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Volume 30, September
 
 

Pathophysiology, Volume 30, Issue 4 (December 2023) – 8 articles

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19 pages, 7049 KiB  
Article
RhoG-Binding Domain of Elmo1 Ameliorates Excessive Process Elongation Induced by Autism Spectrum Disorder-Associated Sema5A
Pathophysiology 2023, 30(4), 548-566; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathophysiology30040040 - 27 Nov 2023
Viewed by 236
Abstract
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that includes autism, Asperger’s syndrome, and pervasive developmental disorder. ASD is characterized by poor interpersonal relationships and strong attachment. The correlations between activated or inactivated gene products, which occur as a result of genetic mutations [...] Read more.
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder that includes autism, Asperger’s syndrome, and pervasive developmental disorder. ASD is characterized by poor interpersonal relationships and strong attachment. The correlations between activated or inactivated gene products, which occur as a result of genetic mutations affecting neurons in ASD patients, and ASD symptoms are now of critical concern. Here, for the first time, we describe the process in which that the respective ASD-associated mutations (Arg676-to-Cys [R676C] and Ser951-to-Cys [S951C]) of semaphorin-5A (Sema5A) localize Sema5A proteins themselves around the plasma membrane in the N1E-115 cell line, a model line that can achieve neuronal morphological differentiation. The expression of each mutated construct resulted in the promotion of excessive elongation of neurite-like processes with increased differentiation protein markers; R676C was more effective than S951C. The differentiated phenotypes were very partially neutralized by an antibody, against Plexin-B3 as the specific Sema5A receptor, suggesting that the effects of Sema5A act in an autocrine manner. R676C greatly increased the activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), one of the signaling molecules underlying process elongation. In contrast, the blocking of JNK signaling, by a chemical JNK inhibitor or an inhibitory construct of the interaction of RhoG with Elmo1 as JNK upstream signaling molecules, recovered the excessive process elongation. These results suggest that ASD-associated mutations of Sema5A, acting through the JNK signaling cascade, lead to excessive differentiated phenotypes, and the inhibition of JNK signaling recovers them, revealing possible therapeutic targets for recovering the potential molecular and cellular phenotypes underlying certain ASD symptoms. Full article
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26 pages, 8105 KiB  
Article
Influence of Housing Temperature and Genetic Diversity on Allogeneic T Cell-Induced Tissue Damage in Mice
Pathophysiology 2023, 30(4), 522-547; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathophysiology30040039 - 20 Nov 2023
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Abstract
The objective of this study was to determine how housing temperature and genetic diversity affect the onset and severity of allogeneic T cell-induced tissue damage in mice subjected to reduced intensity conditioning (RIC). We found that adoptive transfer of allogeneic CD4+ T [...] Read more.
The objective of this study was to determine how housing temperature and genetic diversity affect the onset and severity of allogeneic T cell-induced tissue damage in mice subjected to reduced intensity conditioning (RIC). We found that adoptive transfer of allogeneic CD4+ T cells from inbred donors into sub-lethally irradiated inbred recipients (I→I) housed at standard housing temperatures (ST; 22–24 °C) induced extensive BM and spleen damage in the absence of injury to any other tissue. Although engraftment of T cells in RIC-treated mice housed at their thermo-neutral temperature (TNT; 30–32 °C) also developed similar BM and spleen damage, their survival was markedly and significantly increased when compared to their ST counterparts. In contrast, the adoptive transfer of allogeneic T cells into RIC-treated outbred CD1 recipients failed to induce disease in any tissue at ST or TNT. The lack of tissue damage was not due to defects in donor T cell trafficking to BM or spleen but was associated with the presence of large numbers of B cells and myeloid cells within these tissues that are known to contain immunosuppressive regulatory B cells and myeloid-derived suppressor cells. These data demonstrate, for the first time, that housing temperature affects the survival of RIC-treated I→I mice and that RIC-conditioned outbred mice are resistant to allogeneic T cell-induced BM and spleen damage. Full article
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17 pages, 1678 KiB  
Article
Impact of Prematurity on Auditory Processing in Children
Pathophysiology 2023, 30(4), 505-521; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathophysiology30040038 - 27 Oct 2023
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Abstract
Prematurity is one of the most crucial risk factors negatively affecting the maturation of the auditory system. Children born preterm demonstrate high rates of hearing impairments. Auditory processing difficulties in preterm children might be a result of disturbances in the central auditory system [...] Read more.
