Topic Editors

Department of Systems Design, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Tokyo 191-0065, Japan
School of Computer Science, Tokyo University of Technology, 1404-1 Katakura, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0982, Japan

Toward the New Era of Sustainable Design, Manufacturing and Management

Abstract submission deadline
closed (31 December 2021)
Manuscript submission deadline
closed (30 June 2022)
Viewed by
199414

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues, 

The corona pandemic has transformed our lives. While we have explored “a new way of life”, we do need to solve new social challenges, such as the collapse of medical care due to the increase in infection of the new corona virus, both at a national level and on a global scale. Furthermore, new lifestyles will change people's daily behavior, and many industries, including not only the manufacturing but also the food service industry and travel industry, will need to change the way of conventional value provisions. These imminent environments have accelerated digital transformation (DX), and we are urged to make further efforts across industries to sustain our lives and to create new social values for the next generation.

For this Special Topic titled “Toward the New Era of Sustainable Design, Manufacturing and Management”, we widely invite the submission of articles that foster discussion on the design and development of products, product–service systems, and manufacturing systems that will contribute to a sustainable society, management strategies for sustainable development, and the design and innovation of resilient socio-technical systems. This topic also includes social sustainability and stabilization using smart technologies, such as artificial intelligence (AI), Internet of Things (IoT), and cyber-physical systems (CPSs).

Articles selected for this Special Issue will be subject to a rigorous peer-review procedure with the aim of rapid and wide dissemination of research results, developments, and applications.

Prof. Dr. Yoshiki Shimomura
Prof. Dr. Shigeru Hosono
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • Design for sustainability
  • Manufacturing for sustainability
  • Management for sustainability
  • Servitization for sustainability
  • Sustainability as the new normal
  • Digital transformation
  • AI, IoT and cyber-physical systems
  • Socio-technical system design
  • Sustainable system innovation

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Sustainability
sustainability
3.9 5.8 2009 18.8 Days CHF 2400
Systems
systems
1.9 3.3 2013 16.8 Days CHF 2400
AI
ai
- - 2020 20.8 Days CHF 1600
Digital
digital
- - 2021 22.7 Days CHF 1000
IoT
IoT
- 5.2 2020 23.3 Days CHF 1200

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Published Papers (52 papers)

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12 pages, 1758 KiB  
Article
Applying the SMED Methodology to Tire Calibration Procedures
by Vitor Santos, Vitor F. C. Sousa, Francisco J. G. Silva, João C. O. Matias, Rúben D. Costa, Arnaldo G. Pinto and Raul D. S. G. Campilho
Systems 2022, 10(6), 239; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems10060239 - 02 Dec 2022
Viewed by 2203
Abstract
Due to the automotive industry’s strict demands, customers submit constant production pressure, leading to the adoption of new methodologies, techniques, and management ideas. The goal is always to minimise losses and waste. These demands also affect the maintenance department, which has to keep [...] Read more.
Due to the automotive industry’s strict demands, customers submit constant production pressure, leading to the adoption of new methodologies, techniques, and management ideas. The goal is always to minimise losses and waste. These demands also affect the maintenance department, which has to keep the balance between machines’ availability for production and ensuring that the machines’ proper running conditions translate into excellent-quality products. Thus, continuous improvement and correct management of maintenance activities are crucial for a company to maintain effective production, without defects, breakdowns, and accidents. Nevertheless, some maintenance activities should also prevent the degradation of equipment conditions in order to produce high-quality products. This paper presents an improvement of maintenance activities conducted on equipment that produces large tires. The main problems and technical difficulties of Machine Tolerance Check (MTC) activities are explored by analysing existing documents, internal knowledge, and changes to working methods. We discuss the implementation of the SMED (Single-Minute Exchange of Die) methodology in calibration procedures, as this method is commonly applied to machines’ setups to reduce downtime. At the end of the study, a 31% decrease in the duration of machine tolerance check activities was achieved, which led to a significant increase in the equipment’s availability. Full article
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16 pages, 10891 KiB  
Article
Using Kansei Engineering for the Design Thinking Framework: Bamboo Pen Holder Product Design
by Xue Gong, Zhuen Guo and Zhongqu Xie
Sustainability 2022, 14(17), 10556; https://doi.org/10.3390/su141710556 - 24 Aug 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 3362
Abstract
Recently, as a potential source of stationery products, bamboo has been continuously excavated for its commercial value in sustainable development. The research on the design of the bamboo pen holder, based on the concept of sustainable design, is not only a symbol of [...] Read more.
Recently, as a potential source of stationery products, bamboo has been continuously excavated for its commercial value in sustainable development. The research on the design of the bamboo pen holder, based on the concept of sustainable design, is not only a symbol of Chinese culture but also a reflection of perceptual factors underlying college students’ preferences. This study aims at user-centered product design by integrating Design Thinking (DT) and Kansei Engineering (KE). We proposed the KE–DT framework which allows designers to coordinate the user’s feelings as design elements. With various college student questionnaires, expert interviews, and cluster analysis, 7 Kansei words were selected to describe the sentimental value first. Using statistical analysis, the users’ emotional preference for each Kansei word was determined. Finally, the best shape of the pen holder was obtained by Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP), and the stereoscopic product was displayed. A new round of questionnaire surveys was conducted with the optimized pen container and the previous group. The results indicated that curvature had a significant effect on the preference for bamboo stationery in terms of user and designer cognitive differences. Furthermore, the bamboo pen holder designed by the KE–DT framework proved widely popular. Full article
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14 pages, 821 KiB  
Article
Does Digital Transformation in Manufacturing Affect Trade Imbalances? Evidence from US–China Trade
by Wenjing Zu, Guoda Gu and Sihan Lei
Sustainability 2022, 14(14), 8381; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14148381 - 08 Jul 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2530
Abstract
In the new era of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, digitalization has progressively transformed manufacturing and further affected the balance in international trade patterns. This study assesses whether and how the digital transformation in manufacturing contributes to trade imbalances. Using detailed industry-level data from [...] Read more.
