Topic Editors

School of Energy and Power Engineering, Shandong University, No.17923, Jingshi Rd., Jinan 250061, China
Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 11 Beisihuanxi Road, Beijing 100190, China

Zero Carbon Vehicles and Power Generation

Abstract submission deadline
closed (30 September 2023)
Manuscript submission deadline
closed (31 December 2023)
Viewed by
25147

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

Traditional fossil fuels, such as coal, oil, and natural gas, contribute most to the sustainable economic development of industrial sectors in the past few decades. The negative environmental and economic impacts, however, should be considered since fossil fuels will trigger CO2 emission problems, which are the main contributors to climate change. In order to cope with the energy and environment crisis, zero-carbon vehicles and power generation technologies are becoming one of the hot spots in both industry and academia. More and more researchers are entering the field, and the number of related papers is growing quickly. Thus, we are committed to providing a platform for high-quality papers in the field of zero-carbon vehicles and power generation. This topic focuses on fundamental and applied research which could help to reduce CO2 emissions. The topic includes but is not limited to:

  • Renewable energy vehicles and power generation technologies;
  • Multi-energy complement vehicles and power generation system;
  • Near-zero-emission clean combustion for vehicles and power generation;
  • Ammonia and hydrogen technologies in vehicles;
  • Thermal power plant peak-regulation technologies;
  • Storage technologies and systems related to vehicles and power generation;
  • Virtual vehicles and power plants.

Prof. Dr. Wenbin Yu
Prof. Dr. Guang Zeng
Topic Editors

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Batteries
batteries
4.0 5.4 2015 17.7 Days CHF 2700
Designs
designs
- 3.2 2017 16.4 Days CHF 1600
Energies
energies
3.2 5.5 2008 16.1 Days CHF 2600
Sustainability
sustainability
3.9 5.8 2009 18.8 Days CHF 2400
World Electric Vehicle Journal
wevj
2.3 3.7 2007 14.1 Days CHF 1400

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Published Papers (15 papers)

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18 pages, 4067 KiB  
Article
Waste from Electric Vehicle: A Bibliometric Analysis from 1995 to 2023
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(11), 300; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14110300 - 27 Oct 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1548
Abstract
The introduction of electric vehicles (EVs) represents a promising solution for addressing urban air pollution, particularly CO2 emissions in the transportation sector. Numerous countries are actively promoting EV adoption and the electrification of transportation systems, leading to a surge in research on [...] Read more.
The introduction of electric vehicles (EVs) represents a promising solution for addressing urban air pollution, particularly CO2 emissions in the transportation sector. Numerous countries are actively promoting EV adoption and the electrification of transportation systems, leading to a surge in research on EV-related topics. This study employs bibliometrics as a valuable tool to investigate the research landscape in electric vehicle waste management. Drawing from a dataset of 593 documents retrieved from SCOPUS from 1995 to 20 September 2023, this research employs descriptive analysis and bibliometric mapping techniques. Notably, China stands out as the leading contributor to publications, with Tsinghua University being a prominent research institution in this field. An examination of keyword trends reveals dynamic shifts in research focus. In 2023, the most frequently occurring topic is “closed loop”. “Recycling” is the dominant keyword, appearing 681 times. Additionally, TreeMaps and VOSviewer results indicate that the most commonly used keywords are “electronic waste” and “recycling”. Projections suggest that “recycling materials” will gain prominence in mid-2023, further highlighting the evolving nature of this research field. Researchers in recycling materials disciplines can leverage these insights to explore new research avenues and contribute to sustainable waste management practices in the context of electric vehicles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Zero Carbon Vehicles and Power Generation)
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18 pages, 842 KiB  
Article
Reasons Why Only Kuwaiti Citizens Drive Electric Vehicles despite Being Only a Quarter of the Population
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(10), 287; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14100287 - 10 Oct 2023
Viewed by 2112
Abstract
The adoption of fully battery-powered electric vehicles (EVs) in Kuwait is currently at less than one percent of the population, and hence Kuwait has the lowest index rank among countries around the globe. Effectively, only Kuwaiti nationals have the opportunity to own EVs, [...] Read more.
