Topic Editors

College of Landscape Architecture & Arts, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, China
Department of Architecture, School of Design, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai, China
Dr. Zhi Gao
School of Architecture and Urban Planning, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China
Dr. Yongxin Xie
Research Assistant Professor, Department of Building Environment and Energy Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong 999077, China
Dr. Kuixing Liu
College of Architecture, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072, China

Bioclimatic Designs to Enhance Urban/Rural Resilience

Abstract submission deadline
closed (31 October 2023)
Manuscript submission deadline
closed (31 December 2023)
Viewed by
64571

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

Bioclimatic design, which combines “biology” and “climate”, is an innovative approach to the design of buildings and landscapes that is based on local climate and involves solar heating, sun shading, natural ventilation, and the use of building materials, as well as urban greening for thermal time lag and storage. As an extension of bioclimatic design, urban and rural resilient design prioritizes health and safety, preparing buildings, communities, and regions for natural disasters and climate change by adding precautionary measures.

Although some bioclimatic approaches have been widely studied and applied, there are still many new spaces worth exploring in the context of eco-civilization, human health, and carbon neutrality targets. For example, how can we apply climate science to “passive survivability” in architecture and urban designs confronting the evident trends of extreme weather and climate change? How can we apply bioclimatic design principles at multiple scales under the carbon neutral goal? How does bioclimatic design affect buildings, urban infrastructure, cities, rural settlements, and village capacity? These are important problems that need to be addressed through new studies on bioclimatic designs.

Therefore, this Topic aims to encourage new exploration into bioclimatics for its combined advantages of comfort, health, environmental well-being, and resilience to extreme weather. Both original research papers and review papers are welcomed. Relevant themes include, but are not limited to:

  • New interpretations of or improvements in bioclimatic design;
  • New technologies for bioclimatic design;
  • Bioclimatic techniques at multiple scales (building, community, urban, and region);
  • Occupant behaviors in bioclimatic design;
  • Bioclimatic design for carbon neutrality;
  • Outdoor thermal comfort conditions in diverse climate regions: simulation, field study, and surveying;
  • Thermal comfort integrated with other environmental factors (i.e., IAQ, lighting, and acoustics);
  • New thoughts on urban/rural resilient design;
  • Urban air quality and human health;
  • Design for resilience to climate change;
  • Green infrastructure and human health.

Dr. Bo Hong
Dr. Dayi Lai
Dr. Zhi Gao
Dr. Yongxin Xie
Dr. Kuixing Liu
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • bioclimatic design
  • urban/rural resilience
  • extreme weather event
  • urban climatology
  • indoor/outdoor thermal comfort
  • indoor environmental quality (IEQ)
  • thermal control strategy
  • urban air quality
  • sustainable building
  • green infrastructure

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Buildings
buildings
3.8 3.1 2011 14.6 Days CHF 2600
Forests
forests
2.9 4.5 2010 16.9 Days CHF 2600
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
ijerph
- 5.4 2004 29.6 Days CHF 2500
Land
land
3.9 3.7 2012 14.8 Days CHF 2600
Urban Science
urbansci
2.0 4.5 2017 23.7 Days CHF 1600

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Published Papers (32 papers)

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22 pages, 10115 KiB  
Article
A Comprehensive Study on Outdoor Thermal Comfort in Arid Urban Environments through Microclimatic Analysis of Urban Density
by Alaa Eddine Bacha, Atef Ahriz, Mohammad Alshenaifi, Sultan Alfraidi, Emad Noaime, Badr Alsolami, Aritra Ghosh, Soumia Bouzaher, Lambros T. Doulos and Abdelhakim Mesloub
Buildings 2024, 14(3), 700; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings14030700 - 06 Mar 2024
Viewed by 504
Abstract
Rapid urbanization across hot arid environments transforms local microclimates, yet linkages between density, layout, and outdoor thermal comfort remain inadequately characterized. This study investigates these correlations in the desert city of Biskra, Algeria. We conducted extensive in-situ measurement campaigns during peak summer and [...] Read more.
Rapid urbanization across hot arid environments transforms local microclimates, yet linkages between density, layout, and outdoor thermal comfort remain inadequately characterized. This study investigates these correlations in the desert city of Biskra, Algeria. We conducted extensive in-situ measurement campaigns during peak summer and winter periods across six neighborhoods spanning low to high-rise density fabrics. We captured air temperature, humidity, and wind velocity to enable thermal comfort assessment via the Effective Temperature (ET) and Equivalent Temperature (TEK) stress indices. Index sensitivity to density metrics from 23–86% was explored through One-Variable-At-A-Time (OVAT) analysis. Results show marked summer comfort deterioration with rising density due to constrained ventilation. However, higher densities demonstrate superior winter warmth through wind blocking despite reduced sunlight exposure. Sharp nonlinear differences emerge between seasons. Precision density thresholds prove difficult to define conclusively given typological diversities. However, indicative ranges tied to hazards are identified, providing guidelines for informed climatic adaptation. This research delivers vital evidence to advance bioclimatic strategies for enhancing habitability amidst urban expansion across delicate hot deserts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Bioclimatic Designs to Enhance Urban/Rural Resilience)
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22 pages, 8004 KiB  
Article
The Value of Traditional Ecological Knowledge in Stormwater Management: A Case Study of a Traditional Village
by Jiaxin Li, Wuzhong Zhou and Cong Tao
Land 2024, 13(2), 242; https://doi.org/10.3390/land13020242 - 16 Feb 2024
Viewed by 543
Abstract
In recent years, floods have occurred frequently in urban and rural areas around the world, causing heavy casualties and property damage. In contrast, some traditional Chinese villages have never flooded. It is hypothesized that these villages, because of their long-term adaptations to their [...] Read more.
In recent years, floods have occurred frequently in urban and rural areas around the world, causing heavy casualties and property damage. In contrast, some traditional Chinese villages have never flooded. It is hypothesized that these villages, because of their long-term adaptations to their environment, hold necessary ecological knowledge regarding stormwater management so that damaging flooding can be avoided. Previous studies on the traditional ecological knowledge regarding stormwater management in traditional Chinese villages are mostly qualitative studies, and these fail in their evaluation of the functional performance of stormwater management facilities and measures. Therefore, we use the Storm Water Management Model (SWMM) in our quantitative evaluation of stormwater management in Zhuge, a traditional Chinese village, so as to rationally analyze the traditional ecological knowledge regarding stormwater management in traditional Chinese villages. In order to analyze the functions and efficiency of stormwater management facilities such as ponds, canals, and permeable pavement in Zhuge Village, this study sets out four scenarios: the No Pond Scenario (NO-PO), the No Canal Scenario (NO-CO), the No Permeable Pavement Scenario (NO-PP), and the actual Current Scenario (CS). The SWMM is used to simulate and quantitatively analyze the stormwater hydrological processes of the four scenarios in different rainfall return periods. The following conclusions emerged from our evaluation of the approaches used in Zhuge Village: (1) The rainwater regulation system composed of ponds, canals, and permeable pavement can play a dual role in alleviating rainstorm disasters and fully storing rainwater, achieving the flexible allocation of rainwater resources. It can effectively alleviate the problem of uneven time and space of local rainfall in shallow, hilly areas, reflecting the traditional ecological wisdom of residents in adapting to the local natural environment. (2) As a rainwater regulation device, ponds are very effective in storing water and mitigating periods of intense runoff. (3) The main function of canals is to rapidly drain water and balance rainwater resources. (4) The main function of permeable pavement is to increase rainwater infiltration and reduce the peak runoff and runoff. (5) The use of the SWMM proved effective in both quantifying the results as well as elucidating stormwater management strategies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Bioclimatic Designs to Enhance Urban/Rural Resilience)
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20 pages, 5206 KiB  
Article
Spatiotemporal Characteristics and Influencing Factors of Urban Heat Island Based on Geographically Weighted Regression Model: A Case Study of Urumqi City
by Yunfei Ma, Yusuyunjiang Mamitimin, Bahejiayinaer Tiemuerbieke, Rebiya Yimaer, Meiling Huang, Han Chen, Tongtong Tao and Xinyi Guo
Land 2023, 12(11), 2012; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12112012 - 02 Nov 2023
Viewed by 860
Abstract
Rapid urbanization threatens the ecological environment and quality of life by significantly altering land use and land cover (LULC) and heat distribution. One of the most significant environmental consequences of urbanization is the urban heat island effect (UHI). This study investigated the spatiotemporal [...] Read more.