In the new era of the Fourth Industrial Revolution, digitalization has progressively transformed manufacturing and further affected the balance in international trade patterns. This study assesses whether and how the digital transformation in manufacturing contributes to trade imbalances. Using detailed industry-level data from the US, this study constructs an integrated evaluation to measure the level of digital transformation in manufacturing and investigates the ways in which digital transformation in manufacturing affects the US–China trade imbalance. Empirical results show that the US digital transformation in manufacturing is positively associated with the US–China total trade imbalance, which in turn is negatively associated with their related-party trade imbalance. The further analysis presents a moderated mediation model that includes the US-imported intermediate input from China (mediator for the US–China total trade imbalance), foreign direct investment in China by the US multinationals (mediator for the US–China related-party trade imbalance), and Chinese important manufacturing policy (moderator) simultaneously. The results reveal that the Chinese important manufacturing policy moderates the mediation process and the moderated mediation effect is stronger for the industries which are not involved with this policy. Our findings are informative for developing digital transformation strategies for both manufacturing firms and government authorities. Full article
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24 pages, 1940 KiB  
Article
Benefit–Risk Perceptions of FinTech Adoption for Sustainability from Bank Consumers’ Perspective: The Moderating Role of Fear of COVID-19
by Ruzita Abdul-Rahim, Siti Aisah Bohari, Aini Aman and Zainudin Awang
Sustainability 2022, 14(14), 8357; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14148357 - 08 Jul 2022
Cited by 35 | Viewed by 6719
Abstract
Industry 4.0 technologies, designed to optimize efficiencies, are indisputable change agents for sustainability. In the context of financial technology (FinTech), the burgeoning question concerns how to create FinTech natives from the COVID-19-pandemic-induced adoption and realize FinTech’s impact on sustainability? Thus, this study had [...] Read more.
Industry 4.0 technologies, designed to optimize efficiencies, are indisputable change agents for sustainability. In the context of financial technology (FinTech), the burgeoning question concerns how to create FinTech natives from the COVID-19-pandemic-induced adoption and realize FinTech’s impact on sustainability? Thus, this study had the following purposes: (1) to examine whether perceived benefits and risks affect FinTech services adoption; (2) to test the role of fear of COVID-19 in FinTech adoption; and (3) to investigate whether FinTech adoption contributes to sustainability. The hypotheses derived from the net valence framework, sustainable information society theory, and protection motivation theory were tested using structural equation modeling (SEM). Our online survey of bank consumers in Malaysia between December 2021 and February 2022 yielded 1279 usable questionnaires, randomly selected to generate 400 respondents. The results revealed that: (1) the perceived benefits significantly influence FinTech adoption, whereas perceived risk does not; (2) fear of COVID-19 moderates the perceived benefits–FinTech adoption relationship and fully mediates the perceived risk–FinTech adoption relationship; and (3) FinTech adoption significantly affects sustainability. This study demonstrates that FinTech adoption models must exploit consumer sentiment (e.g., fear) to optimize FinTech’s benefits and risks, thereby creating FinTech natives to realize its impacts on economic, environmental, and social sustainability. Full article
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27 pages, 932 KiB  
Article
Insight into the Balancing Effect of a Digital Green Innovation (DGI) Network to Improve the Performance of DGI for Industry 5.0: Roles of Digital Empowerment and Green Organization Flexibility
by Chengli Hu, Hongtao Yang and Shi Yin
Systems 2022, 10(4), 97; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems10040097 - 05 Jul 2022
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 3065
Abstract
Under the background of double carbon target and digital intelligence era, the innovation resources and innovation environment that manufacturing enterprises rely on have shown exponential growth. Digital green innovation (DGI) has gradually become the mainstream paradigm of innovation. How to achieve a balance [...] Read more.
Under the background of double carbon target and digital intelligence era, the innovation resources and innovation environment that manufacturing enterprises rely on have shown exponential growth. Digital green innovation (DGI) has gradually become the mainstream paradigm of innovation. How to achieve a balance between a local DGI network (LDGIN) and a remote DGI network (RDGIN) and how to use the role of digital empowerment and green organization flexibility to improve the performance of DGI are very important issues facing manufacturing enterprises at present. However, this problem has not been fully addressed in the existing research. In this study, the influence mechanism of LDGIN and RDGIN on the DGI performance of manufacturing enterprises was revealed, considering the moderating role of digital empowerment and green organization flexibility. The linear regression method was used to analyze the 562 valid data obtained by questionnaire survey. The results of this study are as follows. The effect of the DGI network on manufacturing enterprises’ DGI performance is heterogeneous because of LDGIN and RDGIN. The establishment of embedded links in a DGI network inevitably requires manufacturing enterprises to pay the corresponding costs. The over-embedding of manufacturing enterprises into RDGIN will have a negative impact on DGI performance. The balance between LDGIN and RDGIN has an important impact on manufacturing enterprises’ operation. The comprehensive balance and relative balance indexes constructed in this paper show that an appropriate balance can promote the improvement of the DGI performance of manufacturing enterprises. Digital transformation and organizational structure innovation are changing the business model of manufacturing enterprises and can regulate the relationship between the LDGIN and RDGIN and the DGI performance of manufacturing enterprises. The balance of DGI network embedding in practice shows the important role and enlightening significance of local and remote search in developing countries. Full article
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27 pages, 3450 KiB  
Article
A Two-Step Fuzzy MCDM Method for Implementation of Sustainable Precision Manufacturing: Evidence from China
by Xiaowei Guan and Jun Zhao
Sustainability 2022, 14(13), 8085; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14138085 - 01 Jul 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1752
Abstract
Despite that products of precision manufacturing are widely used in many fields involving the national economy, precision manufacturing processes are more unfriendly to the environment, resources and social development than general manufacturing. Hence, the implementation of sustainable precision manufacturing (SPM) is of great [...] Read more.
