, Matt. 2020. Thinking in a Pandemic. London: Verso Books. [Google Scholar]
- Maldonado-Torres, Nelson. 2007. On the Coloniality of Being. Cultural Studies 21: 240–70. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Malm, Andreas. 2020. Corona, Climate, Chronic Emergency: War Communism in the Twenty-First Century. London: Verso Books. [Google Scholar]
- Marstein, E., and Suzanne M. Babich. 2016. The Case for a New Epistemology on Global Health: Suzanne Babich. European Journal of Public Health 26: ckw165-063. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Mbembe, Achille. 2003. Necropolitics. Public Culture 15: 11–40. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- McGoey, Linsey. 2012. Philanthrocapitalism and Its Critics. Poetics, Cultures of Circulation 40: 185–99. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- McInnes, Colin. 2015. WHO’s next? Changing Authority in Global Health Governance after Ebola. International Affairs 91: 1299–316. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Meier, Benjamin Mason. 2010. The World Health Organization, the Evolution of Human Rights, and the Failure to Achieve Health for All. In Global Health and Human Rights. London: Routledge. [Google Scholar]
- Moon, Suerie, Devi Sridhar, Muhammad A. Pate, Ashish K. Jha, Chelsea Clinton, Sophie Delaunay, Valnora Edwin, Mosoka Fallah, David P. Fidler, Laurie Garrett, and et al. 2015. Will Ebola Change the Game? Ten Essential Reforms before the next Pandemic. The Report of the Harvard-LSHTM Independent Panel on the Global Response to Ebola. The Lancet 386: 2204–21. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Naidu, Thirusha. 2021. Says Who? Northern Ventriloquism, or Epistemic Disobedience in Global Health Scholarship. The Lancet Global Health 9: e1332–e1335. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Navarro, Vicente. 2007. Neoliberalism as a Class Ideology; or, the Political Causes of the Growth of Inequalities. International Journal of Health Services: Planning, Administration, Evaluation 37: 47–62. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Nikogosian, Haik, and Ilona Kickbusch. 2021. The Case for an International Pandemic Treaty. BMJ 372: n527. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Obama, Barack, and Richard Lugar. 2005. Opinion Grounding a Pandemic. The New York Times. June 6. Available online: https://www.nytimes.com/2005/06/06/opinion/grounding-a-pandemic.html (accessed on 21 June 2021).
- Oppenheim, Ben, Mark Gallivan, Nita K. Madhav, Naor Brown, Volodymyr Serhiyenko, Nathan D. Wolfe, and Patrick Ayscue. 2019. Assessing Global Preparedness for the next Pandemic: Development and Application of an Epidemic Preparedness Index. BMJ Global Health 4: e001157. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Ottersen, Ole Petter, Jashodhara Dasgupta, Chantal Blouin, Paulo Buss, Virasakdi Chongsuvivatwong, Julio Frenk, Sakiko Fukuda-Parr, Bience P. Gawanas, Rita Giacaman, John Gyapong, and et al. 2014. The Political Origins of Health Inequity: Prospects for Change. The Lancet 383: 630–67. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Packard, Randall M. 2016. A History of Global Health: Interventions into the Lives of Other Peoples. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press. [Google Scholar]
- Relman, Arnold S. 1980. The New Medical-Industrial Complex. New England Journal of Medicine 303: 963–70. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Rushton, Simon, and Owain David Williams. 2012. Frames, Paradigms and Power: Global Health Policy-Making under Neoliberalism. Global Society 26: 147–67. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Salm, Melissa, Mahima Ali, Mairead Minihane, and Patricia Conrad. 2021. Defining Global Health: Findings from a Systematic Review and Thematic Analysis of the Literature. BMJ Global Health 6: e005292. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Sengupta, Amit, Chiara Bodini, and Sebastian Franco. 2018. Struggles for Health: An Emancipatory Approach in the Era of Neoliberal Globalization. Development 61: 101–7. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Shiffman, Jeremy. 2014. Knowledge, Moral Claims and the Exercise of Power in Global Health. International Journal of Health Policy and Management 3: 297–99. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
- Smith, James. 2016. Blind Spot: How Neoliberalism Infiltrated Global Health. Journal of Public Health 38: 624–24. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Smith, Linda Tuhiwai. 2012. Decolonizing Methodologies: Research and Indigenous Peoples, 2nd ed. London: Zed Books. [Google Scholar]
- Sparke, Matthew, and Owain David Williams. 2021. Neoliberal Disease: COVID-19, Co-Pathogenesis and Global Health Insecurities. Environment and Planning A: Economy and Space 54: 15–32. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Spivak, Gayatri Chakravorty. 1988. Can the Subaltern Speak? In Marxism and the Interpretation of Culture. Basingstoke: Macmillan. [Google Scholar]
- Stephens, Carolyn, Clive Nettleton, John Porter, Ruth Willis, and Stephanie Clark. 2005. Indigenous Peoples’ Health—Why Are They behind Everyone, Everywhere? The Lancet 366: 10–13. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Storeng, Katerini Tagmatarchi, Antoine de Bengy Puyvallée, and Felix Stein. 2021. COVAX and the Rise of the “Super Public Private Partnership” for Global Health. Global Public Health. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- Usher, Ann Danaiya. 2021. A Beautiful Idea: How COVAX Has Fallen Short. The Lancet 397: 2322–25. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
- WHO. 2021. Special Session of the World Health Assembly to Consider Developing a WHO Convention, Agreement or Other International Instrument on Pandemic Preparedness and Response. SEVENTY-FOURTH WORLD HEALTH ASSEMBLY. Available online: https://apps.who.int/gb/ebwha/pdf_files/WHA74/A74(16)-en.pdf (accessed on 18 June 2021).
- Zizek, Slavoj. 2020. Pandemic!: COVID-19 Shakes the World, 1st ed. New York: Polity. [Google Scholar]
|Governance for Health||Governance of the GH System||Governance through Health|
|Motive||Improving health||Retaining power||Achieving political ends|
|Actors||Health providers, civil society, local health authorities||Global health brokers (IOs, foundations, INGOs)||Governments, corporations|
|Methods||Public health||Health diplomacy||Domestic policy|
|Location||Communities affected by ill health||GHG circles, headquarters||Capitals|
|Examples||Smallpox eradication, extended programme for immunisation (EPI), treating HIV with generic medicines||WHA and executive board, governance mechanisms, COVAX||US global gag rule on termination of pregnancy, trade deals, IP protection, Structural Adjustment Programs|
Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
© 2022 by the author. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
Aloudat, T. Can the Sick Speak? Global Health Governance and Health Subalternity. Soc. Sci. 2022, 11, 417. https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11090417
Aloudat T. Can the Sick Speak? Global Health Governance and Health Subalternity. Social Sciences. 2022; 11(9):417. https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11090417Chicago/Turabian Style
Aloudat, Tammam. 2022. "Can the Sick Speak? Global Health Governance and Health Subalternity" Social Sciences 11, no. 9: 417. https://doi.org/10.3390/socsci11090417