Rapid urbanization threatens the ecological environment and quality of life by significantly altering land use and land cover (LULC) and heat distribution. One of the most significant environmental consequences of urbanization is the urban heat island effect (UHI). This study investigated the spatiotemporal characteristics of the SUHI and its relationship with land use types from 2000 to 2020 in Urumqi City, located in an arid and semi-arid region of northwestern China. Additionally, the ordinary least squares (OLS) and geographically weighted regression (GWR) models were used to quantify the relationship between the land surface temperature (LST) and influencing factors. The results showed that the area of the lower surface temperature classes has decreased significantly. In comparison, the area of the higher surface temperature classes has experienced a steady rise over the last two decades. From 2000 to 2020, the share of the area occupied by the temperature range <30 °C decreased by 67.09%. In addition, the LST varied significantly from one category of land use to another. The average LST of built-up land and unused land was higher than the average LST of other land use types in all years, while the average LST of grassland, forest land, and water bodies was significantly lower. Finally, the results of the GWR model showed that R2 and adjusted R2 of the GWR were 0.75 and 0.73, obviously larger than the 0.58 of the OLS models. The GWR model’s higher R2 and adjusted R2 compared to the OLS model indicates that the relationship between LST and the influencing factors underlying the model may exhibit spatial non-stationarity, and the GWR model performs better than the OLS model. The results of both OLS and GWR models show that the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and slope were negatively correlated with LST, while the urban index (UI) and normalized difference built-up index (NDBI) were positively correlated with LST. The findings of the study indicate that increasing green spaces and limiting the unplanned expansion of urban areas are effective measures to mitigate the UHIs in the study area. The results of the study may provide valuable insights into the spatiotemporal characteristics of the UHI and its drivers. Understanding the spatiotemporal characteristics of the UHI can help urban planners, policymakers, and scientists develop more effective urban cooling strategies and improve the urban thermal environment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Bioclimatic Designs to Enhance Urban/Rural Resilience)
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4 pages, 174 KiB  
Correction
Correction: Shao et al. Outdoor Cold Stress and Cold Risk for Children during Winter: A Study in China’s Severe Cold Regions. Buildings 2022, 12, 936
by Long Shao, Xiaoyun He, Yuexing Tang and Shenglong Wu
Buildings 2023, 13(9), 2344; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13092344 - 15 Sep 2023
Viewed by 370
Abstract
It is very unfortunate that there were mistakes in the original publication [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Bioclimatic Designs to Enhance Urban/Rural Resilience)
24 pages, 26050 KiB  
Review
Research Progress of Urban Park Microclimate Based on Quantitative Statistical Software
by Jiayi Lin, Yuqian Deng, Sibo Chen, Kaiyuan Li, Wenli Ji and Weizhong Li
Buildings 2023, 13(9), 2335; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13092335 - 14 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1150
Abstract
Urban parks, as an important component of urban green spaces, play a crucial role in improving the urban environment and enhancing residents’ quality of life. This review summarizes the main content and research progress of urban park microclimate studies through analysis and synthesis [...] Read more.
Urban parks, as an important component of urban green spaces, play a crucial role in improving the urban environment and enhancing residents’ quality of life. This review summarizes the main content and research progress of urban park microclimate studies through analysis and synthesis of relevant literature from academic databases such as Web of Science and Google Scholar. Using Citespace or VOSviewer for bibliometric analysis, we found that the number of academic papers on the urban park microclimate has been growing year by year. The research content primarily covers the monitoring and analysis of temperature, humidity, wind speed, and other indicators in urban parks, as well as the impact of park design and planning on the microclimate. Keyword analysis revealed that researchers have mainly focused on the cooling effects of the urban park microclimate, mitigation of the urban heat island effect, and improvement of air quality. In terms of research methods, a combination of field observations and simulation models is commonly employed, with data being analyzed and validated using mathematical and statistical methods. The research results indicate that well-designed and planned parks can significantly improve the microclimate environment, reduce temperatures, and provide comfortable climatic conditions in urban areas. Additionally, vegetation arrangements and water features in urban parks also contribute to microclimate regulation. Moreover, windbreak measures and cooling strategies in parks can help alleviate the urban heat island effect, enhance air quality, and promote the health of ecosystems. However, this review also identified some issues in urban park microclimate research, including limitations in research scope, methods, and practical applicability. Future studies could deepen the comprehensive understanding of the urban park microclimate and explore more effective strategies for park design and planning to optimize and enhance the microclimate environment. It is also important for researchers to continuously innovate in terms of research methods and verify the feasibility of practical applications to better address the challenges of urban development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Bioclimatic Designs to Enhance Urban/Rural Resilience)
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26 pages, 12357 KiB  
Article
Thermal Comfort in Urban Open Green Spaces: A Parametric Optimization Study in China’s Cold Region
by Jiayi Lin, Songlin Jiang, Shuangyu Zhang, Siyu Yang, Wenli Ji and Weizhong Li
Buildings 2023, 13(9), 2329; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13092329 - 14 Sep 2023
Viewed by 1091
Abstract
In this study, typical open spaces were selected in the urban area of Lanzhou, China, with varying distances from the Yellow River and different plant configuration spaces. Then, the thermal perception of respondents was investigated through meteorological measurements, thermal comfort questionnaires, and parametric [...] Read more.
In this study, typical open spaces were selected in the urban area of Lanzhou, China, with varying distances from the Yellow River and different plant configuration spaces. Then, the thermal perception of respondents was investigated through meteorological measurements, thermal comfort questionnaires, and parametric modeling. The findings indicate the following: (1) Wind speed decreases significantly as the distance from the Yellow River increases in the three open green spaces. (2) The cold lake effect of the Yellow River dominates the wind environment. (3) The closest site to the Yellow River exhibits the strongest correlation between wind speed and the respondents’ thermal sensation. (4) There is a strong positive correlation between the model output and different spatial measurement values. (5) There is a certain discrepancy between the UTCI values and the actual measurements, but the fit is high and consistent with an R-squared value of 0.936. This study quantitatively evaluated the thermal comfort and perception in typical spaces and validated the reliability of parameterized modeling for such spaces, providing a reference basis for thermal environment planning in these spaces. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Bioclimatic Designs to Enhance Urban/Rural Resilience)
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18 pages, 5144 KiB  
Article
Thermal Comfort Influences Positive Emotions but Not Negative Emotions When Visiting Green Spaces during Summer
by Jiaqi Niu, Jiangpeng Xiong, Hongqiao Qin, Haoyan Wu, Kai Zhang, Jie Yan, Lin Ye and Guifeng Han
Forests 2023, 14(8), 1512; https://doi.org/10.3390/f14081512 - 25 Jul 2023
Viewed by 1341
Abstract
Emotional responses are psychological responses produced by multiple stimuli. This study aimed to clarify the effects of thermal comfort on emotions in green spaces with different characteristics in summer. Four green spaces were selected in an urban park in Chongqing, China, and 919 [...] Read more.
