PV Monitoring System for a Water Pumping Scheme with a Lithium-Ion Battery Using Free Open-Source Software and IoT Technologies
- Facilitating the communication, control, and automation of PV plants ;
- Establishing references for expected performances in a given region ;
- Establishing PV behavior and obtaining derating ratios across the plant ;
- Facilitating other important features such as R&D projects, reporting, system configuration updates, data analysis, and training activities .
- Environment: irradiance on the PV plane (GI) and ambient temperature (Tamb)
- PV field: cell temperature (Tcell), voltage (VPV), current (IPV), power (PPV), and energy (EPV)
- Power converter unit: output voltage (VPCU_out), output current (IPCU_out), output power (PPCU_out), and output energy (EPCU_out), with the input variables corresponding to the values defined in the PV field
- Hydraulic circuit: flow rate (Q); water temperature (Tw); and pressure, measured as meter of water column (mwc) and denoted as TDH or total dynamic head
2. Description of the PVWPS+LIB Facility
2.1. System Installed on the Building Rooftop
- DC protections: disconnector, fuses, and surge discharger
- AC power connection at 230 V and 50 Hz for the electronic circuits
- An anemometer (wind speed or ws, measured in km/h) and vane (wind direction, measured in degrees), placed 2 m above the PV array and integrated into the Davis 7911 model. The 4−20 mA outputs are connected to an ADAM 4017+ for transmission through a wired RS485 communication protocol. Minimum accuracy in the current measurements is equal to ± 0.2% .
- An Eos Array PV monitoring system from Carlo Gavazzi  is used; the solution includes the following:
- Measurement of voltage and current of the PV string (VPV and IPV) with a VMU-S unit. Current range reaches up to 16 A (for 40 °C), with a maximum DC voltage of 1000 V. For both variables, the accuracy is ± (0.5% RDG + 2 DGT). The PV power and energy are calculated by the VMU-S unit with an accuracy equal to ± (1% RDG + 2 DGT) for the power and ± (1% RDG) for the energy.
- Cell temperature (model TEMPSOL1000) and ambient temperature (model IKE20001K) by means of a Pt1000 RTD connected to a VMU-P unit (1000 Ω @ 0 °C). The tolerance ranges from ±0.3 °C at 0 °C to ±0.8 °C at 100 °C according to EN60751.
- Irradiance sensor on the plane of the PV field, measured with a CELLSOL 200 connected to the VMU-P unit. The sensor range is from 0 to 1500 W/m2, with an accuracy of ±5% as an annual average. The sensor presents a linear variation in this range, with a scaling factor of 79.6 mV for 1000 W/m2 provided by the manufacturer after the calibration of the sensor.
- A VMU-M unit that performs the local bus management of the measuring units (VMU-S and VMU-P) operates as a data logger and communicates data in response to server polls via a Modbus-RTU protocol over an RS485 bus.
2.2. System Installed in the Hydraulics Laboratory
- An electrical panel that establishes the connection between the PV system arranged on the roof of the building and the other system components, including a connection to the electrical power network (Figure 4(a2)). The electrical panel also includes a UWP 3.0 unit that monitors the devices connected to the RS485 local bus via a Modbus-RTU protocol .
- A GW3648D-ES hybrid grid-connected inverter from Goodwe, with a rated apparent power of 3680 VA in the two AC outputs (on-grid output and backup output) and up to 5520 VA for 10 s in the backup AC output (Figure 4(a1)) . Data provided by the inverter through the Modbus have the following resolutions: 0.1 V, 0.1 A, 1 W, 0.1 kWh, 0.01 Hz, 0.1 °C, 1% for all percentual values (SOC, PF, etc.).
- A PVWPS controller, model ESP-2.2/230-IP20-F200, supplied by Atersa and which includes a Fuji Electric variable speed driver (Frenic-ACE model FRN0008E2E-7GA), as well as the control and protection circuits necessary to implement a PVWPS (Figure 4(a3)) . This system supports two different power sources: a DC input from a PV field, or a 230 V and 50 Hz single-phase AC input from a conventional electrical grid or auxiliary group. Data provided by the variable speed drive (VSD) through the Modbus have the following resolutions: 1 V, 0.01 A, 0.01 Hz, 1 °C, 0.01% for all percentual values (load factor, input power respect to nominal motor output, etc.).