The adoption of fully battery-powered electric vehicles (EVs) in Kuwait is currently at less than one percent of the population, and hence Kuwait has the lowest index rank among countries around the globe. Effectively, only Kuwaiti nationals have the opportunity to own EVs, as there are no fast direct-current charging stations in Kuwait, and Kuwaiti landlords (expats cannot own real estate) do not allow the installation of EV-charging home wall boxes at their rented properties. Given these facts, this paper only focuses on the preferences of Kuwaiti nationals, even though they only constitute 25 percent of the population of Kuwait. To accomplish the present objectives, a quantitative descriptive method (closed-ended questions) was used to collect data from a sample of 227 Kuwaiti nationals who were representative of the owners of half a million internal combustion engine (ICE) cars and that were categorized as early majority consumers. The findings of the present study indicate that over 50 percent of the respondents would prefer to buy an EV in the following three years when certain criteria were satisfied, including government-controlled pricing policies and recharging point availability, high-speed roads, and free EV-dedicated parking spaces. Furthermore, over 40 percent of respondents stated that they would contemplate purchasing an electric vehicle if the price of gasoline or diesel increased by 19 to 50 percent. The findings also indicated that more than 40 percent of respondents believed that EVs are fire- and crash-safe, and roughly 50 percent of the respondents would be willing to pay between 6 and 20% more for an EV because they believe that EVs are ecofriendlier vehicles and are significantly faster than conventional petrol vehicles. Additionally, respondents rewarded those vehicles with an excellent mark because of their ecological, economical, and technological attributes and benefits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Zero Carbon Vehicles and Power Generation)
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26 pages, 8614 KiB  
Article
Formulation of a Jet Fuel Surrogate and Its Kinetic Chemical Mechanism by Emulating Physical and Chemical Properties of Real Jet Fuel
Sustainability 2023, 15(18), 13792; https://doi.org/10.3390/su151813792 - 15 Sep 2023
Viewed by 756
Abstract
The application of jet fuel in gas turbines and diesel engines adheres to the Army’s single-fuel forward policy, streamlining supply chains. To ensure precise engine combustion numerical studies, surrogate fuels and mechanisms should faithfully replicate real fuel properties and combustion traits. In this [...] Read more.
The application of jet fuel in gas turbines and diesel engines adheres to the Army’s single-fuel forward policy, streamlining supply chains. To ensure precise engine combustion numerical studies, surrogate fuels and mechanisms should faithfully replicate real fuel properties and combustion traits. In this work, a new four-component jet fuel surrogate containing 39.05% n-dodecane/21.79% isocetane/11.49% decalin/27.67% toluene by mole fraction is formulated based on a property optimizer. The new-formulated fuel surrogate can satisfactorily emulate the chemical and physical properties of real jet fuel, including cetane number (CN), threshold sooting index (TSI), molecular weight (MW), lower heating value (LHV), the ratio of hydrogen and carbon (H/C), liquid density, viscosity, and surface tension. Furthermore, a reduced and robust kinetic chemical mechanism (containing 124 species and 590 reactions) that could be directly employed in practical engine combustion simulations has also been developed for the proposed surrogate jet fuel. The mechanism is validated through comprehensive experimental data, including ignition delay time (IDT) determined in shock tubes and rapid compression machines (RCMs), species mole fractions measured in premixed flames and jet stirred reactors (JSRs), and laminar flame speeds. Generally, the property deviations of the jet fuel surrogate are less than 2% except for MW (10.73%), viscosity (5.88%), and surface tension (8.71%). The comparison results between the predictions and measurements are in good agreement, indicating that the current kinetic mechanism is capable of reflecting the oxidation process of real jet fuel. The current mechanism can accurately capture variations in the ignition delay time in the negative temperature coefficient (NTC) region as well. In the future, the proposed surrogate jet fuel could be applied in practical engine computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Zero Carbon Vehicles and Power Generation)
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20 pages, 6166 KiB  
Review
A Review of Current Advances in Ammonia Combustion from the Fundamentals to Applications in Internal Combustion Engines
Energies 2023, 16(17), 6304; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16176304 - 30 Aug 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1810
Abstract
The energy transition from hydrocarbon-based energy sources to renewable and carbon-free energy sources such as wind, solar and hydrogen is facing increasing demands. The decarbonization of global transportation could come true via applying carbon-free fuel such as ammonia, especially for internal combustion engines [...] Read more.