Despite that products of precision manufacturing are widely used in many fields involving the national economy, precision manufacturing processes are more unfriendly to the environment, resources and social development than general manufacturing. Hence, the implementation of sustainable precision manufacturing (SPM) is of great strategic significance. There is no literature identifying and ranking the drivers of implementation of SPM and the impact on sustainability owing to the application of advanced manufacturing technologies in SPM has not been explored. To resolve these problems, drivers of SPM are identified based on combined support of prior studies and six groups of experts consisting of 71 individuals from six precision manufacturing enterprises. The drivers are calculated and ranked by a two-step fuzzy MCDM method which integrated the fuzzy AHP (fuzzy analytic hierarchy process) and fuzzy TOPSIS (fuzzy technique for order of preference by similarity to ideal solution) algorithms. The evaluation of drivers is based on the basic principles of sustainable development (environmental criterion, social criterion and economic criterion). The paper concludes that technological innovation, government support and current legislation are the most critical drivers during SPM implementation. Additionally, the result of sensitivity verification of the proposed method conducted proves the robustness and correctness of the algorithm and results. Full article
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18 pages, 1920 KiB  
Article
Human–System Interaction Based on Eye Tracking for a Virtual Workshop
by Zenggui Gao, Jiaying Li, Mengyao Dong, Ruining Yang and Lilan Liu
Sustainability 2022, 14(11), 6841; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14116841 - 03 Jun 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1958
Abstract
With the constant exploration and development of intelligent manufacturing, the concept of digital twins has been proposed and applied. In view of the complexity and intellectualization of virtual workshop systems, real workshops can link with virtual workshosp based on AR under the structure [...] Read more.
With the constant exploration and development of intelligent manufacturing, the concept of digital twins has been proposed and applied. In view of the complexity and intellectualization of virtual workshop systems, real workshops can link with virtual workshosp based on AR under the structure of digital twins, which allows users to interact with virtual information and perceive the virtual information superimposed on the real world with great immersion. However, the three-dimensionality of virtual workshops and interaction with complex workshop information can be challenging for users. Due to a shortage of input bandwidth and the nontraditional mode of interaction, a more natural interaction technique for virtual workshops is required. To solve such problems, this paper presents a technical framework for 3D eye movement interaction applied to a virtual workshop. An eye movement interaction technique, oriented to implicit interaction and explicit interaction, is developed by establishing behavior recognition and interaction intention understanding. An eye-movement experiment verifies the former’s accuracy is above 90% and had better recognition performance. A better feature vector group of the latter is selected to establish a model and verify its feasibility and effectiveness. Finally, the feasibility of the framework is verified through the development of an application example. Full article
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20 pages, 663 KiB  
Article
An Evaluation of Critical Capabilities and Improvement Areas for Competitive Manufacturing in a Developed-Country Environment
by Ivana Ascic, Josip Ascic, Per Hilletofth, Márcio Lopes Pimenta and Olli-Pekka Hilmola
Sustainability 2022, 14(11), 6678; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14116678 - 30 May 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1861
Abstract
This research evaluates the critical capabilities and improvement areas for competitive manufacturing in a developed-country environment. A multiple-case-study approach is applied, consisting of three manufacturing firms located in Sweden. The case study combines both quantitative and qualitative evaluations of the critical capabilities found [...] Read more.
This research evaluates the critical capabilities and improvement areas for competitive manufacturing in a developed-country environment. A multiple-case-study approach is applied, consisting of three manufacturing firms located in Sweden. The case study combines both quantitative and qualitative evaluations of the critical capabilities found in the extant literature. The research reveals fifteen critical capabilities and sixteen improvement areas for competitive manufacturing in a developed-country environment. The results show that the firms develop capabilities in a cumulative manner, starting with cost and quality, continuing with time and flexibility, and finally trying to improve innovation and sustainability. To develop competitive manufacturing operations in developed counties, it is therefore vital to improve capabilities related to time, flexibility, innovation, or sustainability. Irrespective of the targeted capabilities, they must contribute to cost-efficient operations and high quality must always be maintained. The efforts to develop capabilities related to innovation and sustainability may be expensive in the short term, however they can provide better cumulative results and competitiveness in the long term. Full article
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13 pages, 1940 KiB  
Review
Smart Material Choice: The Importance of Circular Design Strategy Applications for Bio-Based Food Packaging Preproduction and End-of-Life Life Cycle Stages
by Zita Markevičiūtė and Visvaldas Varžinskas
Sustainability 2022, 14(10), 6366; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14106366 - 23 May 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 3298
Abstract
This article provides a systematic literature review on the integrated approach of bio-based plastic food packaging in a circular economy. It focuses on the following key areas: (1) the role of bio-based plastic food packaging in a circular product design strategy and material [...] Read more.
This article provides a systematic literature review on the integrated approach of bio-based plastic food packaging in a circular economy. It focuses on the following key areas: (1) the role of bio-based plastic food packaging in a circular product design strategy and material choice in the preproduction life cycle stage; (2) the role of bio-based plastic food packaging in circular resource management systems and the product disposal life cycle stage; and (3) an optimal bio-based plastic food packaging application in regard to prioritising end-of-life treatment. While there are dedicated publications on the role of packaging in a circular economy, circular packaging design, packaging waste management, and bio-origin plastic applications in food packaging, this article aims to provide an integrated review and recommendations on the best bio-based plastic food packaging material selection, applications based on a circular economy, and scenarios on waste/resource management that prioritise end-of-life treatment. Three of the current most popular bio-based plastic materials in the flexible and rigid food packaging categories were selected: starch blends, bio-PE, and PLA for flexible food packaging and PLA, bio-PET, and bio-PE for rigid packaging. This article highlights the fact that a smart material choice in the circular design strategy is a key factor that has a direct impact on the last packaging life cycle stage (disposal), and concludes that bio-based plastic materials are a way to close the food packaging loop, either by re-use or recycling. This article also provides recommendations on the best bio-based plastic food packaging material selection, and applications based on the circular economy and waste management that prioritise end-of-life treatment. The research results indicate a research niche for the application of re-usable biodegradable materials in food packaging. The findings of this research allow product designers and packaging companies to advance the understanding of the most efficient bio-based plastic food packaging integration into the circular economy via decision making of product material choice and end-of-life treatment. Based on the results of this article, scholars can develop new themes for further research. Full article
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34 pages, 4510 KiB  
Article
The Impact of Government Interventions and Consumer Green Preferences on the Competition between Green and Nongreen Supply Chains
by Wen Cheng, Qunqi Wu, Fei Ye and Qian Li
Sustainability 2022, 14(10), 5893; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14105893 - 12 May 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2172
Abstract
The green supply chain (GSC) has become a major trend that advocates for the sustainability of supply chains. To seek optimal strategies for the GSC, the competition between green and nongreen supply chains (NGSCs), along with the impacts of government subsidies and tax [...] Read more.