- An electrical panel (Figure 4(b7)) with the elements for the acquisition of the signals provided by the sensors of the hydraulic system: flow rate (Figure 4(b5)), pressure (Figure 4(b6,b9)), and temperature (in the water tank). All the sensors provide a 4–20 mA analog output signal connected to the second ADAM 4017+, which is connected to the RS485 bus.
2.3. Operating Modes of the PV Facility
- Direct PVWPS (DPVWPS): The PV field is connected to the DC input of the variable speed drive (VSD). The battery and the hybrid inverter are not used in this configuration.
- Stand-alone PV system with lithium battery storage: The PV field is connected to the PV input of the GW3648D-ES hybrid inverter. The inverter is configured to work in off-grid mode (isolated network installation), and the power of the PV field is used to power the AC loads connected to the backup output and to recharge the battery. The inverter manages the operating point of the PV field to balance energy consumption and generation. It may be the case that the PV field does not generate energy if there are no loads connected and the battery is charged. A PVWPS+LIB system is implemented when the AC input of the VSD is connected to the backup output of the hybrid inverter.
- Grid-connected system for self-consumption with lithium battery storage: This system is very similar to the previous one, but the AC-grid output of the hybrid inverter is connected to the AC power network of the lab, and therefore the PV field will always work at the maximum power point (MPP). The excess energy not used by the loads, or by the battery, is injected into the grid. In this case, the VSD that controls the submersible pump is connected to the backup output of the GW3648D-ES hybrid inverter, as well as other critical loads that may exist in the installation.
- An EM21072 network analyzer . The meter uses a Hall effect current sensor in the AC current transformer (model CTD1X605A ) and is connected to measure the electrical parameters in the AC supply (point of connection of the PV system with the grid): RMS voltage, active power, reactive power, etc.
- A temperature sensor Thermophant T TTR35 for measuring water temperature in pipes (total error ≤ 0.5 K) .
- A class 1 T-type thermocouple for measuring water temperature in the tank that contains the submersible pump . The thermocouple is connected to a temperature transmitter that generates a 4–20 mA signal proportional to the temperature (accuracy ± 0.1 °C of temperature measurement after calibrating) .
- Pressure transmitters: Several devices with different ranges are used. A CB3010 unit (Figure 4(b9)), with a 0–250 mbar range, is used to measure the reference water level in the tank where the submersible pump is located . A ST18 unit (Figure 4(b7)), with a 0–6 bar range, is used to measure the TDH at the pump outlet . All pressure sensors have an accuracy ≤ 0.5% of the measurement range.
3. Monitoring System of the PVWPS+LIB Facility
3.1. Hardware of the Monitoring System
3.2. Monitoring System Programs
- Data acquisition and storage in the DB.
- GUI management.
- Data exporter.
3.2.1. Data Acquisition and Storage Modelling
3.2.2. Programs for the Data Acquisition and Storage in DB
- data: for parsing the data received from each of the subsystems
- error: for any kind of error in the system, e.g., connection, format, etc.
- loopstop: for finishing the loopState() method
- Frame format: description + address + length + type + gain + parsing + Influx
- Influx database: measurement + tags + tags_values + fields
3.2.3. Graphical User Interface and Data Exporter
- Start and end date for export, divided in two fields: day/month/year; hour:minute
- Name of the database chosen for data export from the different monitoring systems that store data in InfluxDB
- Method of filling when data are unavailable: linear filling, fill with nulls, fill with zeros, none, and previous
- Selection of the fields to include in the file
- Type of file to export: Excel or .csv
4. Discussion on the Experimental Results of the Monitoring System
- Direct PVWPS (DPVWPS)
- Stand-alone PV system with lithium battery storage
- Grid-connected system for self-consumption with lithium battery storage
4.1. Results for the Grid-Connected Mode
4.2. Direct PV Water Pumping System Mode
4.3. PV Water Pumping System with Lithium-Ion Battery Mode
- There is no irradiance threshold, so all the energy produced by the PV field can be stored in the battery or used for pumping water activating the VSD.
- The VSD operates at its rated conditions, where the electromechanical efficiency is the maximum. The flow rate is constant during all the pumping intervals.
- The PV field can operate continuously in the MPP, generating the maximum available energy and optimizing the use of the PV modules.
- High standby consumption of the hybrid inverter occurs during nights in off-grid mode.
- Unclear SOC management is implemented in the hybrid inverter.
- Current in the battery provided in the Modbus-RTU protocol is given without sign.