The energy transition from hydrocarbon-based energy sources to renewable and carbon-free energy sources such as wind, solar and hydrogen is facing increasing demands. The decarbonization of global transportation could come true via applying carbon-free fuel such as ammonia, especially for internal combustion engines (ICEs). Although ammonia has advantages of high hydrogen content, high octane number and safety in storage, it is uninflammable with low laminar burning velocity, thus limiting its direct usage in ICEs. The purpose of this review paper is to provide previous studies and current research on the current technical advances emerging in assisted combustion of ammonia. The limitation of ammonia utilization in ICEs, such as large minimum ignition energy, lower flame speed and more NOx emission with unburned NH3, could be solved by oxygen-enriched combustion, ammonia–hydrogen mixed combustion and plasma-assisted combustion (PAC). In dual-fuel or oxygen-enriched NH3 combustion, accelerated flame propagation speeds are driven by abundant radicals such as H and OH; however, NOx emission should be paid special attention. Furthermore, dissociating NH3 in situ hydrogen by non-noble metal catalysts or plasma has the potential to replace dual-fuel systems. PAC is able to change classical ignition and extinction S-curves to monotonic stretching, which makes low-temperature ignition possible while leading moderate NOx emissions. In this review, the underlying fundamental mechanism under these technologies are introduced in detail, providing new insight into overcoming the bottleneck of applying ammonia in ICEs. Finally, the feasibility of ammonia processing as an ICE power source for transport and usage highlights it as an appealing choice for the link between carbon-free energy and power demand. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Zero Carbon Vehicles and Power Generation)
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16 pages, 1062 KiB  
Review
Carbon Footprints of Active and Non-Active Transport Modes: Hierarchy and Intergenerational Narrative Analyses
Sustainability 2023, 15(17), 12795; https://doi.org/10.3390/su151712795 - 24 Aug 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 779
Abstract
This paper aimed to (1) develop a hierarchy for understanding the impacts of active and non-active transport modes on the environment and (2) analyse the adoption of active transportation between older and younger people. A narrative review with two parts was adopted to [...] Read more.
This paper aimed to (1) develop a hierarchy for understanding the impacts of active and non-active transport modes on the environment and (2) analyse the adoption of active transportation between older and younger people. A narrative review with two parts was adopted to develop the hierarchy. In the first part, a framework was adopted to map active and non-active transport modes onto three operational boundaries of greenhouse gas emission to develop the hierarchy. In the second part, an intergenerational theoretical framework was developed to analyse the adoption of active transportation between older and younger people. The review suggests that the only active transport modes with no or negligible carbon footprint are walking, running, and swimming without a product that adds to atmospheric greenhouse gases. The evidence that younger people perform higher active transportation behaviour is inconsistent and is, therefore, inconclusive. This review suggests a need for manufacturers to prioritise the production of active vehicles (e.g., wheelchairs and scooters) that are biodegradable, recyclable, and small. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Zero Carbon Vehicles and Power Generation)
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19 pages, 4945 KiB  
Article
Energy-Efficient Control of a Gas Turbine Power Generation System
Designs 2023, 7(4), 85; https://doi.org/10.3390/designs7040085 - 03 Jul 2023
Viewed by 2040
Abstract
Gas turbines are used in the energy sectors as propulsion and power generation technologies. Despite technological advances in power generation and the emergence of numerous energy resources, gas turbine technology remains important due to its flexibility in load demand following, dynamical behavior, and [...] Read more.
Gas turbines are used in the energy sectors as propulsion and power generation technologies. Despite technological advances in power generation and the emergence of numerous energy resources, gas turbine technology remains important due to its flexibility in load demand following, dynamical behavior, and the ability to work on different fuels with minor design changes. However, there would be no ambitious progress for gas turbines without reliable modeling and simulation. This paper describes a novel approach for modeling, identifying, and controlling a running gas turbine power plant. A simplified nonlinear model structure composed of s-domain transfer functions and nonlinear blocks represented by rate limiters, saturations, and look-up tables has been proposed. The model parameters have been optimized to fit real-world data. The verified model was then used to design a multiple PI/PD control to regulate the gas turbine via the inlet guide vane and fuel vales. The aim is to raise and stabilize the compressor’s differential pressure or pressure ratio, as well as raise the set-point of the temperature exhausted from the combustion turbine; as a result, energy efficiency has been improved by an average of 237.16 MWh saving in energy (or 8.96% reduction in fuel consumption) for a load range of 120 MW to 240 MW. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Zero Carbon Vehicles and Power Generation)
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16 pages, 2910 KiB  
Article
Optimal Hybridization with Minimum Fuel Consumption of the Hybrid Fuel Cell Train
Designs 2023, 7(2), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/designs7020045 - 16 Mar 2023
Viewed by 1424
Abstract
This paper describes a numerical study of the optimal distribution of energy between fuel cells and auxiliary energy storages in the hybrid train. Internal combustion engines (ICEs) are currently under pressure from environmental agencies due to their harmful gas emissions, and pure battery [...] Read more.
