Topic Editors

Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan
Department of Mechanical Engineering, De La Salle University, 2401 Taft Avenue, Manila 0922, Philippines
Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, Taiwan
School of Human Settlements and Civil Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi'an 710049, China
Dr. Yanjun Sun
School of Human Settlements and Civil Engineering, Xi’an Jiaotong University, Xi’an 710049, China

Sustainable Energy Technology, 2nd Volume

Abstract submission deadline
closed (20 February 2024)
Manuscript submission deadline
20 April 2024
Viewed by
21615

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

This Topic is a continuation of the previous successful Topic “Sustainable Energy Technology”. The Topic covers the technologies, products, equipment, and devices, as well as energy services, based on software and data protected by patents and/or trademarks. The recent trends underline the principles of a circular economy, such as sustainable product design, the extension of a product’s lifecycle, reusability, and recycling. Climate change, environmental impact, and limited natural resources require scientific research and novel technical solutions. The Topic Sustainable Energy Technology is a publishing platform for scientific and technological approaches to “green”—i.e., environmentally friendly and sustainable—technologies. While the focus of the Topic lies in energy and bioenergy, it also covers “green” solutions in all aspects of industrial engineering. The Topic Sustainable Energy Technology addresses researchers, advanced students, technical consultants, and decision-makers in industries and politics. This Topic will include a comprehensive overview and in-depth technical research papers that address the recent progress in sustainable energy technology. Studies of advanced techniques and methods in sustainable energy technology are also welcome. Research that involves experimental and numerical studies, recent developments, and current state-of-the-art and emerging technologies in this field are highly encouraged.

Prof. Dr. Wei-Hsin Chen
Prof. Dr. Aristotle T. Ubando
Prof. Dr. Chih-Che Chueh
Prof. Dr. Liwen Jin
Dr. Yanjun Sun
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • bioenergy
  • solar energy
  • wind energy
  • marine energy
  • geothermal energy
  • hydrogen energy
  • energy storage
  • energy saving
  • CO2 capture and utilization
  • thermoelectric generation
  • thermodynamics
  • heat transfer

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Energies
energies
3.2 5.5 2008 16.1 Days CHF 2600 Submit
Journal of Marine Science and Engineering
jmse
2.9 3.7 2013 15.4 Days CHF 2600 Submit
Processes
processes
3.5 4.7 2013 13.7 Days CHF 2400 Submit
Solar
solar
- - 2021 16.9 Days CHF 1000 Submit
Wind
wind
- - 2021 24.8 Days CHF 1000 Submit

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Published Papers (11 papers)