- The system demonstrates perfect tracking of the MPP of the PV field for all levels of irradiance, without the irradiance threshold common in DPVWPS schemes.
- The system prevents pump stops due to the passage of clouds that cause sudden changes in irradiance. The LIB is charged with excess energy due to increased irradiance caused by cloud reflections, and this is discharged following the arrival of cloud shadows over the PV field.
- The pump operates at its nominal rated values, where efficiency in the electrical to mechanical conversion is maximum.
Conflicts of Interest
|BMS||Battery management system|
|DPVWPS||Direct photovoltaic water pumping system|
|EPCU_out||Output energy of the power converter unit|
|ESS||Energy storage systems|
|g||Temperature coefficient of PMPP (in%/K)|
|GI||Global irradiance (in W/m2)|
|GUI||Graphical user interface|
|IMPP||Current at the maximum power point|
|IPCU_out||Output current of the power converter unit|
|MPP||Maximum power point|
|MPPT||Maximum power point tracking|
|NOCT||Normal operating cell temperature|
|PMPP||Power at the maximum power point|
|PPCU_out||Output power of the power converter unit|
|PVWPS||Photovoltaic water pumping system|
|PVWPS+LIB||Photovoltaic water pumping system with storage in a lithium-ion battery|
|RTem||Terminal resistance for the RS485 bus|
|SOC||State of charge|
|SOH||State of health|
|STC||Standard test conditions (AM 1.5, Tcell = 25 ºC, and 1000 W/m2)|
|Tamb||Ambient temperature (ºC)|
|Tcell||PV cell temperature (ºC)|
|TDH||Total dynamic head|
|VMPP||Voltage at maximum power point|
|VOC||Open circuit voltage|
|VPCU_out||Output voltage of the power converter unit|
|VSD||Variable speed drive|
|WPS||Water pumping system|
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|Open circuit voltage (VOC)||363.2 V|
|Voltage at maximum power point (VMPP)||293.6 V|
|Short-circuit current (ISC)||8.8 A|
|Current at the maximum power point (IMPP)||8.3 A|
|Power at the maximum power point (PMPP)||2440 Wpk|
|Eos Array||Goodwe Inverter + LG Battery||Fuji VSD||EM21072 Network Analyzer|
|GI||Voltages: VPV, VBat, Vgrid, Vload||Input power||Vgrid|
|Tamb||Currents: IPV, IBat, Igrid, Iload||DC bus voltage||Igrid|
|Tcell||Powers: PPV, PBat, Pgrid, Pload||Output voltage||Pgrid, Qgrid, Sgrid,|
|VPV||Energies: EPV, EBat, Egrid, Eload||Output current||Egrid|
|IPV||Frequencies: fgrid, fload||Output frequency||fgrid|
|PPV||Battery: SOC, SOH, BMS pack temperature, etc.||Heatsink temperature||THD|
|EPV||Status: meter, BMS||Water level sensors||PF|
|Power module status||Error message, BMS error code|
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Gimeno-Sales, F.J.; Orts-Grau, S.; Escribá-Aparisi, A.; González-Altozano, P.; Balbastre-Peralta, I.; Martínez-Márquez, C.I.; Gasque, M.; Seguí-Chilet, S. PV Monitoring System for a Water Pumping Scheme with a Lithium-Ion Battery Using Free Open-Source Software and IoT Technologies. Sustainability 2020, 12, 10651. https://doi.org/10.3390/su122410651
Gimeno-Sales FJ, Orts-Grau S, Escribá-Aparisi A, González-Altozano P, Balbastre-Peralta I, Martínez-Márquez CI, Gasque M, Seguí-Chilet S. PV Monitoring System for a Water Pumping Scheme with a Lithium-Ion Battery Using Free Open-Source Software and IoT Technologies. Sustainability. 2020; 12(24):10651. https://doi.org/10.3390/su122410651Chicago/Turabian Style
Gimeno-Sales, Francisco José, Salvador Orts-Grau, Alejandro Escribá-Aparisi, Pablo González-Altozano, Ibán Balbastre-Peralta, Camilo Itzame Martínez-Márquez, María Gasque, and Salvador Seguí-Chilet. 2020. "PV Monitoring System for a Water Pumping Scheme with a Lithium-Ion Battery Using Free Open-Source Software and IoT Technologies" Sustainability 12, no. 24: 10651. https://doi.org/10.3390/su122410651