A Literature Review of the Challenges and Opportunities of the Transition from Industry 4.0 to Society 5.0
1.1. Industry 5.0
1.2. Society 5.0
1.3. Aim of Paper and Research Questions
- Provision of the original definitions of I5.0 and S5.0.
- Summary and provision of the enablers and key technologies of I5.0 and S5.0 such as, edge computing (EC), digital twins (DT), Collaborative Robots, Internet of Everything (IoE), Big Data and Analytics, Blockchain, Product Service Systems (PSS), metaverse, and beyond.
- In-depth discussion of the most anticipated applications for Industry 5.0, including supply chain management, intelligent healthcare, cloud manufacturing, manufacturing production, and various other applications.
- Pointing out promising research directions for realizing and achieving I5.0 and S5.0.
- Which are the main criteria to focus on I5.0 and S5.0 to ensure resiliency and social value creation?
- What are the key technological enablers of I5.0 and S5.0 to provide effective collaboration between human and technology?
- Can Industry 5.0 and Society 5.0 be considered as a framework for enabling the coexistence of industry and emerging societal trends and needs?
1.4. Paper Organization
2. State of the Art
2.1. Review Methodology
2.2. Review Algorithm
2.3. Definitions of Industry 5.0
2.4. Definitions of Society 5.0
2.5. From Traditional Society to Industry 4.0 and Society 4.0
2.6. Sustainable Concept of Society 5.0
2.7. Digital Transformation
“Fundamental and revolutionary changes in society, industry, and life as a result of advances in the use of digital technology and data; and radical changes implemented by industries, organizations, and individuals toward such transformation.”
2.8. The Nature of Society 5.0
2.9. From Society 4.0 to Society 5.0
2.10. Sustainable Development Goals and Society 5.0
- Cities and Regions—SDGs: 3, 4, 5, 6, 8, 11, 12, and 13
- Energy—SDGs: 7, 9, and 13
- Disaster Prevention and Mitigation—SGGs: 3, 6, 11, and 13
- Personalized Healthcare—SDG: 3
- Agriculture and Food—SDGs: 2, 12, 14 and 15
- Logistics—SDGs: 11 and 12
- Manufacturing and Services: SDGs: 5, 8, and 9
- Finance—SDGs: 1, 5, 8, and 9
- Public Services—SDGs: 1, 3, 4, 10, and 16
2.11. Environmental, Social, and Governance (ESG) Investments, Creating Society 5.0 and Achieving the SDGs
3. Industry in the Society 5.0 Era
3.1. Overview of Digital Transformation Framework towards Industry 5.0
3.1.1. Co-Creation in the Society 5.0 Era
3.1.2. Co-Creation Methods
- Co-creation through services and products.
- Co-creation using data.
- Co-creation through human resources.
- Understanding of and resolve to implement DX.
- Clear management vision and leadership in cocreation.
- Knowledge of new technologies and businesses.
- Timely decisions and actions.
3.1.4. Human Resources
3.1.7. Data Co-Creation
3.2. Enabling Technologies of Industry 5.0
- Human-centric solutions and human–machine interaction technologies that connect and combine the strengths of humans and machines.
- Bio-inspired technologies and intelligent materials that enable recyclable materials with embedded sensors and improved features.
- Simulation and real-time digital twins to model entire systems.
- Cybersecure data analysis, transmission, and storage technologies that can manage system and data interoperability.
- Artificial intelligence, such as the ability to find causal relationships in complicated, dynamic systems and produce useful information.
- Energy-efficient and reliable autonomy technologies are necessary because the KET will use a lot of energy.
3.3. Mass Personalization Driven by IoT and AI
- Technology performs the mundane, repetitive, error-prone tasks.
- Humans set the strategy, provide oversight, and add creative input.
- Industry 4.0: High-efficiency, low-waste mass production.
- Industry 5.0: High-precision, low-cost mass personalization.
- Commoditization of BDA and ML.
- Significant advancements in computer vision and 3D scanning/modeling.
- Decreased cost and increased availability of cobots.
- Increased adoption of 3D printing for prototyping.
- Higher degree of supply chain digitization.