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17 pages, 29537 KiB  
Article
Enhanced Model Predictive Control for Induction Motor Drives in Marine Electric Power Propulsion System
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2024, 12(3), 378; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse12030378 - 22 Feb 2024
Abstract
Marine electric propulsion is an important topic in the research of modern ships and underwater vehicles. The propulsion motor drives based on model predictive control (MPC) are becoming increasingly popular in marine propulsion systems as an emerging technology. However, the multi-objective optimization in [...] Read more.
Marine electric propulsion is an important topic in the research of modern ships and underwater vehicles. The propulsion motor drives based on model predictive control (MPC) are becoming increasingly popular in marine propulsion systems as an emerging technology. However, the multi-objective optimization in conventional MPC requires cumbersome weighting factor tuning. The relatively large computational cost is also detrimental to the industrial application of MPC. Aiming at reducing the computational complexity of multi-objective optimization without weighting factors, this paper proposes an enhanced ranking-based MPC method for induction motor drives in marine electric power propulsion. The presented control set pre-optimization aims to reduce the computational complexity of enumeration and ranking. Based on the sign of torque prediction deviation, the proposed method avoids enumerating all fundamental voltage vectors. Consequently, the number of candidate elements in the initial control set are reduced to four without excessively excluding feasible solutions. By converting predicted numerical errors into ranking results, the proposed MPC seeks the optimal solution among the candidates through improved ranking evaluation. Considering the situation of simultaneous optimal ranking, the normalization error judgment is developed to further optimize the optimal solution selection process. The simulation and experimental results confirm that the proposed MPC is simple and effective. Without the involvement of tuning the weighting factors, the proposed method achieves good performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Energy Technology, 2nd Volume)
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22 pages, 7782 KiB  
Article
Hydrodynamic Simulation of Green Hydrogen Catamaran Operating in Lisbon, Portugal
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(12), 2273; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11122273 - 30 Nov 2023
Viewed by 787
Abstract
Similar to other industries, the maritime industry is also facing increasing restrictions on ships regarding pollution control. The research presented in this paper is aimed at studying the pros and cons of alternative fuels followed by a detailed analysis on hydrogen fuel cells [...] Read more.
Similar to other industries, the maritime industry is also facing increasing restrictions on ships regarding pollution control. The research presented in this paper is aimed at studying the pros and cons of alternative fuels followed by a detailed analysis on hydrogen fuel cells (PEMFC) for a particular ship operating in Lisbon, Portugal. Dynamic forces acting on the ship have been studied for a year. Assessing various scenarios based on these results aids ship operators in making informed decisions regarding the future course of action for their existing vessels. These different cases are first: business as usual (diesel engine), second: replacing the diesel engine with a hydrogen hybrid system and, third: replacement of the ship with a new hydrogen hybrid ship. The study is based on the simulation of numerical equations and CFD simulation results. As the result, the second scenario is best suited in both aspects; namely, environmental and economic. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Energy Technology, 2nd Volume)
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17 pages, 5821 KiB  
Article
Full Operating Range Optimization Design Method of LLC Resonant Converter in Marine DC Power Supply System
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(11), 2142; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11112142 - 09 Nov 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 701
Abstract
The marine DC power supply system is the key to a ship’s power supply, which needs to convert the energy from storage batteries or distributed power generation units into stable DC voltage for electric propulsion or the ship’s electronics. The LLC resonant converter [...] Read more.
The marine DC power supply system is the key to a ship’s power supply, which needs to convert the energy from storage batteries or distributed power generation units into stable DC voltage for electric propulsion or the ship’s electronics. The LLC resonant converter can be used as the key power conversion link in the marine DC power supply system due to its ability to realize electrical isolation in a high-power environment and soft switching within a wide load range. Aiming at the problem of sudden changes in voltage gain at a high switching frequency under light load conditions and the problem of insufficient voltage gain under heavy load conditions due to the parasitic parameters of power devices (mainly referring to the junction capacitor), this paper first proposes a full operating range performance optimization design method. By adding an auxiliary circuit that can be opened according to the operating conditions and a multi-objective particle swarm parameter optimization method that considers the converter loss and voltage gain under heavy load conditions, the performance of the LLC resonant converter can be improved in a full range of operating conditions. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed method is verified by an experimental prototype and compared with the conventional methods and existing solutions to highlight the superiority of the proposed method in this paper. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Energy Technology, 2nd Volume)