The green supply chain (GSC) has become a major trend that advocates for the sustainability of supply chains. To seek optimal strategies for the GSC, the competition between green and nongreen supply chains (NGSCs), along with the impacts of government subsidies and tax policies and the green preferences of consumers, are discussed in this study. A pricing-strategy model of an NGSC and a GSC was conducted by considering the cross-price effects. The equilibrium strategies (the optimal green-technology level, the pricing, and the profits) were achieved and were comparatively analyzed with backward induction. For more in-depth research, a robust sensitivity analysis was conducted, and the Taguchi method was used to identify the main factors that affect the revenues of NGSCs and GSCs. The results show that the vertical collaboration between manufacturers and retailers can help to improve the greenness of products and bring more benefits to consumers. The government interventions have an effect, and when the government sets a premeditated threshold for subsidies and taxation, GSC members can earn more, and the green products obtain more competitiveness. The green preferences of consumers are the primarily conducive factor to the sustainability and profit increases of GSCs. However, the green-technology-investment cost will not have a significant influence on the equilibrium strategies. Full article
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17 pages, 5408 KiB  
Article
Digital Twin-Driven Adaptive Scheduling for Flexible Job Shops
by Lilan Liu, Kai Guo, Zenggui Gao, Jiaying Li and Jiachen Sun
Sustainability 2022, 14(9), 5340; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14095340 - 28 Apr 2022
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2683
Abstract
The traditional shop floor scheduling problem mainly focuses on the static environment, which is unrealistic in actual production. To solve this problem, this paper proposes a digital twin-driven shop floor adaptive scheduling method. Firstly, a digital twin model of the actual production line [...] Read more.
The traditional shop floor scheduling problem mainly focuses on the static environment, which is unrealistic in actual production. To solve this problem, this paper proposes a digital twin-driven shop floor adaptive scheduling method. Firstly, a digital twin model of the actual production line is established to monitor the operation of the actual production line in real time and provide a real-time data source for subsequent scheduling; secondly, to address the problem that the solution quality and efficiency of the traditional genetic algorithm cannot meet the actual production demand, the key parameters in the genetic algorithm are dynamically adjusted using a reinforcement learning enhanced genetic algorithm to improve the solution efficiency and quality. Finally, the digital twin system captures dynamic events and issues warnings when dynamic events occur in the actual production process, and adaptively optimizes the initial scheduling scheme. The effectiveness of the proposed method is verified through the construction of the digital twin system, extensive dynamic scheduling experiments, and validation in a laboratory environment. It achieves real-time monitoring of the scheduling environment, accurately captures abnormal events in the production process, and combines with the scheduling algorithm to effectively solve a key problem in smart manufacturing. Full article
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15 pages, 2247 KiB  
Article
Pricing Game between Customized Bus and Conventional Bus with Combined Operational Objectives
by Jun Li, Xiaoman Feng and Bicen Jia
Systems 2022, 10(3), 55; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems10030055 - 24 Apr 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2043
Abstract
Social welfare and profit are two main factors to be included in the operational goal of bus services. It is assumed that conventional bus services are “welfare pro” with more consideration of social welfare, while customized bus services are “profit pro” with more [...] Read more.
Social welfare and profit are two main factors to be included in the operational goal of bus services. It is assumed that conventional bus services are “welfare pro” with more consideration of social welfare, while customized bus services are “profit pro” with more consideration of profit, and the goal of each bus service is to maximize the overall payoffs, namely, the weighted sum of social welfare and profit. A bi-level pricing game is proposed to shed light on the impact of two bus services’ pricing competition on the payoffs when the operational objectives with different weights of social welfare are adopted. A case study shows that the pricing strategies of conventional bus services have a significant impact on the customized bus services. The customized bus operator should consider more “social welfare” to attract customers and to achieve the overall payoffs when the conventional bus service takes a high price strategy, and the customized bus operator can take a strategy of a high price to maintain its overall payoffs when the conventional bus operator maximizes the social welfare. It is found that there exists a trade-off by which both sides obtain the balanced overall payoffs. Full article
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21 pages, 971 KiB  
Article
Assessing the Benefit of Adopting ERP Technology and Practicing Green Supply Chain Management toward Operational Performance: An Evidence from Indonesia
by Ruben Wahyu Santoso, Hotlan Siagian, Zeplin Jiwa Husada Tarigan and Ferry Jie
Sustainability 2022, 14(9), 4944; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14094944 - 20 Apr 2022
Cited by 19 | Viewed by 4346
Abstract
The recent concern on the environmental protection and COVID-19 issue is increasingly affecting the manufacturing industry. This research assessing the benefit of adopting ERP technology and practicing green supply chain management toward operational performance in manufacturing industry. The study is essential to provide [...] Read more.