Emotional responses are psychological responses produced by multiple stimuli. This study aimed to clarify the effects of thermal comfort on emotions in green spaces with different characteristics in summer. Four green spaces were selected in an urban park in Chongqing, China, and 919 residents completed questionnaires. The questionnaire consisted of a thermal sensation vote (TSV) and a Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). Positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) are two dimensions included in the PANAS, both with scores ranging from 10 to 50. In parallel with the questionnaire, meteorological measurements were taken, and the collected data were used for thermal environment simulation to obtain physiological equivalent temperatures (PET). The results showed that the effect of thermal comfort in green spaces on PA far exceeded that of NA. PET increased from 20 °C to 55 °C, the average PA decreased by 7.2 scores, and NA did not change significantly. The negative effect of PET on PA was significant in less-shaded spaces, and the positive effect on NA was significant in well-shaded spaces with a high visible green index. PET mainly influences the emotions of being strong, proud, inspired, active, and attentive in PA and distressed, irritable, and afraid in NA. Emotions became less susceptible to PET and TSV as individuals aged. PET at 31–33 °C favored PA for people of all ages. This study provided practical information about thermal comfort and the design of green spaces with the goal of promoting mental health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Bioclimatic Designs to Enhance Urban/Rural Resilience)
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17 pages, 7025 KiB  
Article
Spatial-Temporal Evolution and Prediction of Carbon Storage in Areas Rich in Ancient Remains: A Case Study of the Zhouyuan Region, China
by Jian Chen, Xiaoxiao Zhang, Kai Wang, Zhenguo Yan, Wei Zhang, Lixin Niu and Yanlong Zhang
Land 2023, 12(6), 1266; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12061266 - 20 Jun 2023
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1048
Abstract
In the past few decades, human activities have caused the emission of large amounts of carbon dioxide, which has severely impacted the Earth’s ecosystem and human health. Therefore, carbon reduction has become the focus of global attention. In this study, the Zhouyuan region [...] Read more.
In the past few decades, human activities have caused the emission of large amounts of carbon dioxide, which has severely impacted the Earth’s ecosystem and human health. Therefore, carbon reduction has become the focus of global attention. In this study, the Zhouyuan region of China, which is rich in ancient remains, is taken as an example. Based on the land use characteristics in 1990, 2000, 2010, and 2020, the spatial-temporal evolution of land use and carbon storage in the Zhouyuan region is simulated using four methods, including land use classification, land use transfer maps, patch-level land-use simulation (PLUS), and the integrated valuation of ecosystem services and trade-offs (InVEST) models under three scenarios, including the natural development scenario, urban development priority, and heritage conservation priority in 2030. According to the results, the carbon storage in the area in 2030 under all three scenario simulations has decreased compared with 2020, indicating that the region faces great challenges in achieving its targets of carbon peak and carbon neutrality. The paper points out four causes for the decrease in carbon storage, and five suggestions for increasing carbon storage are proposed, such as developing a carbon storage master plan, applying energy-saving technologies, establishing an ecological substitution mechanism, and so on. Through the study of carbon storage in the Zhouyuan region, this paper hopes to establish a mechanism to balance urban development, heritage conservation, and carbon sinks on the one hand, and encourage more scholars to participate in the study of carbon sinks in areas rich in ancient remains, so as to to jointly promote their healthy development on the other. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Bioclimatic Designs to Enhance Urban/Rural Resilience)
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15 pages, 2044 KiB  
Article
Physiological Effects of a Garden Plant Smellscape from the Perspective of Perceptual Interaction
by Xinguo Zhang, Jiayu Guo, Xiaowan Zhang and Qixiang Zhang
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2023, 20(6), 5004; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph20065004 - 12 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1618
Abstract
The purpose of this study was to investigate the physiological recovery effects of olfactory, visual and olfactory–visual stimuli associated with garden plants. In a randomized controlled study design, ninety-five Chinese university students were randomly selected to be exposed to stimulus materials, namely the [...] Read more.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the physiological recovery effects of olfactory, visual and olfactory–visual stimuli associated with garden plants. In a randomized controlled study design, ninety-five Chinese university students were randomly selected to be exposed to stimulus materials, namely the odor of Osmanthus fragrans and a corresponding panoramic image of a landscape featuring the plant. Physiological indexes were measured by the VISHEEW multiparameter biofeedback instrument and a NeuroSky EEG tester in a virtual simulation laboratory. The results showed the following: (1) In the olfactory stimulation group, from before to during exposure to the stimuli, the subjects’ diastolic blood pressure (DBP) (ΔDBP = 4.37 ± 1.69 mmHg, p < 0.05) and pulse pressure (PP) values increased (ΔPP = −4.56 ± 1.24 mmHg, p < 0.05), while their pulse (p) values decreased (ΔP = −2.34 ± 1.16 bmp, p < 0.05) significantly. When compared to the control group, only the amplitudes of α and β brainwaves increased significantly (Δα = 0.37 ± 2.09 µV, Δβ = 0.34 ± 1.01 µV, p < 0.05). (2) In the visual stimulation group, the amplitudes of skin conductance (SC) (ΔSC = 0.19 ± 0.01 µΩ, p < 0.05), α brainwaves (Δα = 6.2 ± 2.26 µV, p < 0.05) and β brainwaves (Δβ = 5.51 ± 1.7 µV, p < 0.05) all increased significantly relative to the control group. (3) In the olfactory–visual stimulus group, DBP (ΔDBP = 3.26 ± 0.45 mmHg, p < 0.05) values increased, and PP values decreased (ΔPP = −3.48 ± 0.33 bmp, p < 0.05) significantly from before to during exposure to the stimuli. The amplitudes of SC (ΔSC = 0.45 ± 0.34 µΩ, p < 0.05), α brainwaves (Δα = 2.28 ± 1.74 µV, p < 0.05) and β brainwaves (Δβ = 1.4 ± 0.52 µV, p < 0.05) all increased significantly relative to the control group. The results of this study show that the interaction of olfactory and visual stimuli associated with a garden plant odor landscape was able to relax and refresh the body to a certain extent, and this physiological health effect was greater with regards to the integrated response of the autonomic nervous system and central nervous system than the effect of only smelling or viewing the stimuli. In the planning and designing of plant smellscapes in garden green space, it should be ensured that plant odors and corresponding landscapes are present at the same time in order to ensure the best health effect. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Bioclimatic Designs to Enhance Urban/Rural Resilience)
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24 pages, 6006 KiB  
Article
The Right Activities at Right Spaces: Relationships between Elderly Adults’ Physical Activities and Thermal Responses
by Tingting Yuan, Bo Hong, Yichen Li, Yanbo Wang and Yayun Wang
Buildings 2023, 13(3), 721; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings13030721 - 09 Mar 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1158
Abstract
In this study, the physiological and thermal responses of 54 healthy elderly adults during horticultural activities with various intensities (low, moderate, and high) in three typical open spaces were investigated through meteorological measurements, questionnaires, and physiological monitoring. Physiological equivalent temperature (PET), blood pressure, [...] Read more.
In this study, the physiological and thermal responses of 54 healthy elderly adults during horticultural activities with various intensities (low, moderate, and high) in three typical open spaces were investigated through meteorological measurements, questionnaires, and physiological monitoring. Physiological equivalent temperature (PET), blood pressure, heart rate, oxygen saturation, and ear canal temperature were used as physiological evaluation indices. The results showed that: (1) the proportional changes before and after thermal sensation vote (TSV) and thermal comfort vote (TCV) activities were positively correlated with the spatial characteristics and metabolic levels of outdoor activities in summer; (2) physiological indices were almost constant during low-intensity horticultural activities and significantly different before and after moderate-intensity and vigorous-intensity horticultural activities; (3) when the intensity of horticultural activities changed from low to moderate, the neutral PET (NPET) decreased to 25.29 and 26.82 °C, respectively, whereas the NPET increased to 23.97 °C during vigorous intensity; (4) heart rate (HR) and diastolic blood pressure (SBP) were positively correlated with metabolic rate for the elderly; (5) a moderate sky view factor space was more suitable for the elderly to participate in during outdoor horticultural activities in summer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Bioclimatic Designs to Enhance Urban/Rural Resilience)
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11 pages, 1019 KiB  
Article
Evaluating the Landscape Quality of Residential Communities: A Case Study of the Chinese City Yangling
by Xiu-Juan Qiao, Yizhi Liu and Jing Feng
Land 2023, 12(1), 57; https://doi.org/10.3390/land12010057 - 25 Dec 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1508
Abstract
Due to continuous urbanization and an increasing need to improve living quality, citizens’ pursuit of landscape quality in residential communities is constantly improving in developing countries, e.g., China. This is especially true in the period when citizens were locked down in their home [...] Read more.