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18 pages, 11719 KiB  
Article
Global Atlas of Marine Floating Solar PV Potential
Solar 2023, 3(3), 416-433; https://doi.org/10.3390/solar3030023 - 27 Jul 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 8028
Abstract
In this paper, we analyse 40 years of maximum wind speed and wave height data to identify potential sites for solar photovoltaic (PV) systems floating on seas and oceans. Maximum hourly wave height and wind speed data were segregated into 5 distinct categories. [...] Read more.
In this paper, we analyse 40 years of maximum wind speed and wave height data to identify potential sites for solar photovoltaic (PV) systems floating on seas and oceans. Maximum hourly wave height and wind speed data were segregated into 5 distinct categories. These categorisations were then combined at the nearest wind speed and wave height grid point for each sea location, generating a comprehensive wind–wave map via a geographic information system (GIS) visualisation. We find that regions around the equator are generally calm, i.e., free from strong winds and large waves. The most favourable locations are around the Indonesian archipelago, and the Gulf of Guinea on the west coast of tropical Africa. Our analysis indicates the huge potential of floating solar PV systems in calm tropical maritime regions, capable of generating about one million terawatt-hours per year in regions that rarely experience waves larger than 6 m or winds stronger than 15 m/s. This study furthers our understanding of alternative renewable energy options, emphasising the promising potential of offshore floating solar PV systems in the global energy transition. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Energy Technology, 2nd Volume)
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14 pages, 4818 KiB  
Article
Optimization of Flow Channel Design with Porous Medium Layers in a Proton Exchange Membrane Electrolyzer Cell
Energies 2023, 16(15), 5642; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16155642 - 27 Jul 2023
Viewed by 908
Abstract
This study aims to optimize the flow channel design for a proton exchange membrane electrolyzer cell (PEMEC) to minimize the pressure drop across the cell. The pattern of parallel flow channels is considered with a dual-porous layer structure sandwiched between the flow channel [...] Read more.
This study aims to optimize the flow channel design for a proton exchange membrane electrolyzer cell (PEMEC) to minimize the pressure drop across the cell. The pattern of parallel flow channels is considered with a dual-porous layer structure sandwiched between the flow channel plate and the catalyst layer. Four geometric factors are considered in the optimization analysis, including the width of the flow channel, the depth of the flow channel, the particle diameter of the large-pore porous layer, and the particle diameter of the small-pore porous layer. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is used to simulate the flow field, and based on the results of the CFD simulation, the Taguchi method is employed to analyze the optimal flow channel design. The importance of the factors is further analyzed by the analysis of variance (ANOVA) method. Three inlet velocities are assigned in the Taguchi analysis, which are 0.01, 0.1332, and 0.532 m/s, and then an orthogonal array is constructed and analyzed for each inlet flow condition. It is found that the optimal combination of the factors is the depth of the flow channel 1 mm, the width of the flow channel 3 mm, the particle diameter of the large-pore porous layer 0.212 mm, and the particle diameter of the small-pore porous layer 0.002 mm. The pressure drop across the PEMEC is minimized at the condition with the optimal combination of the factors. The ANOVA analysis shows that the depth of the flow channel exhibits the most significant impact on the pressure drop, while the other factors play minor roles only. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Energy Technology, 2nd Volume)
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27 pages, 11193 KiB  
Article
Effects of Boundary Conditions on Performance Prediction of Deep-Buried Ground Heat Exchangers for Geothermal Energy Utilization
Energies 2023, 16(13), 4874; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16134874 - 22 Jun 2023
Viewed by 854
Abstract
An accurate prediction for deep-buried ground heat exchangers (DBGHEs) is the premise for efficient utilization of geothermal energy. Due to the complexity of the geological composition spanning thousands of meters, the configuration of boundary conditions plays a critical role in evaluating DBGHE thermal [...] Read more.
An accurate prediction for deep-buried ground heat exchangers (DBGHEs) is the premise for efficient utilization of geothermal energy. Due to the complexity of the geological composition spanning thousands of meters, the configuration of boundary conditions plays a critical role in evaluating DBGHE thermal performance. This paper proposed a three-dimensional model of full-scale DBGHE involving both conductive and convective heat transfer in aquifuge and aquifer layers. The constant inlet temperature and constant heating power boundaries in the DBGHE domain, and the surface–bottom temperature and heat flux boundaries in the rock-soil domain were examined. It was found that the differences in the performance prediction caused by different DBGHE boundary conditions were closely related to the system’s operating time. The relative differences in heat extraction amount and average borehole temperature of 2000 m DBGHE caused by the two inlet boundaries on the 30th day were, respectively, 19.5% and 18.3%, while these differences on the 120th day were decreased to 8.4% and 9.9%, respectively. It was found that the constant inlet temperature boundary was more appropriate than the constant heating power condition for estimating aquifer effects on the performance of DBGHE. For the rock-soil domain, the results showed that the heat extraction amount of DBGHE under the heat flux boundary was 12.6%–13.6% higher than that under the surface–bottom temperature boundary. Particularly, when considering the velocity change of groundwater in the aquifer, the relative difference in heat extraction amount increments caused by the two types of rock-soil boundaries can reach 26.6% on the 120th day. It was also found that the thermal influence radius at the end of a heating season was hardly affected by either the DBGHE inlet or rock-soil domain boundary conditions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Energy Technology, 2nd Volume)