The recent concern on the environmental protection and COVID-19 issue is increasingly affecting the manufacturing industry. This research assessing the benefit of adopting ERP technology and practicing green supply chain management toward operational performance in manufacturing industry. The study is essential to provide insight for the manufacturing industry regarding the consequences and benefits of practicing the green supply chain and adopting ERP technology amid the current constraints of the environmental protection issue and the COVID-19 pandemic. The study has surveyed 122 companies domiciled in Indonesia. Data collection used a questionnaire designed with a seven-point Likert scale. Questionnaire created in Google form, printed and distributed using social media and postal mail. Data analysis used SmartPLS software version 3.0. The result revealed that ERP adoption enables green purchasing, production, distribution, and operational performance. Furthermore, operating performance is directly affected by green purchasing and green production. However, operating performance was not supported by green distribution. In addition, ERP adoption indirectly improves operational performance through green purchasing and green production. But ERP adoption did not affect operational performance through green distribution. This result provides essential insight for the manager in the manufacturing industry that adopting ERP in the era of the COVID-19 pandemic and practicing environmental protection such as green purchasing, green production enhances operational performance. In summary, the result of this study encourages the practitioner to adopt environmental protection in running their business since it benefits the company. While there are very few studies examining the relationship between ERP adoption, green supply chain practices, and operational performance, this study is essential in terms of exploring the mediating role of green supply chain practices on the effect of ERP adoption on operational performance. Thus, these research findings could enrich the current research in the supply chain management context. Full article
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18 pages, 2426 KiB  
Article
Impact of Industrial Agglomeration on China’s Residents’ Consumption
by Suhua Zhang, Yasmin Bani, Aslam Izah Selamat and Judhiana Abdul Ghani
Sustainability 2022, 14(7), 4364; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14074364 - 06 Apr 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2463
Abstract
Residents’ consumption is a good indicator of people’s livelihoods and one of the motivations driving economic growth. There are many studies on the influencing factors of residents’ consumption; however, few have studied the effects of industrial agglomeration on residents’ consumption, and even fewer [...] Read more.
Residents’ consumption is a good indicator of people’s livelihoods and one of the motivations driving economic growth. There are many studies on the influencing factors of residents’ consumption; however, few have studied the effects of industrial agglomeration on residents’ consumption, and even fewer have studied the spatial correlation of residents’ consumption. The goal of this paper is to research the impact of China’s manufacturing industrial agglomeration on residents’ consumption from a spatial perspective. Using data on China’s 31 provinces from 2003 to 2019 and the spatial Durbin model, our results show that the manufacturing industrial agglomeration and residents’ consumption present an inverted “U-shape” relationship and that different regions show different effects. Industrial agglomeration in the eastern region is relatively high and has a restraining effect on residents’ consumption, while industrial agglomeration in the central and western regions is at an early stage and promotes residents’ consumption. Therefore, different regions should adopt different industrial agglomeration policies. Full article
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17 pages, 2074 KiB  
Article
Impact of the Design Industry on Carbon Emissions in the Manufacturing Industry in China: A Case Study of Zhejiang Province
by Bing Xu and Haoxiang Qu
Sustainability 2022, 14(7), 4261; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14074261 - 03 Apr 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2231
Abstract
Reducing carbon emissions during the manufacturing process is a top priority for realizing the strategic “carbon neutral” target. Currently, there is a great deal of research about carbon production in the middle and later stages of production. However, studies on upstream processes are [...] Read more.
Reducing carbon emissions during the manufacturing process is a top priority for realizing the strategic “carbon neutral” target. Currently, there is a great deal of research about carbon production in the middle and later stages of production. However, studies on upstream processes are relatively scarce. Studies concerning the design stages are particularly uncommon, although this phase has a profound effect on carbon emissions during manufacturing. Therefore, it is vital to study this and related fields in depth. In this paper, we take Zhejiang Province, China, as the research object, and study the relationship between the design industry and carbon emissions in the manufacturing industry. Through analysis, we developed a first-level evaluation index for the influence of design on carbon emissions in the production stage. Then, we subdivided the first-level indexes into several second-level indexes using the entropy method. Subsequently, we calculated their weights and comprehensively evaluated the influence of these design factors on carbon emissions in the manufacturing industry using the ridge regression model test. Results from our research reveal that at the design end of the production chain, the expansion of resource scale of each design phase has a significant inhibitory effect on the carbon emissions of the manufacturing stage. Conversely, improvements to the industrial economic benefit index have a significant positive effect on the carbon emissions in the manufacturing industry, while government support and the innovation composite index have little influence. The main conclusions of this study are as follows: To reduce carbon emissions in the manufacturing industry, the scale of the inhibitory effect of the design process should be fully evaluated, while the scale construction and related resource input of the design phase should be emphasized. Furthermore, guidance regarding the social responsibility of design enterprises should be strengthened to further promote the concept of “green design” and reverse the purely market-oriented focus of the industry. Also, to promote a greener design industry, the provision of high-quality green design talents should be fortified. In the future, an appropriate green design evaluation index system should be devised to ensure the stable economic development of the design industry and challenge the current situation where a focus on economic indexes results in increased carbon emissions. Full article
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15 pages, 4564 KiB  
Article
Impact of the Manufacturing Processes of Aromatic-Polymer-Based Carbon Fiber on Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions
by Kaito Sakamoto, Kotaro Kawajiri, Hiroaki Hatori and Kiyotaka Tahara
Sustainability 2022, 14(6), 3541; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14063541 - 17 Mar 2022
Cited by 11 | Viewed by 1994
Abstract
Carbon fibers (CFs) are promising lightweight materials to reduce vehicle fuel consumption. However, the most widely used polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-based CF production process consumes a considerable amount of energy. A novel production process for CFs from aromatic polymers (APs) is proposed as an alternative. [...] Read more.
Carbon fibers (CFs) are promising lightweight materials to reduce vehicle fuel consumption. However, the most widely used polyacrylonitrile (PAN)-based CF production process consumes a considerable amount of energy. A novel production process for CFs from aromatic polymers (APs) is proposed as an alternative. In this study, the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from PAN-based CFs, from APs using the classical benzidine method, and from APs using the coupling method on a cradle-to-gate basis, were analyzed. The results indicate that the AP CFs with the classical benzidine method generated 11% fewer GHG emissions compared with the conventional PAN CFs. Emissions were further reduced by 42% using a large-tow production process. As the classical benzidine method for manufacturing CFs from APs uses a monomer synthesized via benzidine, which is carcinogenic, we examined a different synthetic route using the coupling method for monomer synthesis to avoid the benzidine intermediate. The GHG emissions from the AP CFs manufactured by the coupling method showed a 51% increase compared with PAN-based CFs, indicating a trade-off between GHG emissions and carcinogenicity. However, with proper chemical management, the classical method of CF manufacturing from APs via benzidine showed reduced GHG emissions. Full article
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23 pages, 2961 KiB  
Article
Can China’s Policy of Carbon Emissions Trading Optimize Manufacturing Structure? Evidence from Guangdong Based on a Synthetic Control Approach
by Yutao Lei, Xuan Zhang and Wenxiang Peng
Sustainability 2022, 14(6), 3302; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14063302 - 11 Mar 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 2637
Abstract
On 16 July 2021, the national carbon emissions trading market opened, and the national carbon market officially started online trading. However, it is still unclear whether the carbon emissions trading policy can effectively optimize the manufacturing structure. We studied the experiment of the [...] Read more.