Due to continuous urbanization and an increasing need to improve living quality, citizens’ pursuit of landscape quality in residential communities is constantly improving in developing countries, e.g., China. This is especially true in the period when citizens were locked down in their home cities or communities in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Studying whether the current landscape in residential communities still meets citizens’ needs is of significance as it is crucial for city planners, landscape architects, and city managers. In this study, we used the analytic hierarchy process method to evaluate the landscape quality of five residential communities, using the case city of Yangling, China. In total, 516 valid questionnaires were collected in May 2022. The results showed that good organization of residential roads and pedestrian systems, the rationality of rest facilities, and the hierarchical richness of plants were the most important aspects for residents. Based on these, optimization design strategies were summarized. We hope to provide a reference for future landscape optimization of existing residential communities, especially in developing countries. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Bioclimatic Designs to Enhance Urban/Rural Resilience)
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24 pages, 9530 KiB  
Article
Influence of Urban Geometry on Thermal Environment of Urban Street Canyons in Hong Kong
by Shanshan Zhu, Mingyue Chen, Shiyao Lu and Xianmin Mai
Buildings 2022, 12(11), 1836; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12111836 - 01 Nov 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1669
Abstract
Hong Kong is a typical high-density city in a subtropical climate region, and deep street canyons are among the main features of its urban planning. How the urban geometry influences the urban thermal environment in this city has become a hot topic these [...] Read more.
Hong Kong is a typical high-density city in a subtropical climate region, and deep street canyons are among the main features of its urban planning. How the urban geometry influences the urban thermal environment in this city has become a hot topic these days. The height-to-width ratio (H/W) and sky view factor (SVF) are commonly used to indicate the outdoor thermal environment performance, while previous studies in Hong Kong rarely analysed the importance bias of these two influencing factors systematically in this context. To fill this research gap, in this paper, we chose four typical sites in Hong Kong as research objects. Firstly, we conducted a field investigation to calculate the main influencing factors of urban street geometry (H/W and SVF) and then used field measurements to collect climatic data, including air temperature, wind speed, and relative humidity, and finally used regression to analyse the correlation between H/W, SVF, and temperature. The results indicate the following: (1) There is a greater correlation between H/W and air temperature than between SVF and air temperature by regression analysis, and H/W is more effective at improving the thermal environment within urban street canyons. (2) After field measurements, it was found that H/W at the measurement sites was 0.60 to 6.02, with an average of 2.13. (3) In the study area, H/W of 2.31–2.48 and 3.35–3.60 had a positive correlation with air temperature, and H/W had a dominant influence on outdoor air temperature, and H/W of 2.09–2.31 and H/W > 3.60 was inversely related to air temperature. The conclusions can provide support for urban planning in Hong Kong. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Bioclimatic Designs to Enhance Urban/Rural Resilience)
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24 pages, 4929 KiB  
Review
A Literature Survey of Local Climate Zone Classification: Status, Application, and Prospect
by Wenyun Feng and Jianjun Liu
Buildings 2022, 12(10), 1693; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12101693 - 14 Oct 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 3789
Abstract
Rapid urban expansion and climate change have prompted further investigations into urban thermal climates and the development of local climate zone (LCZ) classification systems. LCZs, proposed 10 years ago, comprise a new and systematic classification of field sites for heat island studies to [...] Read more.
Rapid urban expansion and climate change have prompted further investigations into urban thermal climates and the development of local climate zone (LCZ) classification systems. LCZs, proposed 10 years ago, comprise a new and systematic classification of field sites for heat island studies to provide a reference for future LCZ research, so that scholars can understand what research has been done and identify future research trends. We analyzed LCZ studies in a database from 2012 to the present, and identified recurring themes using VOSviewer software, including LCZ mapping, measurement methods, thermal environments, and outdoor thermal comfort, among others. A systematic evaluation was performed using bibliometric analysis in the PRISMA framework—190 relevant studies were selected for subsequent analysis. Descriptive analysis showed that LCZ research has received increasing attention, particularly in China, where more than 60% of the LCZ studies were conducted. The results showed that the maximum number of articles on all themes was 57 articles on LCZ mapping, followed by studies of the thermal environment (UHI/SLT). It is hoped that this article will provide scholars in this area with an understanding of the research that has been conducted and the methods used, and provide insight into future research directions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Bioclimatic Designs to Enhance Urban/Rural Resilience)
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17 pages, 3029 KiB  
Article
Carbon Sink Performance Evaluation and Socioeconomic Effect of Urban Aggregated Green Infrastructure Based on Sentinel-2A Satellite
by Shuoqi Cheng, Xiancheng Huang, Yu Chen, Hangna Dong and Jing Li
Forests 2022, 13(10), 1661; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13101661 - 10 Oct 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1595
Abstract
Aggregated green infrastructure is the only element that has a relatively concentrated and well-functioning carbon sink in the city. It plays an important role in achieving carbon neutrality in urban areas with dense functions and scarce carbon sink resources. However, in contrast to [...] Read more.
Aggregated green infrastructure is the only element that has a relatively concentrated and well-functioning carbon sink in the city. It plays an important role in achieving carbon neutrality in urban areas with dense functions and scarce carbon sink resources. However, in contrast to other regions, aggregated green infrastructure carbon sink performance is more influenced by socioeconomic activities in urban centres. There is a lack of research on the impact between carbon sink performance and socioeconomic activities at the urban scale. In this study, we evaluated the carbon sink performance (i.e., carbon sink and location entropy) of aggregated green infrastructure and its interaction with socioeconomic activities at the urban scale based on Sentinel-2A satellite. The results showed that: (1) Aggregate green infrastructures with high carbon sink performance have significant aggregation characteristics in urban areas. (2) Aggregated green infrastructure with poor carbon sink performance tended to be surrounded by dense socioeconomic activities. Our study provides a new approach to the assessment of carbon sink performance of aggregated green infrastructure at the urban scale. More importantly, we make a new attempt to assess the association between carbon sink performance and socioeconomic activities of urban aggregated green infrastructure. These results point to a new direction for the realization of carbon neutrality in cities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Bioclimatic Designs to Enhance Urban/Rural Resilience)
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21 pages, 10703 KiB  
Article
Effects of Acoustic Perception on Outdoor Thermal Comfort in Campus Open Spaces in China’s Cold Region
by Huiying Chen, Bo Hong, Hongyun Qu, Yubo Geng and Meifang Su
Buildings 2022, 12(10), 1518; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12101518 - 23 Sep 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2086
Abstract
To explore the effects of acoustic perception on outdoor thermal comfort, acoustic perception in five typical open spaces in a campus in China’s cold region with common soundscapes was evaluated by using meteorological measures, sound level devices, and a questionnaire survey. Eight adjectives [...] Read more.
To explore the effects of acoustic perception on outdoor thermal comfort, acoustic perception in five typical open spaces in a campus in China’s cold region with common soundscapes was evaluated by using meteorological measures, sound level devices, and a questionnaire survey. Eight adjectives were used to evaluate an individual’s acoustic perception, and the physiological equivalent temperature (PET) was selected as a thermal index. The correlations between acoustic perception and thermal comfort in these typical open spaces were further analyzed. We demonstrated that: (1) Acoustic sensation and comfort varied significantly among sound types (STPs). Respondents reported pleasant perceptions of broadcasting music, running water and birdsong, and wind (a gentle breeze) and insects. (2) Although there was no significant difference in the thermal sensation vote (TSV), we found large differences in the thermal comfort vote (TCV) among STPs. (3) The respondents’ neutral PET (NPET) varied among STPs. In autumn, the ranked order of NPET was machines > running water and birdsong > crowds > broadcasting music > wind (a gentle breeze) and insects. In winter, the order of the NPET was machines > wind (a gentle breeze) and insects > crowds > broadcasting music > running water and birdsong. (4) When people perceived “acoustic comfort”, their TSV improved, and vice versa. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Bioclimatic Designs to Enhance Urban/Rural Resilience)
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26 pages, 8801 KiB  
Article
A Comparative Study of the Simulation Accuracy and Efficiency for the Urban Wind Environment Based on CFD Plug-Ins Integrated into Architectural Design Platforms
by Yongyu Hu, Fusuo Xu and Zhi Gao
Buildings 2022, 12(9), 1487; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12091487 - 19 Sep 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2506
Abstract
The deterioration of the urban environment is a problem which has captured the attention of governmental departments and researchers, who are committed to improving the urban environment from the perspective of optimizing urban morphology. Although many researchers have applied computational fluid dynamics (CFD) [...] Read more.