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30 pages, 3245 KiB  
Review
State-of-the-Art Review of Small Modular Reactors
Energies 2023, 16(7), 3224; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16073224 - 03 Apr 2023
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3455
Abstract
The decarbonization of the energy industry is one of the key pillars in the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in the atmosphere. The energy generation industry is an important driver in the development of nations. Small modular reactors (SMRs) are considered an affordable [...] Read more.
The decarbonization of the energy industry is one of the key pillars in the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in the atmosphere. The energy generation industry is an important driver in the development of nations. Small modular reactors (SMRs) are considered an affordable energy generation technology that can provide clean energy that is comparable to other renewable energy technologies. However, several critical issues are established in the full adoption of and investment in SMRs in developing nations. A state-of-the-art review of the SMRs is proposed, involving key issues on technological, economic, environmental, and socio-political aspects. Methods of aggregating these factors in order to determine a country’s suitability to invest in SMRs have been explored, while also determining specific areas needing improvement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Energy Technology, 2nd Volume)
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23 pages, 9816 KiB  
Article
Research on a DC–DC Converter and Its Advanced Control Strategy Applied to the Integrated Energy System of Marine Breeding Platforms
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(3), 512; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11030512 - 27 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1058
Abstract
The deep-sea aquaculture industry will become one of the important pillars of the future marine economy. However, the application of clean energy in the new scenario needs to be strengthened for platform operation. For this kind of renewable-energy distributed-generation system, an energy storage [...] Read more.
The deep-sea aquaculture industry will become one of the important pillars of the future marine economy. However, the application of clean energy in the new scenario needs to be strengthened for platform operation. For this kind of renewable-energy distributed-generation system, an energy storage system is essential. A bidirectional DC–DC converter is essential for distributed power generation systems. It connects a variety of renewable energy sources with energy storage cells. A high-gain bidirectional Cuk circuit with zero ripple is proposed in the paper. It is characterized by a simple structure, zero ripple, low voltage stress of semiconductor power devices, and high voltage gain. A passivity-based control with linear active disturbance rejection is proposed to solve the problems of the large steady-state error. The zero steady-state error, strong robustness, and whole-range stability have been obtained for the proposed control strategy. Finally, a simulation was carried out. A 100 W, 48 V/400 V prototype was built to verify the validity of the theoretical analysis for the proposed circuit. The improved passivity-based control strategy was verified to solve the contradiction between rapidity and overshoot. It can be realized to improve the dynamic performance of the proposed converter and achieve robust control. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Energy Technology, 2nd Volume)
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16 pages, 2159 KiB  
Article
Performance of a Wet Electrostatic Precipitator in Marine Applications
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(2), 393; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11020393 - 10 Feb 2023
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1534
Abstract
Emissions of marine traffic can be lowered by switching to less polluting fuels or by investing in exhaust aftertreatment. Electrostatic precipitation is a widely used method for particle removal but it is not currently used in combination with marine engines. This study presents [...] Read more.
Emissions of marine traffic can be lowered by switching to less polluting fuels or by investing in exhaust aftertreatment. Electrostatic precipitation is a widely used method for particle removal but it is not currently used in combination with marine engines. This study presents the particle filtration characteristics of an emission reduction system designed for marine applications and consisting of a scrubber and a Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP) in series. Partial flow of exhaust from a 1.6 MW marine engine, operated with light and heavy fuel oil, was led to the system. Particle concentrations were measured before the system, after the scrubber and after the WESP. Particle removal characteristics were determined for different engine loads. The scrubber alone removed 15–55% of non-volatile particle number, 30–40% of particle mass and 30–40% of black carbon mass depending on engine load, when HFO fuel was used. By studying particle size distributions, scrubber was found also to generate particles seen as an additional mode in 20–40 nm size range. The system combining the scrubber and WESP removed over 98.5% of particles in number, mass and black carbon metrics when HFO fuel was used. With MDO fuel, 96.5% of PN and 99% of black carbon were removed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Energy Technology, 2nd Volume)