Prematurity is one of the most crucial risk factors negatively affecting the maturation of the auditory system. Children born preterm demonstrate high rates of hearing impairments. Auditory processing difficulties in preterm children might be a result of disturbances in the central auditory system development and/or sensory deprivation due to peripheral hearing loss. To investigate auditory processing in preterm children, we utilized a set of psychoacoustic tests to assess temporal processing and speech intelligibility. A total of 241 children aged 6–11 years old (136 born preterm and 105 healthy full-term children forming the control group) were assessed. The preterm children were divided into three groups based on their peripheral hearing status: 74 normal hearing (NH group); 30 children with bilateral permanent sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL group) and 32 children with bilateral auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD group). The results showed significantly worse performance in all tests in premature children compared with full-term children. NH and SNHL groups showed significant age-related improvement in speech recognition thresholds in noise that might signify a “bottom-up” auditory processing maturation effect. Overall, all premature children had signs of auditory processing disorders of varying degrees. Analyzing and understanding the auditory processing specificity in preterm children can positively contribute to the more effective implementation of rehabilitation programs. Full article
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21 pages, 6915 KiB  
Article
NO Addition during Gas Oxygenation Reduces Liver and Kidney Injury during Prolonged Cardiopulmonary Bypass
Pathophysiology 2023, 30(4), 484-504; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathophysiology30040037 - 19 Oct 2023
Viewed by 567
Abstract
Objective. To evaluate the effect of NO added to the sweep gas of the oxygenator during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) on the liver and kidneys in pigs. Methods. An experiment was carried out on 10 pigs undergoing cardiac surgery using CPB. NO [...] Read more.
Objective. To evaluate the effect of NO added to the sweep gas of the oxygenator during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) on the liver and kidneys in pigs. Methods. An experiment was carried out on 10 pigs undergoing cardiac surgery using CPB. NO was added to the sweep gas of the oxygenator at a concentration of 100 ppm for the animals in the experimental group (CPB-NO, n = 5). Animals in the control group (CPB-contr, n = 5) did not receive NO in the sweep gas of the oxygenator. The CPB lasted 4 h, followed by postoperative monitoring for 12 h. To assess the injury to the liver and kidneys, the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), bilirubin, creatinine, and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) were determined initially, at weaning from the CPB, and 6 and 12 h after weaning from the CPB. The glomerular filtration rate (GFR) was evaluated initially, at weaning from the CPB, and 6 and 12 h after weaning from the CPB. A pathomorphological study of the liver and kidneys was performed using semiquantitative morphometry. Results. The long four-hour period of CPB deliberately used in our experiment caused liver and kidney injury. In the CPB-contr group, an increase in the ALT concentration was found: 43 (34; 44) U/L at baseline to 82 (53; 99) U/L 12 h after CPB, p < 0.05. The AST concentration in the CPB-contr group increased from 25 (17; 26) U/L at baseline to 269 (164; 376) U/L 12 h after CPB, p < 0.05. We found no significant increase in the ALT and AST concentrations in the CPB-NO group. There were no significant differences in ALT and AST concentrations between the CPB-NO and CPB-contr groups at all the study time-points. In the CPB-contr group, an increase in the creatinine level was found from 131 (129; 133) µmol/L at baseline to 273 (241; 306) µmol/L 12 h after CPB, p < 0.05. We found no significant increase in creatinine level in the CPB-NO group. Creatinine levels in the CPB-NO group were significantly lower than in the CPB-contr group 12 h after weaning from CPB: 183 (168; 196) vs. 273 (241; 306) µmol/L; p = 0.008. The GFR in the CPB-NO group was significantly higher than in the CPB-contr group 6 h after weaning from CPB: 78.9 (77.8; 82.3) vs. 67.9 (62.3; 69.2) mL/min; p = 0.016. GFR was significantly higher in the CPB-NO group than in the CPB-contr group 12 h after weaning from CPB: 67.7 (65.5; 68.0) vs. 50.3 (48.7; 54.9) mL/min; p = 0.032. We found no significant differences between the study groups in the level of NGAL. We found several differences between the groups in the pathomorphological study. Conclusions. NO added to the sweep gas of the oxygenator reduces creatinine levels and increases GFR during prolonged CPB injury. Further research is required. Full article
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2 pages, 181 KiB  
Reply