The deterioration of the urban environment is a problem which has captured the attention of governmental departments and researchers, who are committed to improving the urban environment from the perspective of optimizing urban morphology. Although many researchers have applied computational fluid dynamics (CFD) plug-ins to study the problems of urban ventilation and pollutant accumulation, studies on the reliability and simulation accuracy verification of CFD plug-ins are currently scarce. Therefore, we used three CFD plug-ins based on different architectural design platforms to evaluate and compare their operation difficulty, simulation accuracy, and efficiency through the analysis of the simulation results of urban ventilation. This study complements the reliability validation of CFD plug-in simulations and guides urban planners and architects in the selection and application of CFD plug-ins. The results show that the CFD plug-in generally underestimates the wind speed at the pedestrian level and the prediction accuracy is poor in the wake area of obstacles, especially with the GH_Wind plug-in. Under the 0° inflow direction, the simulation results of the Butterfly plug-in were the most consistent with the experimental values. When the inflow direction increased to 22.5° and 45°, the Autodesk CFD showed the best simulation accuracy. Overall, Autodesk CFD achieves a balance between simulation accuracy and speed in urban airflow simulation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Bioclimatic Designs to Enhance Urban/Rural Resilience)
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19 pages, 3393 KiB  
Article
An Evaluation Model of Riparian Landscape: A Case in Rural Qingxi Area, Shanghai
by Ling Wang, Mengting Ge, Naiguang Chen, Jiahui Ding and Xiwei Shen
Land 2022, 11(9), 1512; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11091512 - 08 Sep 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 1664
Abstract
The suburbs around Shanghai have a complex river network and a unique Chinese water-town culture. The riparian landscape in the rural Qingxi area has important regional, ecological, and social significance; it serves as an important part of the local bioclimate, but the existing [...] Read more.
The suburbs around Shanghai have a complex river network and a unique Chinese water-town culture. The riparian landscape in the rural Qingxi area has important regional, ecological, and social significance; it serves as an important part of the local bioclimate, but the existing studies on river vegetation did not pay enough attention to the riparian landscape in the countryside around the metropolis. The goal of this study was to examine a comprehensive evaluation model for the river plant landscape in the countryside surrounding a high-density metropolis such as Shanghai in the face of the national policy of rural revitalization and the low-carbon development problem, and to propose optimization strategies accordingly. Therefore, in this study, we selected 91 rivers in the Qingxi area and investigated their plant communities. According to the characteristics of the riparian landscape and its relationship with the river environment and local bioclimate, we classified the 91 riparian landscapes into four types of quadrats: natural landscape, residential recreation, roadside linear landscape, and agricultural landscape. In addition, based on the 13 indicator layers under the categories of ecological carrying capacity, landscape beauty, and social service, we calculated the comprehensive evaluation value (CEV) and comprehensive evaluation index (CEI) of 91 river quadrants using specific formulas to scientifically evaluate the riparian landscape in the rural Qingxi area of Shanghai. Finally, based on the existing problems summarized through data analysis, the researchers proposed five optimization directions: (1) increasing vegetation diversity, (2) choosing native and culturally representative species, (3) improving waterfront planting design, (4) achieving ecological riverbank construction, and (5) building greenway systems and recreational spaces. This study proposed an innovative evaluation model for the riparian vegetation landscape and tested its feasibility by site survey, which provided new visions for future rural landscape research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Bioclimatic Designs to Enhance Urban/Rural Resilience)
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21 pages, 23160 KiB  
Article
The Effect of Village Morphological Variation Caused by Economic Development on Residents’ Health and Rural Ventilation in Tianjin
by Fusuo Xu, Zhi Gao, Yuchen Xing, Zihao Wu, Jianshun Zhang, Yimin Liao and Yongyu Hu
Buildings 2022, 12(9), 1393; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12091393 - 06 Sep 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1500
Abstract
Many multi-story residential buildings have been built in villages to improve the living quality of rural residents in China. Therefore, village morphology has dramatically changed compared to the past. Since northern China continues to suffer from environmental problems, improving village ventilation by optimizing [...] Read more.
Many multi-story residential buildings have been built in villages to improve the living quality of rural residents in China. Therefore, village morphology has dramatically changed compared to the past. Since northern China continues to suffer from environmental problems, improving village ventilation by optimizing village morphology is essential for creating a good rural environment. In this study, 17 morphology models were categorized based on 383 actual villages in Tianjin. In addition, the ventilation capacity of courtyards and streets and residents’ health risks of different morphology cases were analyzed. For the northwest wind direction, the ventilation capacity of the courtyards in the northern part of the village can be improved when there are multi-story residences in the north or west of the village. Accordingly, in the southeast wind direction, multi-story buildings in the south or east of the village can improve the courtyard ventilation in the southern part of the village. In addition, multi-story buildings in the west or east of the village can form ventilation corridors in the northwest or southeast wind direction. The morphologies without multi-story buildings in the west or east of the village were recommended to be applied in the village planning in Tianjin due to good ventilation capacity and low exposure risks. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Bioclimatic Designs to Enhance Urban/Rural Resilience)
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20 pages, 4012 KiB  
Article
Assessing Effects of Urban Greenery on the Regulation Mechanism of Microclimate and Outdoor Thermal Comfort during Winter in China’s Cold Region
by Kun Wang, Xubin Fang, Yue Ma, Sihan Xue and Shi Yin
Land 2022, 11(9), 1442; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11091442 - 31 Aug 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1922
Abstract
A comfortable thermal environment in outdoor spaces is beneficial to people’s physical and mental health in cold conditions during winter. Greenery can improve outdoor thermal comfort (OTC) via microclimates in winter. Multiple methods have been employed to investigate how greenery influences OTC and [...] Read more.
A comfortable thermal environment in outdoor spaces is beneficial to people’s physical and mental health in cold conditions during winter. Greenery can improve outdoor thermal comfort (OTC) via microclimates in winter. Multiple methods have been employed to investigate how greenery influences OTC and microclimate. However, the underlying mechanism of how microclimate participates in the regulation of the effect of greenery on OTC is unclear. To examine the mediating effect of microclimate on the relation between greenery and OTC in cold weather during winter, we conducted meteorological measurement and thermal comfort surveys in Zhengzhou, a city in China’s cold region, from 29 to 30 December 2019. Two objective greening indices from different dimensions were extracted at twelve sampling points: (1) the green view index (GVI) from horizontal normal images from people’s perspective, and (2) the tree view factor (TVF) from vertical-upward fisheye images. With microclimatic parameters as the mediators, a comprehensive multi-step mediation analysis was conducted. The regression results revealed that the GVI and TVF were negatively associated with the thermal comfort vote (TCV) (i.e., the more greenery, the less TCV, which means the more comfortable the thermal environment). Our findings show that both GVI and TVF contribute to OTC through different mechanisms in cold climatic conditions during winter. Vegetation in sight revealed by the GVI can directly regulate OTC by affecting people’s mental feelings or other factors. Air temperature (Ta), relative humidity (RH), and wind speed (Va) served as significant partial mediators for the GVI. Moreover, there was a complete mediation for TVF–OTC correlation with Ta, RH, and Va as significant mediators. The mediating effects of microclimate accounted for 81.00% for GVI and 89.02% for TVF, respectively. The GVI is propitious to the study of people’s mental health and landscape preferences, whereas TVF is suitable for studies on microclimate adaptation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Bioclimatic Designs to Enhance Urban/Rural Resilience)
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20 pages, 8091 KiB  
Article
Spatio-Temporal Dynamic Evolution and Simulation of Dike-Pond Landscape and Ecosystem Service Value Based on MCE-CA-Markov: A Case Study of Shunde, Foshan
by Chunxiao Wang, Shuyu Huang and Junjie Wang
Forests 2022, 13(8), 1241; https://doi.org/10.3390/f13081241 - 05 Aug 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1509
Abstract
Dike-pond is a unique agricultural landscape type in the Pearl River Delta region of China, which has significance for the maintenance of ecological balance. In recent years, urbanization in China has developed rapidly, and dike-ponds have been extensively occupied, reducing their ecological regulation [...] Read more.