On 16 July 2021, the national carbon emissions trading market opened, and the national carbon market officially started online trading. However, it is still unclear whether the carbon emissions trading policy can effectively optimize the manufacturing structure. We studied the experiment of the carbon emissions trading policy that has been ongoing in Guangdong, China, since 2013 to assess the impact of this policy on the manufacturing structure in Guangdong Province compared to other provinces in mainland China that have not implemented a carbon trading pilot policy. The methodology uses a synthetic control method. Using this method, a “synthetic Guangdong” was constructed using data from 23 provinces (municipalities and autonomous regions) in mainland China that did not implement carbon trading policies from 2009 to 2019. The synthetic province had similar observed characteristics to Guangdong before the carbon emissions trading experiment in 2013. Therefore, manufacturing structure differences between Guangdong and the synthetic province after 2013 could be attributed only to the carbon emissions trading policy. The conclusion indicates that in the short term, the carbon emissions trading policy implemented in 2013 can significantly promote manufacturing upgrading and manufacturing greening in Guangdong Province. This policy can optimize the manufacturing structure of Guangdong Province through improving the technological innovation of enterprises and increasing foreign direct investment. Therefore, in regions whose manufacturing structure is similar to Guangdong Province, implementing a carbon emissions trading policy can promote manufacturing upgrading and manufacturing greening. Full article
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37 pages, 11090 KiB  
Article
Technology-Based Strategies for Online Secondhand Platforms Promoting Sustainable Retailing
by Yoonjae Bae, Jungyeon Choi, Munguljin Gantumur and Nayeon Kim
Sustainability 2022, 14(6), 3259; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14063259 - 10 Mar 2022
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 7595
Abstract
Online secondhand resale platforms are a booming industry involving the growing recognition of various economic, environmental, and recreational benefits in buying and selling used items. This preliminary study explores technology-based strategies for online secondhand platforms, which contributed to the resale industry’s steady growth [...] Read more.
Online secondhand resale platforms are a booming industry involving the growing recognition of various economic, environmental, and recreational benefits in buying and selling used items. This preliminary study explores technology-based strategies for online secondhand platforms, which contributed to the resale industry’s steady growth and digital transformation. Through a variety of literature, this study established a basis for developing research on technological innovations in online resale platforms. A mixed method was used to collect both quantitative and qualitative data to investigate and understand the features of resale e-commerce. Case studies of four online secondhand resale platforms specializing in general goods and fashion helped identify a variety of technological strategies that were later analyzed based on the technology acceptance model (TAM). Survey data from respondents in their twenties and thirties living in South Korea indicated features that promote safe transactions, engaging user experience and user interface design, and individual compatibility as most effective in influencing users’ resale platform usage. Features that involve high technology, such as virtual reality and machine learning, had the least impact on users’ usage. Data gathered from follow-up interviews showing the recurring theme of unfamiliarity with the technological features corroborated the survey findings. Analyzing qualitative data from expert interviews generated key concepts in future trends in online resale platform strategies, including effective data management. Based on this study’s findings, the digitalization and onlineization of the online secondhand resale industry are likely to continue with the implementation of various strategies that contribute to users’ perceptions of usefulness, ease-of-use, and enjoyment, increasing users’ satisfaction and, hence, the actual usage of these platforms. The proliferation of secondary e-commerce will facilitate a shared culture that values sustainable consumption in online platforms and promote sustainability in the retail industry. Full article
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18 pages, 716 KiB  
Article
Effects of Working from Home on Job Performance: Empirical Evidence in the Saudi Context during the COVID-19 Pandemic
by Jamel Choukir, Munirah Sarhan Alqahtani, Essam Khalil and Elsayed Mohamed
Sustainability 2022, 14(6), 3216; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14063216 - 09 Mar 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 5017
Abstract
This research investigated the mediating role of attitudes and perceptions between working from home (WFH) and employees’ job performance. It also explored the role of gender, education level, and job position in the relationship between specifications and facilities when working from home, as [...] Read more.
This research investigated the mediating role of attitudes and perceptions between working from home (WFH) and employees’ job performance. It also explored the role of gender, education level, and job position in the relationship between specifications and facilities when working from home, as well as attitudes and perceptions. This study is exploratory and capitalizes on novel findings from a questionnaire. Data were collected from 399 employees employed by the principal Saudi businesses. The current study uses structural equation modeling to test the research hypotheses and examines the direct and indirect relationship between working from home and employees’ job performance. The results confirmed the significant direct linkage between WFH and employees’ job performance through the mediating roles of WFH employees’ attitudes and perceptions. Our findings also confirm the significant relationship between WFH employees’ attributes and their job performance, and the significant association between WFH and job performance. However, our results identified the fact that perceptions have an inverse impact on job performance. This study also provides significant theoretical and practical insights for managers who are adopting WFH. It contributes empirically to the literature by informing managers of the factors driving job performance in WFH, helping organizations to cope with the many issues related to a workforce who are working from home. Our research findings also ascertained that WFH seems likely to become a permanent managerial practice in terms of human resources, rather than a simple circumstantial measure. Moreover, this study can be considered as one of the first studies that assess the effect of WFH on employees’ job performance via a mediation role of employee attributes, in the context of Saudi firms. Full article
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15 pages, 11654 KiB  
Article
Investigating Market Diffusion of Electric Vehicles with Experimental Design of Agent-Based Modeling Simulation
by Awol Seid Ebrie and Young Jin Kim
Systems 2022, 10(2), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems10020028 - 02 Mar 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3297
Abstract
The transportation sector is recognized as one of the largest contributors to the problems of global warming and environmental pollution, and is responsible for a great deal of global energy consumption, which is heavily dependent upon scarce crude oil reserves. Different countries have [...] Read more.