This paper describes a numerical study of the optimal distribution of energy between fuel cells and auxiliary energy storages in the hybrid train. Internal combustion engines (ICEs) are currently under pressure from environmental agencies due to their harmful gas emissions, and pure battery vehicles have a short range; a hybrid train powered by fuel cells, batteries, and supercapacitors can provide a viable propulsion solution. In this study, special energy management on the mountain railway with optimal power distribution and minimum hydrogen consumption is proposed. Considering the characteristics of the mountain railway, the vehicle uses recuperation of regenerative braking energy and thus charges additional power devices, and hybridization optimization gives favorable power to each power source device with a minimum consumption of hydrogen in the fuel cell. In this study, a simulation model was created in a Matlab/Simulink environment for the optimization of hybridized power systems on trains, and it can be easily modified for the hybridization of any type of train. Optimization was performed by using Sequential quadratic programming (SQP). The results show that this hybrid train topology has the ability to recover battery and supercapacitor state of charge (SOC) while meeting vehicle speed and propulsion power requirements. The effect of battery and supercapacitor parameters on power distribution and fuel consumption was also simulated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Zero Carbon Vehicles and Power Generation)
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22 pages, 1173 KiB  
Article
How to Cross the Chasm for the Electric Vehicle World’s Laggards—A Case Study in Kuwait
World Electr. Veh. J. 2023, 14(2), 45; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj14020045 - 08 Feb 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2271
Abstract
Ever since the discovery of oil in 1938, the State of Kuwait has increasingly sought out international brands in the car market due to the high purchasing power of Kuwaiti nationals. However, the makers of electric vehicles (EVs) have not been able to [...] Read more.
Ever since the discovery of oil in 1938, the State of Kuwait has increasingly sought out international brands in the car market due to the high purchasing power of Kuwaiti nationals. However, the makers of electric vehicles (EVs) have not been able to penetrate this market, with the exception of innovators and early adopters. The phenomenon in disruptive innovation theory—called “Crossing the Chasm”—regarding a mass market appeal has not yet occurred in Kuwait. Through deep interviews with 12 Kuwaiti owners of EVs and automotive dealers who sold either EVs or Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs), 10 key reasons for this phenomenon have been previously revealed, which were used to develop an extensive questionnaire. A total of 472 car drivers aged from 18 to 30, identified as the “early majority”, completed the questionnaire to achieve the objective of identifying the factors required to create a mass market for EVs in Kuwait. The results demonstrated that potential customers highly preferred three different types of attributes of EVs: environmental, financial, and technological. There were significant differences in the identified attributes preferred by Kuwaiti individuals for EVs in terms of the number of cars owned and the sector of employment. Moreover, the results of our study indicate that potential customers are very willing to buy EVs in the future, considering both their financial and infrastructure attributes. There were further significant differences in the identified necessary conditions to buy EVs in terms of educational level and monthly income. This study discusses a variety of valuable promotional tactics, which may be implemented in conjunction with public incentives and policy changes in the State of Kuwait. This information is considered useful for marketers and designers who wish to tap into this lucrative market, which is significantly different from that in the global North. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Zero Carbon Vehicles and Power Generation)
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16 pages, 4440 KiB  
Article
A High-Gain DC Side Converter with a Ripple-Free Input Current for Offshore Wind Energy Systems
Sustainability 2022, 14(18), 11574; https://doi.org/10.3390/su141811574 - 15 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1204
Abstract
Considering that the distance between offshore wind farms and onshore converters is getting farther and farther, dc transmission becomes increasingly more applicable than conventional ac transmission. To reduce the transmission loss, a feasible solution is using a high-gain dc/dc converter to boost the [...] Read more.