Dike-pond is a unique agricultural landscape type in the Pearl River Delta region of China, which has significance for the maintenance of ecological balance. In recent years, urbanization in China has developed rapidly, and dike-ponds have been extensively occupied, reducing their ecological regulation ability and threatening regional ecological security. Taking the Shunde District of Foshan as an example, based on remote sensing images from 1979 to 2020, using a CA-Markov model with the multi-criteria evaluation method (MCE), firstly the spatial and temporal evolution characteristics of the dike-pond landscape pattern were analyzed, then the dike-pond landscape in 2030 was simulated. At last, the spatio-temporal evolution of ecosystem service value (ESV) in Shunde was visualized. The results show that: (1) In the past four decades, the landscape types in Shunde have changed significantly. This mainly manifested as dike-pond, cultivated land, and forest land transforming into construction land. (2) At the class level, the degree of dike-pond landscape fragmentation increased, and the degree of dominance and agglomeration decreased. At the landscape level, the regional degree of dominance showed an upward trend, whereas the overall landscape showed an unbalanced trend distribution. It is predicted that from 2020 to 2030, the landscape pattern of dike-pond will not change significantly, and the overall landscape richness will increase. (3) The ESV in Shunde decreased continuously from 1979 to 2020. The dike-pond ESV accounts for the largest proportion and is the main landscape type that maintains ecological balance. It is predicted that the ESV decline will slow in the future. (4) The optimized MCE-CA-Markov model has greater precision and produces better simulations. The dike-pond development model proposed in this study can provide a scientific basis for delimiting the scope of regional ecological protection and sustainable development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Bioclimatic Designs to Enhance Urban/Rural Resilience)
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21 pages, 11963 KiB  
Article
Energy Prediction and Optimization Based on Sequential Global Sensitivity Analysis: The Case Study of Courtyard-Style Dwellings in Cold Regions of China
by Juanli Guo, Meiling Li, Yongyun Jin, Chundi Shi and Zhoupeng Wang
Buildings 2022, 12(8), 1132; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12081132 - 31 Jul 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1522
Abstract
A great abundance of rural houses lacking design guidance exists in the cold regions of China, often accompanied by huge energy loss. Particularly, a courtyard-style dwelling (CSD) has more complex and diverse building elements than a common house, rendering the design optimization extremely [...] Read more.
A great abundance of rural houses lacking design guidance exists in the cold regions of China, often accompanied by huge energy loss. Particularly, a courtyard-style dwelling (CSD) has more complex and diverse building elements than a common house, rendering the design optimization extremely costly. Sensitivity analysis (SA) can screen the significant parameters of energy consumption for prediction and optimization. In this paper, (1) the design variables related to CSDs and their data details were extracted; (2) a ranking of parameters sensitive to energy demand was formulated; (3) an energy prediction model was trained and (4) dual-objective optimization was carried out. Using the survey data from 150 units in nine villages, 25 control variables were extracted for sequential global sensitivity analysis (GSA). Thus, the ranking of sensitivity parameters was formulated with the two-stage-and-three-sort GSA method. Furthermore, an energy prediction model was then trained with Gaussian Process Regression (GPR) and compared with the other four high-precision models. Based on the obtained prediction model, optimization was then carried out on energy and economic concerns. Consequently, a GSA-based workflow for CSD optimization was proposed to help architectural designers figure out the most efficient energy-saving parameter strategy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Bioclimatic Designs to Enhance Urban/Rural Resilience)
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20 pages, 5372 KiB  
Article
Evaluation Method on Energy-Efficient Retrofitting of Wooden Walls of Chinese Traditional Dwelling—A Case Study of Rendetang in Jinhua
by Xiaoxiao Rao, Feng Qi, Xiaoxiao Zhang and Zhuoxun Mao
Buildings 2022, 12(7), 1017; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12071017 - 14 Jul 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1687
Abstract
Traditional wooden dwellings, which are widely distributed with enormous stocks in China, are of great historical and have obvious cultural value. The walls of such buildings are generally subjected to poor thermal insulation performance, which not only reduces residential thermal comfort but also [...] Read more.
Traditional wooden dwellings, which are widely distributed with enormous stocks in China, are of great historical and have obvious cultural value. The walls of such buildings are generally subjected to poor thermal insulation performance, which not only reduces residential thermal comfort but also increases building cooling and heating energy consumption. In addition, buildings of this type have been subjected to all kinds of problems, such as the lack of measures for improving thermal comfort and the shortage of special funds. Consequently, it is very challenging to reutilize Chinese traditional dwellings, many of which are abandoned and even collapsed. All of the above have become major difficulties encountered in the traditional dwelling heritage protection. Hence, investigating the energy-efficient retrofitting strategies for traditional dwellings and giving economical evaluation methods are two keys to solving the reutilization problem of traditional dwellings. Against this background, a set of second-level evaluation methods for the energy-efficient retrofitting of Chinese traditional dwellings are proposed in this research, including the survey on retrofitted dwellings, the retrofitted dwelling modeling and energy consumption analysis, the definition of wall retrofitting scheme, the first-level evaluation of dwelling retrofitting, the second-level evaluation of dwelling retrofitting, and the screening of the wall retrofitting scheme. The first-level evaluation, which took energy efficiency as a reference index, could evaluate the energy conservation effect before and after dwelling retrofitting. With the payback period as the reference index, the second-level evaluation could assess the overall economic efficiency of dwelling wall retrofitting. An appropriate dwelling wall retrofitting scheme could be screened by integrating first-level and second-level evaluation indexes. Then, this scheme was applied to evaluate the wooden wall retrofitting scheme of a typical traditional dwelling in Yapan Village, Zhejiang Province, China. It was discovered through a comparative analysis that if used to reconstruct dwellings in Zhejiang and other places, the combined materials of XPS board and wood-bamboo could not only effectively improve the energy efficiency but also has good economic efficiency. Meanwhile, problems such as the condensation of wooden walls and their construction thickness could be solved by controlling the material thickness. The above research is of guiding significance for the energy-efficient retrofitting of traditional wooden dwellings in the hot-summer and cold-winter zone of China, and moreover, it can provide reference for the energy-efficient retrofitting of traditional wooden dwellings in other climate zones of China. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Bioclimatic Designs to Enhance Urban/Rural Resilience)
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29 pages, 6796 KiB  
Article
Outdoor Cold Stress and Cold Risk for Children during Winter: A Study in China’s Severe Cold Regions
by Long Shao, Xiaoyun He, Yuexing Tang and Shenglong Wu
Buildings 2022, 12(7), 936; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12070936 - 01 Jul 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1722 | Correction
Abstract
This study uses the universal thermal climate index (UTCI) and whole-body and local cooling assessment to determine the thermal benchmarks and cold risk for children in China’s severe cold regions. The relevant measurements and survey were conducted in four open spaces at a [...] Read more.
This study uses the universal thermal climate index (UTCI) and whole-body and local cooling assessment to determine the thermal benchmarks and cold risk for children in China’s severe cold regions. The relevant measurements and survey were conducted in four open spaces at a children’s park in Harbin, China. The findings of the study are as follows: (1) In winter, solar radiation and global temperature affects winter thermal sensation in male and female children the most. (2) Female children have a lower neutral UTCI (6.0 °C) than male children (7.3 °C), and female children have lower upper and lower thresholds of the neutral UTCI range (−1.3–13.4 °C) than male children (0.6–14.1 °C). (3) Children who engaged in light-intensity activities, were exposed to cold winds, and touched cold surfaces with their bare fingers are at risk of whole-body and local cooling. (4) Children prefer exercising (PFemale = 35.5%, PMale = 48.3%) and moving to sunshine for thermal adaptation (PFemale = 31.1%, PMale = 26.4%). (5) Winter travel guidelines, cold-risk-prevention measures, and safety guidelines for winter outdoor activities are proposed. The results provide references for the design of open spaces in urban parks in China’s severe cold regions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Bioclimatic Designs to Enhance Urban/Rural Resilience)
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17 pages, 3488 KiB  
Article
Optimization of Sample Construction Based on NDVI for Cultivated Land Quality Prediction
by Chengqiang Li, Junxiao Wang, Liang Ge, Yujie Zhou and Shenglu Zhou
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19(13), 7781; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph19137781 - 24 Jun 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1571
Abstract
The integrated use of remote sensing technology and machine learning models to evaluate cultivated land quality (CLQ) quickly and efficiently is vital for protecting these lands. The effectiveness of machine-learning methods can be profoundly influenced by training samples. However, in the existing research, [...] Read more.