The transportation sector is recognized as one of the largest contributors to the problems of global warming and environmental pollution, and is responsible for a great deal of global energy consumption, which is heavily dependent upon scarce crude oil reserves. Different countries have adopted promotional policies to replace conventional internal combustion engine vehicles with electric vehicles as a means of mitigating global warming. Nevertheless, the current market share of eco-friendly vehicles remains stagnant in many parts of the world. This study aims to investigate the impact and relative importance of financial, technical, and political measures on the market penetration of electric vehicles using an agent-based simulation. More specifically, a series of agent-based simulation experiments is carried out following the statistical experimental design scheme to systematically assess the diffusion of electric vehicles. Affected by various factors and measures, the choice behavior of individual agents is modeled with a multinomial logit utility function of experimental factors. The simulated data are analyzed using different analysis methods, including full factorial analysis, response surface methodology, and support vector machine, in order to scrutinize the effects of different measures. It is advocated that factors affecting the choice of vehicle by individuals, including two-way interactions among various measures as well as policy measures such as purchase subsidies and tax breaks, have more significant effects on the widespread adoption of electric vehicles than do technical improvements in terms of battery charging times and driving mileage. This implies that the adoption of such measures needs to be carefully designed in order to account for potential interactions among individual measures as well as their main effects on the diffusion of electric vehicles. Full article
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13 pages, 5576 KiB  
Article
Research on the Influence of Wheelsets on the Visual Imagery of City Bicycles
by Fan Wu, Peng Lu and Yang-Cheng Lin
Sustainability 2022, 14(5), 2762; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14052762 - 26 Feb 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1432
Abstract
City bicycles have become popular worldwide because they play an essential role in releasing urban traffic congestion and are environmentally friendly. Since wheelsets are the most prominent shape element in a bicycle, this research explores the influence of various wheel types on the [...] Read more.
City bicycles have become popular worldwide because they play an essential role in releasing urban traffic congestion and are environmentally friendly. Since wheelsets are the most prominent shape element in a bicycle, this research explores the influence of various wheel types on the visual image of a city bicycle. First, 10 wheelsets with a high market share in China were selected as the research samples. Meanwhile, vocabularies suitable for describing wheelsets were chosen from many vocabularies. Then, all vocabularies were summarized into six adjectives using factor analysis, and consumers were invited to evaluate all samples using the grouped adjectives. Finally, triangular fuzzy numbers were used to obtain the evaluation scores of 10 wheelsets on six adjectives, and the 10 wheelsets were divided into four groups based on the evaluation scores. The results show that the visual imagery evaluation of the 10 wheelsets had a significant difference in the “trimmed and stable”, “superior and presentable”, and “holistic and balanced” groups, but a slight difference in “novel and individualized”, “rhythmic and metrical”, and “mechanical and ordered.” The research results could serve as a reference for city bicycle operators and help improve product development efficiency, thereby promoting the sustainable development of city bicycles. Full article
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18 pages, 4051 KiB  
Article
The Volumetric Method Describing the Life Cycle of Power Tools during Their Production with Different Ends of Life
by Richard Sovják, Marie Tichá and Eva Fridrichová
Sustainability 2022, 14(3), 1498; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14031498 - 27 Jan 2022
Viewed by 2533
Abstract
The amount of power consumption of the product life cycle has a significant impact on global warming. To determine these negative impacts, life cycle assessment (LCA) is used. These methods are time-consuming and expensive training costs that require the characteristics of the mass [...] Read more.
The amount of power consumption of the product life cycle has a significant impact on global warming. To determine these negative impacts, life cycle assessment (LCA) is used. These methods are time-consuming and expensive training costs that require the characteristics of the mass and material characteristics of the products. The aim of the present study was to develop a method that uses only product typology and volumetric product properties without knowing the structural and material composition. To achieve the objective, 134 pieces of power tools were used, divided into 10 groups according to their type. The volume of the product was determined by 3D scanning with subsequent material and the LCA method based on the Oil Point Method (OPM). The end of life (EoL) of the product was evaluated in landfilling, combustion, and 90% recycling variants. Equations were obtained from Monte Carlo Simulation with 95% reliability and allowed the determination of the energy requirements for the production of power tools and CO2 emissions, including data for packaging and transport of goods. The Volumetric Evaluating Method of Ecodesign (VEME) can quickly evaluate impact in three EoL procedures and optimise the volume of power tools and the location of production of products without LCA knowledge. Full article
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18 pages, 1100 KiB  
Article
A Strategic Double-Loop Learning Method for Organisational Decision-Making toward Servitisation
by Yusuke Tsutsui, Yuya Mitake, Yuki Funami and Yoshiki Shimomura
Sustainability 2022, 14(2), 901; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14020901 - 13 Jan 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2461
Abstract
In recent years, manufacturing industries have been expected to achieve servitisation—namely, a shift from product sales to product-service systems—in order to achieve sustainable production and consumption patterns. In order to achieve servitisation, manufacturing firms should grasp the business environment and encourage organisational learning [...] Read more.