3.3.1. Technological Prerequisites for Ultra-Personalized Manufacturing in Industry 5.0
- Data management platform and data governance processes.
- Multiscale dynamic modeling and simulation.
- Intelligent autonomous systems.
- Cognitive systems and new types of human machine interface.
- Additive manufacturing.
- The human touch.
3.3.2. Critical Skills towards Industry and Society 5.0
4. Discussion and Outlook
4.1. The Factory of the Future
- Focus on delivering customer experience.
- Hyper customization.
- Responsive and distributed supply chain.
- Experience-activated (interactive) products.
- Return of manpower to factories.
4.2. Skills for the Realization of Society 5.0
- Human-centricity re-orientation.
- Supporting resilience.
- The significance of sustainability.
4.3. Implications for Research, Practice, and Society
4.4. Challenges and Opportunities
4.5. Proposed Framework for the Realization of Industry 5.0 and Society 5.0
5. Conclusions and Outlook
Conflicts of Interest
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|Cluster 1||Cluster 2||Cluster 3||Cluster 4|
|The 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)|
|GOAL 1||No Poverty|
|GOAL 2||Zero Hunger|
|GOAL 3||Good Health and Well-being|
|GOAL 4||Quality Education|
|GOAL 5||Gender Equality|
|GOAL 6||Clean Water and Sanitation|
|GOAL 7||Affordable and Clean Energy|
|GOAL 8||Decent Work and Economic Growth|
|GOAL 9||Industry, Innovation, and Infrastructure|
|GOAL 10||Reduced Inequality|
|GOAL 11||Sustainable Cities and Communities|
|GOAL 12||Responsible Consumption and Production|
|GOAL 13||Climate Action|
|GOAL 14||Life Below Water|
|GOAL 15||Life on Land|
|GOAL 16||Peace and Justice Strong Institutions|
|GOAL 17||Partnerships to achieve the Goal|
|Society 1.0 to Society 4.0||Society 5.0 and Thereafter|
|Industrial Focus||Product and Business Types||Values realized and issues solved|
|Areas of application||Electricity, mobility, infrastructure, construction, medical equipment,|
logistics, and financial services
|Comfortable mobility, environmentally friendly energy, and realization of health|
|Common Goal||Transition to an autonomous, decentralized co-creation framework where businesses construct an industrial structure based on the values of the consumers and combine technologies and channels in their areas of specialization to realize these values|
|Level 2 (DX—Ready)|
|Level 1||Focus on internal efforts|
|Skills of Today||Skills of the Future|
|Basics of modern programming or software engineering||Deep understanding of modern programming or software engineering techniques|
|Manufacturing skills||Digital dexterity, or the ability to leverage existing and emerging technologies for practical business outcomes|
|Great communication skills||Data science|
|Innovation skills (e.g., brainstorming, design thinking)||Connectivity|
|Traditional IT skills||Cybersecurity|
|Industry 4.0||Industry 5.0|
|Similarities between Industry 5.0 and Society 5.0|
|1. Aging population||1. Human–Cyber Physical Systems (HCPS)|
|2. Resource shortage||2. Green Intelligent Manufacturing (GIM)|
|3. Environmental pollution||3. Human–Robot Collaboration (HRC)|
|4. Complex international situations||4. Future Jobs and Operators 5.0|
|5. Human Digital Twin (HDT)|
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Mourtzis, D.; Angelopoulos, J.; Panopoulos, N. A Literature Review of the Challenges and Opportunities of the Transition from Industry 4.0 to Society 5.0. Energies 2022, 15, 6276. https://doi.org/10.3390/en15176276
Mourtzis D, Angelopoulos J, Panopoulos N. A Literature Review of the Challenges and Opportunities of the Transition from Industry 4.0 to Society 5.0. Energies. 2022; 15(17):6276. https://doi.org/10.3390/en15176276Chicago/Turabian Style
Mourtzis, Dimitris, John Angelopoulos, and Nikos Panopoulos. 2022. "A Literature Review of the Challenges and Opportunities of the Transition from Industry 4.0 to Society 5.0" Energies 15, no. 17: 6276. https://doi.org/10.3390/en15176276