The integrated use of remote sensing technology and machine learning models to evaluate cultivated land quality (CLQ) quickly and efficiently is vital for protecting these lands. The effectiveness of machine-learning methods can be profoundly influenced by training samples. However, in the existing research, samples have mainly been constructed by random point (RPO). Little attention has been devoted to the optimization of sample construction, which may affect the accuracy of evaluation results. In this study, we present two optimization methods for sample construction of random patch (RPA) and area sequence patch (ASP). Differing from RPO samples, it aims to include cultivated land area and its size into sample construction. Based on landsat-8 Operational Land Manager images and agricultural land grading data, the proposed sample construction methods were applied to the machine learning model to predict the CLQ in Dongtai City, Jiangsu Province, China. Four machine learning models (the backpropagation neural network, decision tree, random forest (RF), and support vector machine) were compared based on RPO samples to determine the accurate evaluation model. The best machine learning model was selected to compare RPA and ASP samples with RPO samples. Results determined that the RF model generated the highest accuracy. Meanwhile, a high correlation was noted between the cultivated land area and CLQ. Thus, incorporating cultivated land area in the sample construction attributes can improve the prediction accuracy of the model. Among the three sample construction methods, the ASP yielded the highest prediction accuracy, indicating that the use of a large, cultivated land patch as the sample unit can further elevate the model performance. This study provides a new sample construction method for predicting CLQ using a machine learning model, as well as providing a reference for related research. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Bioclimatic Designs to Enhance Urban/Rural Resilience)
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21 pages, 16467 KiB  
Article
Enhanced Automatic Identification of Urban Community Green Space Based on Semantic Segmentation
by Jiangxi Chen, Siyu Shao, Yifei Zhu, Yu Wang, Fujie Rao, Xilei Dai and Dayi Lai
Land 2022, 11(6), 905; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11060905 - 14 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2268
Abstract
At the neighborhood scale, recognizing urban community green space (UCGS) is important for residential living condition assessment and urban planning. However, current studies have embodied two key issues. Firstly, existing studies have focused on large geographic scales, mixing urban and rural areas, neglecting [...] Read more.
At the neighborhood scale, recognizing urban community green space (UCGS) is important for residential living condition assessment and urban planning. However, current studies have embodied two key issues. Firstly, existing studies have focused on large geographic scales, mixing urban and rural areas, neglecting the accuracy of green space contours at fine geographic scales. Secondly, the green spaces covered by shadows often suffer misclassification. To address these issues, we created a neighborhood-scale urban community green space (UCGS) dataset and proposed a segmentation decoder for HRNet backbone with two auxiliary decoders. Our proposed model adds two additional branches to the low-resolution representations to improve their discriminative ability, thus enhancing the overall performance when the high- and low-resolution representations are fused. To evaluate the performance of the model, we tested it on a dataset that includes satellite images of Shanghai, China. The model outperformed the other nine models in UCGS extraction, with a precision of 83.01, recall of 85.69, IoU of 72.91, F1-score of 84.33, and OA of 89.31. Our model also improved the integrity of the identification of shaded green spaces over HRNetV2. The proposed method could offer a useful tool for efficient UCGS detection and mapping in urban planning. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Bioclimatic Designs to Enhance Urban/Rural Resilience)
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20 pages, 7979 KiB  
Article
A Framework of Community Pedestrian Network Design Based on Urban Network Analysis
by Xiaolin Yang, Haigang Sun, Yu Huang and Kailun Fang
Buildings 2022, 12(6), 819; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12060819 - 13 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2954
Abstract
Community is the foundation of modern cities, where urban residents spend most of their lifetime. Effective and healthy community design plays a vital role in improving residents’ living quality. Pedestrian network is an indispensable element in the community. Successful pedestrian network design can [...] Read more.
Community is the foundation of modern cities, where urban residents spend most of their lifetime. Effective and healthy community design plays a vital role in improving residents’ living quality. Pedestrian network is an indispensable element in the community. Successful pedestrian network design can help the residents be healthy both physically and mentally, build the awareness of “Go Green” for the society, and finally contribute to low-carbon and green cities. This paper proposes a community pedestrian network design method based on Urban Network Analysis with the help of the Rhino software. A case study of a typical community in Guangzhou, China was implemented, specifying the steps of the proposed method. The findings presented include the features of the citizens and the accessibilities of the neighbors that are obtained from the community pedestrian network simulation. The limitation and scalability of this method was discussed. The proposed method can be essential to designing healthy and sustainable communities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Bioclimatic Designs to Enhance Urban/Rural Resilience)
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14 pages, 1732 KiB  
Article
National Fitness Evaluation of Urban Parks in the National Ecological Garden City: A Case Study in Baoji, China
by Yunxi Tian, Haidong Ning, Hongqian Ren, Jianjun Liu, Kai Wang and Bo Hong
Land 2022, 11(6), 889; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11060889 - 11 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1908
Abstract
Urban parks are important places for residents to engage in physical activity (PA). Properly designed fitness facilities play a positive role in the PA level of park users. We conducted a quantitative evaluation of urban park systems based on the revised Chinese version [...] Read more.
Urban parks are important places for residents to engage in physical activity (PA). Properly designed fitness facilities play a positive role in the PA level of park users. We conducted a quantitative evaluation of urban park systems based on the revised Chinese version of ParkScore (RCPS) from the perspective of national fitness. Baoji, one of the first National Ecological Garden Cities (NEGCs), was selected as a case study. We analyzed 19 parks and found that comprehensive parks and sports parks obtained high evaluation scores. The area of fitness facilities in Baoji urban parks was low, with an average of 1.85 hm2 per park. Professional sports venues and multifunctional sports venues each accounted for about one-third and children’s activity venues for about a quarter. There were many national fitness stations, but they covered a small area. Only 16% of parks had fitness trails, which was the least represented type of fitness facility. About 40% of the parks had children’s activity venues, with a 1:2 ratio of PA venue to amusement area. The area of free open venues accounted for only 0.1% of the total area of the parks. The number of parks per capita was about 52% of the overall NEGCs, accessibility of 500 m was 34%, and of 1000 m was about 54%. Overall, we found that the supply of Baoji urban parks was insufficient. These results directly reflect differences among fitness facilities in urban parks and can help form a quantitative basis for the optimization of urban park systems and advance the national fitness plan and promote public health. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Bioclimatic Designs to Enhance Urban/Rural Resilience)
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15 pages, 5058 KiB  
Article
Constructing Landscape Ecological Security Patterns of an Ancient Capital Based on Cellular Automata Theory
by Xuhui Wang, Jianwei Li, Tuo Zheng, Shupeng Diao, Xue Zhang and Yunxi Tian
Urban Sci. 2022, 6(2), 29; https://doi.org/10.3390/urbansci6020029 - 22 Apr 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2416
Abstract
Urban sprawl in developing countries changes urban land use structure and function, and threatens the sustainable development of regional ecology and security patterns of city landscapes. A new way to control urban sprawl is to develop a comprehensive landscape security plan, analyze factors [...] Read more.