Considering that the distance between offshore wind farms and onshore converters is getting farther and farther, dc transmission becomes increasingly more applicable than conventional ac transmission. To reduce the transmission loss, a feasible solution is using a high-gain dc/dc converter to boost the rectified output voltage to thousands of volts. Thus, a novel single-switch high-gain dc/dc converter with a ripple-free input current is presented in this paper. The structure consists of two cells—a coupled-inductor cell and a switched-capacitor cell. The coupled-inductor cell in the proposed converter provides a ripple-free input current. The switched-capacitor cell provides a high voltage gain. The converter has a simple control strategy due to the use of a single switch. Moreover, the output capacitor is charged and discharged continuously by a 180° phase shift to eliminate the output voltage ripple. A steady-state analysis of the converter is proposed to determine the parameters of the devices. In addition, a 240 W, 40/308 V laboratory prototype at 35 kHz switching frequency has been developed, in which the input current ripple is only 1.1% and a peak efficiency of 94.5% is reached. The experimental results verify the validity and feasibility of the proposed topology. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Zero Carbon Vehicles and Power Generation)
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23 pages, 7516 KiB  
Article
Evaluation Method of Naturalistic Driving Behaviour for Shared-Electrical Car
Energies 2022, 15(13), 4625; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15134625 - 24 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1410
Abstract
Evaluation of driving behaviour is helpful for policy development, and for designing infrastructure and an intelligent safety system for a car. This study focused on a quantitative evaluation method of driving behaviour based on the shared-electrical car. The data were obtained from the [...] Read more.
Evaluation of driving behaviour is helpful for policy development, and for designing infrastructure and an intelligent safety system for a car. This study focused on a quantitative evaluation method of driving behaviour based on the shared-electrical car. The data were obtained from the OBD interface via CAN bus and transferred to a server by 4G network. Eleven types of NDS data were selected as the indexes for driving behaviour evaluation. Kullback–Leibler divergence was calculated to confirm the minimum data quantity and ensure the effectiveness of the analysis. The distribution of the main driving behaviour parameters was compared and the change trend of the parameters was analysed in conjunction with car speed to identify the threshold for recognition of aberrant driving behaviour. The weights of indexes were confirmed by combining the analytic hierarchy process and entropy weight method. The scoring rule was confirmed according to the distribution of the indexes. A score-based evaluation method was proposed and verified by the driving behaviour data collected from randomly chosen drivers. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Zero Carbon Vehicles and Power Generation)
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11 pages, 4009 KiB  
Article
Numerical Study on Aerodynamic Characteristics of Heavy-Duty Vehicles Platooning for Energy Savings and CO2 Reduction
Energies 2022, 15(12), 4390; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15124390 - 16 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1279
Abstract
This study aims to analyze the aerodynamic interaction between moving vehicles platooning with the change in the platooning conditions on a freeway. The effect of the vortex generated by the forward vehicle reduces the value of the stagnation pressure generated at the front [...] Read more.
This study aims to analyze the aerodynamic interaction between moving vehicles platooning with the change in the platooning conditions on a freeway. The effect of the vortex generated by the forward vehicle reduces the value of the stagnation pressure generated at the front of the rear vehicle, which effectively reduces drag on the driving vehicle. To elucidate this, a total of four vehicles were applied to platooning at a speed of 100 km/h by altering the gap distance of heavy-duty vehicles (HDVs) such as 0.5 Length (L), 1 L, 1.5 L, 2.0 L, and 2.5 L under the conditions of 1 L equal to 13.16 m. The stagnation pressure at the front of the following vehicle (FV) was reduced, and quantitative analysis of drag force generated at each leading vehicle (LV) and following vehicle that is platooning exhibited a reduction of about 51%, 56%, and 52%, respectively, when compared to the single moving HDV. This is considered as a reduction in engine power for the driving vehicle. Taken together, these results are effective in improving fuel efficiency and reducing CO2, a representative greenhouse gas, and predicting fuel and CO2 reduction based on HDV annual mileage according to the highway conditions and logistics. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Zero Carbon Vehicles and Power Generation)
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17 pages, 4669 KiB  
Article
Slope Estimation Method of Electric Vehicles Based on Improved Sage–Husa Adaptive Kalman Filter
Energies 2022, 15(11), 4126; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15114126 - 03 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1847
Abstract
In order to deal with many influence factors of electric vehicles in driving under complex conditions, this paper establishes the system state equation based on the longitudinal dynamics equation of vehicle. Combined with the improved Sage–Husa adaptive Kalman filter algorithm, the road slope [...] Read more.