Reply to Singh, G.D. Comment on “Dao et al. Retrospective Analysis of Real-World Data for the Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea with Slow Maxillary Expansion Using a Unique Expansion Dental Appliance (DNA). Pathophysiology 2023, 30, 199–208”
Pathophysiology 2023, 30(4), 482-483; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathophysiology30040036 - 08 Oct 2023
Viewed by 311
Abstract
In response to the commentary “Response to ‘Retrospective analysis of real-world data for the treatment of obstructive sleep apnea with slow maxillary expansion’” [...] Full article
2 pages, 183 KiB  
Comment
Comment on Dao et al. Retrospective Analysis of Real-World Data for the Treatment of Obstructive Sleep Apnea with Slow Maxillary Expansion Using a Unique Expansion Dental Appliance (DNA). Pathophysiology 2023, 30, 199–208
Pathophysiology 2023, 30(4), 480-481; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathophysiology30040035 - 07 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 266
Abstract
I found the recent article by Dao et al [...] Full article
13 pages, 1592 KiB  
Article
What Are the Causes of Death among Patients Admitted to a Contemporary Tertiary-Level Cardiology Department? An Analysis of 10 Years of Morbidity and Mortality Meetings
Pathophysiology 2023, 30(4), 467-479; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathophysiology30040034 - 30 Sep 2023
Viewed by 427
Abstract
Despite the efforts to deliver the best evidence-based care, in-hospital death is an inevitable event among some patients hospitalized in cardiology departments. We conducted a retrospective evaluation of mortality events from inpatient admissions to the cardiology department between 2010 and 2019. Data were [...] Read more.
Despite the efforts to deliver the best evidence-based care, in-hospital death is an inevitable event among some patients hospitalized in cardiology departments. We conducted a retrospective evaluation of mortality events from inpatient admissions to the cardiology department between 2010 and 2019. Data were collected from morbidity and mortality meeting presentations that evaluated comorbidities, medical history, treatments, and causes of death for the overall cohort and according to age group and sex. There were 1182 registered deaths. The most common causes of death among patients were acute myocardial infarction (AMI, 53.0%), heart failure (HF, 11.7%), cardiac arrest (CA, 6.6%), HF with complication/defined cardiomyopathy (6.3%), and sepsis (4.4%). We observed a decline in deaths from AMI from 61.9% in 2010 to 46.7% in 2019, while there was a clear increase in deaths from HF (11.1% in 2010 to 25.9% in 2019). Compared to patients ≥65 years, younger patients were more likely to have died from CA (15.7% vs. 4.3%, p < 0.001) and other cardiac reasons (3.0% vs. 0.4%, p < 0.001). The majority of deaths were due to AMI, HF, and CA. We observed a significant declining trend in the proportion of deaths due to AMI in recent years, with an increase in deaths due to HF. Full article
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24 pages, 731 KiB  
Review
CKD Urine Metabolomics: Modern Concepts and Approaches
Pathophysiology 2023, 30(4), 443-466; https://doi.org/10.3390/pathophysiology30040033 - 29 Sep 2023
Viewed by 817
Abstract
One of the primary challenges regarding chronic kidney disease (CKD) diagnosis is the absence of reliable methods to detect early-stage kidney damage. A metabolomic approach is expected to broaden the current diagnostic modalities by enabling timely detection and making the prognosis more accurate. [...] Read more.
One of the primary challenges regarding chronic kidney disease (CKD) diagnosis is the absence of reliable methods to detect early-stage kidney damage. A metabolomic approach is expected to broaden the current diagnostic modalities by enabling timely detection and making the prognosis more accurate. Analysis performed on urine has several advantages, such as the ease of collection using noninvasive methods and its lower protein and lipid content compared with other bodily fluids. This review highlights current trends in applied analytical methods, major discoveries concerning pathways, and investigated populations in the context of urine metabolomic research for CKD over the past five years. Also, we are presenting approaches, instrument upgrades, and sample preparation modifications that have improved the analytical parameters of methods. The onset of CKD leads to alterations in metabolism that are apparent in the molecular composition of urine. Recent works highlight the prevalence of alterations in the metabolic pathways related to the tricarboxylic acid cycle and amino acids. Including diverse patient cohorts, using numerous analytical techniques with modifications and the appropriate annotation and explanation of the discovered biomarkers will help develop effective diagnostic models for different subtypes of renal injury with clinical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Collection Feature Papers in Pathophysiology)
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