Urban sprawl in developing countries changes urban land use structure and function, and threatens the sustainable development of regional ecology and security patterns of city landscapes. A new way to control urban sprawl is to develop a comprehensive landscape security plan, analyze factors influencing urban growth, optimize land use and demarcate a growth boundary. Here, we use Xi’an, China, as a case study to analyze scenarios of landscape security pattern and urban spatial control to explore urban spatial zoning. We construct a theoretical framework of a landscape security pattern to manage urban spatial expansion from the perspective of landscape security and urban smart growth. As a first step, the integrated landscape security pattern is constructed based on four factors: hydrology, geological disasters, cultural heritage, and recreation. Second, the urban spatial expansion model is simulated based on a cellular automata model. Finally, nine land-use patterns are developed by overlaying integrated landscape security patterns and urban spatial expansion. Thus, urban space is divided into three types of zoning scenarios: suitable construction, restricted construction, and prohibited construction. The calculations indicate that the zoning area of the three types accounted for 10.4%, 14.7%, and 74.9%, respectively, of the total area in Xi’an. It is of great significance to determine the spatial contradiction between development and protection in the process of urban expansion and to establish a schema of suitable urban land use. We discuss the rapid urbanization process in developing countries at the macro scale, and formulate a land use plan that balances development and protection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Bioclimatic Designs to Enhance Urban/Rural Resilience)
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13 pages, 2637 KiB  
Article
Impact Assessment of Waste Odor Source Locations on Pedestrian-Level Exposure Risk
by Chenyu Ma, Jianlin Liu, Hongyan Li and Jiading Zhong
Buildings 2022, 12(5), 528; https://doi.org/10.3390/buildings12050528 - 21 Apr 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1369
Abstract
Poor wind environment in residential areas leads to the accumulation of odor from domestic waste, affecting pedestrian health. A reasonable arrangement of waste collection points can reduce pedestrian exposure risks. This study aims to investigate the hydrogen sulfide (H2S) dispersion and [...] Read more.
Poor wind environment in residential areas leads to the accumulation of odor from domestic waste, affecting pedestrian health. A reasonable arrangement of waste collection points can reduce pedestrian exposure risks. This study aims to investigate the hydrogen sulfide (H2S) dispersion and residents’ exposure risk at the pedestrian level for five different locations of waste collection points in a residential building array. Simulation results are consistent with the benchmark wind tunnel experiment, validating that the used turbulence model and numerical methods show good agreement with the predictions of the aforementioned problem. Results indicate that the dimensionless concentration of H2S and personal intake fraction in a residential area are lower when the collection point is at the corner of the building array periphery. When the collection point is located in the middle of the periphery of the building array or between two adjacent buildings in the center of the array, the local dimensionless concentration of H2S is 50 at the pedestrian level, and the personal intake fraction is three orders of magnitude higher than that at the corner of the building array periphery. The findings provide a reference for the layout of waste collection points in high-density residential areas and reduction in outdoor exposure risk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Bioclimatic Designs to Enhance Urban/Rural Resilience)
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19 pages, 2662 KiB  
Article
Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems: Themes of Public Perception—A Case Study
by Bridget Thodesen, Berit Time and Tore Kvande
Land 2022, 11(4), 589; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11040589 - 18 Apr 2022
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 6481
Abstract
Climate adaptation measures address the challenges that densification and climate change impose on the urban environment. Sustainable urban drainage system (SUDS) constructs include the introduction of natural elements, such as riparian buffers, vegetative filters, rain beds, water spills, watermark filters, retainers and dams, [...] Read more.
Climate adaptation measures address the challenges that densification and climate change impose on the urban environment. Sustainable urban drainage system (SUDS) constructs include the introduction of natural elements, such as riparian buffers, vegetative filters, rain beds, water spills, watermark filters, retainers and dams, and are an integral part of these climate adaptation measures. SUDS are commonly undertaken at a municipal level in Norway but, unfortunately, the implementation of SUDS projects has lagged behind expectation. Norway is a normative and egalitarian society, where public resistance to local projects is a factor in the delayed adoption of SUDS. That is why a greater understanding of public perceptions and priorities is needed to build consensus and support for these climate adaptation measures. This research looked at the Blaklibekken SUDS case study in Trondheim, Norway. A cross-section of interviews with the municipality and users was undertaken to establish themes within local perceptions of the project. Themes of environmental benefit, child-related activities, maintenance of the site and funding were established to provide a better understanding of public expectations and what aspects of the project correlated with public acceptance or resistance. This work provides a starting point for further research to establish public ‘themes of interest’ that can provide decision makers greater insight into public priorities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Bioclimatic Designs to Enhance Urban/Rural Resilience)
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21 pages, 2152 KiB  
Article
Evaluation of the Health Promotion Capabilities of Greenway Trails: A Case Study in Hangzhou, China
by Bin Xu, Qingxia Shi and Yaping Zhang
Land 2022, 11(4), 547; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11040547 - 08 Apr 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2262
Abstract
As a type of green infrastructure, greenways are beneficial for walking and cycling and promote urban health and well-being. Taking the Qingshan Lake Greenway Phase One (QLG-I) Trail in the Lin’an District of Hangzhou city as an example and based on the accessibility [...] Read more.
As a type of green infrastructure, greenways are beneficial for walking and cycling and promote urban health and well-being. Taking the Qingshan Lake Greenway Phase One (QLG-I) Trail in the Lin’an District of Hangzhou city as an example and based on the accessibility of points of interest (POI) near the QLG-I Trail, a questionnaire investigation, and an importance performance analysis (IPA), in this paper, we construct a methodological framework to evaluate the health-promotion capabilities of the QLG-I Trail, including three aspects: promoting the coverage of healthy travel, user attribute analysis, and user perceptions of the greenway for health promotion. The results show that the healthy travel range of the QLG-I Trail is small and that the users are mainly residents of nearby communities. Additionally, the main factors affecting users’ health-promoting behaviour are safety, cleanliness, and infrastructure services. Although the overall satisfaction with service quality was good (3.93), we found that the trail facilities did not meet the needs of the users. This study confirms that the QLG-I Trail provides community residents with a place for sports activities and supports health-promoting behaviour. Greenway facilities and the natural environment enhance this utility; however, promoting the coverage of healthy travel is limited by accessibility. Finally, we propose a traffic-organization optimization and improvement plan for the QLG-I Trail. The research results may help promote healthy activities on this type of greenway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Bioclimatic Designs to Enhance Urban/Rural Resilience)
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24 pages, 4475 KiB  
Article
Exploring Adaptive UHI Mitigation Solutions by Spatial Heterogeneity of Land Surface Temperature and Its Relationship to Urban Morphology in Historical Downtown Blocks, Beijing
by Liukuan Zhang, Xiaoxiao Shi and Qing Chang
Land 2022, 11(4), 544; https://doi.org/10.3390/land11040544 - 08 Apr 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2185
Abstract
Heat stress brought on by the intensification of urban heat island (UHI) has caused many negative effects on human beings, which were found to be more severe in highly urbanized old towns. With the inconsistent findings on how urban spatial morphological characteristics influence [...] Read more.
Heat stress brought on by the intensification of urban heat island (UHI) has caused many negative effects on human beings, which were found to be more severe in highly urbanized old towns. With the inconsistent findings on how urban spatial morphological characteristics influence land surface temperature (LST) and gaps between design practices being found, we chose Beijing Old Town (BOT) as the study area and took the basic planning implementation module “block” as a study to reveal the spatial heterogeneity of LST and its relationship to multiple urban morphological characteristics with higher spatial resolution calculated via WorldView3. Our results have shown that (1) UHI effect was significant and spatially heterogeneous in BOT, and significant hot areas with high LST value and small LST differences were found, as cold areas were the exact opposite. (2) The proportion of vegetated area, water, impervious surface, and urban spatial structure indicators i.e., building coverage ratio, mean height, highest building index, height fluctuation degree, space crowd degree and sky view factor were identified as significantly affecting the LST of blocks in BOT. (3) The effects of GBI components and configuration on LST varied within different block types; generally, blocks with GBI with larger patches that were more complex in shape, more aggregated, and less fragmented were associated with lower LST. Finally, in the context of integrating our study results with relevant planning and design guidelines, a strategy sample of adaptive GBI planning and vegetation design for blocks with different morphological features was provided for urban planners and managers to make a decision on UHI mitigation in the renewal process of BOT. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Bioclimatic Designs to Enhance Urban/Rural Resilience)
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