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24 pages, 4466 KiB  
Article
Performance Characteristic Analysis of Metallic and Non-Metallic Oxide Nanofluids for a Compound Parabolic Collector: Improvement of Renewable Energy Technologies in Buildings
Energies 2023, 16(3), 1298; https://doi.org/10.3390/en16031298 - 26 Jan 2023
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1256
Abstract
The building sector is targeting net-zero emissions through the integration of renewable energy technologies, especially for space cooling and heating applications. In this regard, the use of solar thermal concentrating collectors is of vital importance. The performance of these collectors increases by using [...] Read more.
The building sector is targeting net-zero emissions through the integration of renewable energy technologies, especially for space cooling and heating applications. In this regard, the use of solar thermal concentrating collectors is of vital importance. The performance of these collectors increases by using an efficient fluid such as a nanofluid due to their high thermal conductivity. This research addresses the preparation, stability analysis, and characterisation of metallic and non-metallic oxide nanofluids and their experimental analysis in a compound parabolic collector (CPC) system. Five different combinations of nanofluids are used with different volumetric concentrations (0.025%, 0.05%, and 0.075%) including multi-wall carbon nanotube with water (MWCNT–H2O), multi-wall carbon nanotube with ethylene glycol (MWCNT–EG), aluminium oxide with water (Al2O3–H2O), aluminium oxide with ethylene glycol (Al2O3–EG), and magnesium oxide with ethylene glycol (MgO–EG). The prepared nanofluids are characterised in terms of thermal conductivity and viscosity. Detailed experimentation is performed to investigate the CPC system integrated with the nanofluids. The results obtained from the detailed characterisation of the MWCNT–H2O nanofluid showed that the nanofluids have a 37.17% better thermal conductivity than distilled water as a primary fluid, and the MWCNT–EG nanofluid has demonstrated an increase in viscosity by 8.5% compared to ethylene glycol (EG). The experimental analysis revealed that the thermal efficiency of the collector integrated with the MWCNT–H2O nanofluid is increased by 33% compared to water. Meanwhile, the thermal efficiency of the collector with MWCNT–EG was increased by 24.9% compared to EG. Moreover, a comparative analysis among metallic nanofluids was also performed, i.e., Al2O3–H2O, Al2O3–EG, and MgO–EG. In each case, the thermal efficiency of the collector was recorded, which was greater than the base fluid by percentages of 29.4%, 22.29%, and 23.1%, respectively. The efficiency of non-metallic nanofluids is better than metallic nanofluids by 7.7%. From the obtained results, it can be concluded that the CPC system performed best with MWCNT–H2O compared to any other combination of nanofluids. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Energy Technology, 2nd Volume)
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14 pages, 1909 KiB  
Article
Objective Functions and Performance Optimization of Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) with CO2-Based Binary Zeotropic Mixture Power Cycle
J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2023, 11(1), 140; https://doi.org/10.3390/jmse11010140 - 07 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1479
Abstract
Ocean thermal energy is a huge renewable and clean energy. For different applications of the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) system, new objective functions are proposed and optimal CO2-based binary zeotropic mixtures for each objective function are discussed. Propane, butane, isobutane, [...] Read more.
Ocean thermal energy is a huge renewable and clean energy. For different applications of the Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) system, new objective functions are proposed and optimal CO2-based binary zeotropic mixtures for each objective function are discussed. Propane, butane, isobutane, and pentane were selected as the secondary component of the mixture working fluid. Based on each objective function, some parameters of the CO2-based binary zeotropic mixture power cycle were studied and the optimal working fluids were obtained. The results indicated that the thermal efficiency showed an upwards trend as the evaporating temperature increased from 20 to 23 °C and decreased as the molar fraction of the secondary component of the working fluid increased from 0.01 to 0.05, but the specific volumetric flow showed the opposite trend. The specific net power increased as the evaporating temperature increased, and the net power output had a greater effect on the variations in the specific net power than the molar fraction of the secondary component. When taking thermal efficiency or specific volumetric flow as the objective functions, CO2/propane was the suitable working fluid under the considered conditions; in the case that specific net power was taken as the objective function, CO2/butane (0.97/0.03 or 0.96/0.04 molar ratio) or CO2/isobutane (0.97/0.03, 0.96/0.04, or 0.95/0.05 molar ratio) were suitable under the considered evaporating temperature. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Sustainable Energy Technology, 2nd Volume)
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