In order to deal with many influence factors of electric vehicles in driving under complex conditions, this paper establishes the system state equation based on the longitudinal dynamics equation of vehicle. Combined with the improved Sage–Husa adaptive Kalman filter algorithm, the road slope estimation model is established. After the driving speed and rough slope observation are input into the slope estimation model, the accurate road slope estimation at the current time can be obtained. The road slope estimation method is compared with the original Sage–Husa adaptive Kalman filter road slope estimation method through three groups of road tests in different slope ranges, and the accuracy and stability advantages of the proposed algorithm in road conditions with large slopes are verified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Zero Carbon Vehicles and Power Generation)
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10 pages, 836 KiB  
Article
Integration of Electric Vehicles into Microgrids: Policy Implication for the Industrial Application of Carbon Neutralisation in China
World Electr. Veh. J. 2022, 13(6), 96; https://doi.org/10.3390/wevj13060096 - 26 May 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1922
Abstract
With the dynamic development of renewable energies, energy storage devices, and electric vehicles, microgrids have been playing an increasingly vital role in smart power grids. Under the recent development of carbon neutralisation, microgrid systems containing multiple clean energy sources have become significant modules [...] Read more.
With the dynamic development of renewable energies, energy storage devices, and electric vehicles, microgrids have been playing an increasingly vital role in smart power grids. Under the recent development of carbon neutralisation, microgrid systems containing multiple clean energy sources have become significant modules for energy conservation and emission reduction. Considering technological and environmental elements, we investigated the economic operation of microgrids with the integration of electric vehicles. In this paper, carbon trading mechanisms and operation scheduling strategies are analysed in the simulation models. Then, transaction costs and power balance are discussed. Industrial applications and policy implications are also presented. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Zero Carbon Vehicles and Power Generation)
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15 pages, 3181 KiB  
Article
Modeling of Non-Characteristic Third Harmonics Produced by Voltage Source Converter under Unbalanced Condition
Sustainability 2022, 14(11), 6449; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14116449 - 25 May 2022
Viewed by 1108
Abstract
A three-phase three-wire voltage source converter (VSC) can produce third harmonics when it is operated under an unbalanced condition. It is essential to understand the mechanism of the production of this third harmonic and to assess its impact on power systems. Therefore, this [...] Read more.
A three-phase three-wire voltage source converter (VSC) can produce third harmonics when it is operated under an unbalanced condition. It is essential to understand the mechanism of the production of this third harmonic and to assess its impact on power systems. Therefore, this paper presents an analytical model of the VSC under the unbalanced condition through mathematical derivations, and the final model is a coupled Thevenin circuit. The proposed model allows for direct computation of the non-characteristic third harmonics through harmonic power flow studies. The results show that VSC under unbalanced conditions emits both positive-sequence and negative-sequence third harmonics, and that the positive-sequence third harmonic is much larger than the negative-sequence third harmonic. It also shows that the unbalanced level and the size of the dc-link capacitor are critical to the level of non-characteristic third harmonics. The correctness of the proposed model and its application on noncharacteristic third harmonic evaluations have been verified using EMT simulations. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Zero Carbon Vehicles and Power Generation)
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15 pages, 6063 KiB  
Article
Research on Energy Saving of PHEV Air Conditioning System Based on Reducing Air Backflow in Underhood
Energies 2022, 15(9), 3183; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15093183 - 27 Apr 2022
Viewed by 1127
Abstract
A novel method characterizing the air backflow of the underhood in order to improve the thermal efficiency of the air conditioning system (ACS) and reduce the energy consumption of PHEV is proposed in this paper. In addition, a 1D model for analyzing air [...] Read more.
A novel method characterizing the air backflow of the underhood in order to improve the thermal efficiency of the air conditioning system (ACS) and reduce the energy consumption of PHEV is proposed in this paper. In addition, a 1D model for analyzing air backflow occurring in the underhood is established and a CFD method for calculating air backflow rate and distribution is proposed. It is found that the decrease in the air backflow rate of the underhood helps to improve the refrigeration capacity of the ACS, and when the backflow ratio cannot be reduced below 10%, the air backflow should be distributed as evenly as possible at the front end of the condenser. Moreover, in order to eliminate the impact of backflow on the underhood of PHEV, the gap between the radiator and the bracket is sealed and the gap around the air guide is reduced. Compared with the original structure, the backflow rate of the optimized structure is reduced from 32.7% to 9.3% and the cabin temperature can be reduced by 3–5 °C. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Zero Carbon Vehicles and Power Generation)
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