In recent years, manufacturing industries have been expected to achieve servitisation—namely, a shift from product sales to product-service systems—in order to achieve sustainable production and consumption patterns. In order to achieve servitisation, manufacturing firms should grasp the business environment and encourage organisational learning to develop the knowledge for servitisation in their environment. The existing knowledge management studies enable the empirical acquisition and reuse of knowledge from past case studies and make efforts to support organisational learning. However, they do not cover the guiding of firms engaged in servitisation to learn appropriately for their business environment. The learning required for manufacturing firms engaged in servitisation is learning that focuses on questioning and modifying existing product-oriented premises—double-loop learning. This paper proposes a method to support strategic double-loop learning within manufacturing companies engaged in servitisation. This method evaluates the compatibility between the implicit premises that manufacturers refer to as the rationale for their decision toward servitisation and the external environment and enables to formulate a practical strategy for double-loop learning. The proposed method was applied to the case of a cassette tape music player to demonstrate its usefulness. This study suggests theoretical foundations for future research into knowledge management for traditional manufacturing companies’ decisions concerning servitisation, and suggests that these should be carried out dynamically according to the business environment. Full article
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15 pages, 539 KiB  
Review
A Literature Review of Drone-Based Package Delivery Logistics Systems and Their Implementation Feasibility
by Taha Benarbia and Kyandoghere Kyamakya
Sustainability 2022, 14(1), 360; https://doi.org/10.3390/su14010360 - 29 Dec 2021
Cited by 63 | Viewed by 18603
Abstract
In recent years, e-commerce businesses have seen an increase in the daily volume of packages to be delivered, as well as an increase in the number of particularly demanding customer expectations. In this respect, the delivery mechanism became prohibitively expensive, particularly for the [...] Read more.
In recent years, e-commerce businesses have seen an increase in the daily volume of packages to be delivered, as well as an increase in the number of particularly demanding customer expectations. In this respect, the delivery mechanism became prohibitively expensive, particularly for the final kilometer. To stay competitive and meet the increased demand, businesses began to look for innovative autonomous delivery options for the last mile, such as autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles/drones, which are a promising alternative for the logistics industry. Following the success of drones in surveillance and remote sensing, drone delivery systems have begun to emerge as a new solution to reduce delivery costs and delivery time. In the coming years, autonomous drone sharing systems will be an unavoidable logistical solution, especially with the new laws/recommendations introduced by the Flight World Organization on how to organize the operations of these special unmanned airline systems. This paper provides a comprehensive literature survey on a set of relevant research issues and highlights the representative solutions and concepts that have been proposed thus far in the design and modeling of the logistics of drone delivery systems, with the purpose of discussing the respective performance levels reached by the various suggested approaches. Furthermore, the paper also investigates the central problems to be addressed and briefly discusses and outlines a series of interesting new research avenues of relevance for drone-based package delivery systems. Full article
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14 pages, 2066 KiB  
Article
Life Cycle Assessment of Biocement: An Emerging Sustainable Solution?
by Hannah Porter, Abhijit Mukherjee, Rabin Tuladhar and Navdeep Kaur Dhami
Sustainability 2021, 13(24), 13878; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132413878 - 15 Dec 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 3893
Abstract
Microbially Induced Calcium Carbonate Precipitation (MICP) is a natural biocementation that takes place in corals, stromatolites and beach rocks. In recent years, researchers have explored the emulation of this process as a sustainable alternative of engineered cement. Although the natural process is undoubtedly [...] Read more.
Microbially Induced Calcium Carbonate Precipitation (MICP) is a natural biocementation that takes place in corals, stromatolites and beach rocks. In recent years, researchers have explored the emulation of this process as a sustainable alternative of engineered cement. Although the natural process is undoubtedly sustainable, its engineered variant deviates substantially from the natural process. In this paper, we investigate the environmental and economic performance of the engineered biocementation process vis-à-vis present manufacturing of calcium carbonate. SimaPro 8.0 software and the Ecoinvent V2.2 database were used for materials inputs and AUSLCI along with Cumulative Energy Demand 2.01 software were used for carbon footprint and eutrophication potential. Our results show that different metabolic pathways of MICP have considerably varying environmental impact. We observe that nature performs MICP sustainably at ambient conditions and geological time scales utilizing naturally occurring sources of carbon and calcium at micromoles concentrations. Due to the mandate on duration of construction projects, highly purified reactants in a high concentration are used in the engineered process. This has a negative environmental impact. We conclude that the sustainability of engineered MICP is directly impacted by the metabolic pathway of bacteria as well as the purity of the input chemicals. A few biotic processes are superior to the present industrial process for manufacturing calcium carbonate if ingredients of laboratory grade purity are replaced by industrial grade products. A bigger dividend can be obtained by introducing industry by-products as nutrients. The results of this study help to direct future research for developing sustainable biocement for the construction industry. Full article
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13 pages, 2840 KiB  
Article
Life Cycle Assessment of Thermoelectric Generators (TEGs) in an Automobile Application
by Kotaro Kawajiri, Yusuke Kishita and Yoshikazu Shinohara
Sustainability 2021, 13(24), 13630; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132413630 - 09 Dec 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 2985
Abstract
In this paper, a possibility to reduce the environmental burdens by employing thermoelectric generators (TEGs) was analyzed with a cradle-to-grave LCA approach. An upscaling technique was newly introduced to assess the environmental impacts of TEGs over its life cycle. In addition to CO [...] Read more.
In this paper, a possibility to reduce the environmental burdens by employing thermoelectric generators (TEGs) was analyzed with a cradle-to-grave LCA approach. An upscaling technique was newly introduced to assess the environmental impacts of TEGs over its life cycle. In addition to CO2 emissions, other environmental impacts as well as social impacts were assessed using the Life Cycle Impact Assessment Method based on Endpoint Modeling (LIME2). The analysis was conducted under two scenarios, a baseline scenario with a 7.2% conversion efficiency and a technology innovation scenario with that of 17.7% at different production scales. The results showed that while GHG emissions were positive over the life cycle under the baseline scenario, it became negative (−1.56 × 102 kg-CO2 eq/kg) under the technology innovation scenario due to GHG credits in the use phase. An increase in the conversion efficiency of the TEG and a decrease in the amount of stainless steel used in TEG construction are both necessary in order to reduce the environmental impacts associated with TEG manufacture and use. In addition, to accurately assess the benefit of TEG deployment, the lifetime driving distance needs to be analyzed together with the conversion efficiency. Full article
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16 pages, 1016 KiB  
Case Report
A Practical Approach to Companies’ Transformation toward Product Longevity: A Best-Case Study
by Peter Byrial Jensen, Louise Møller Haase and Linda Nhu Laursen
Sustainability 2021, 13(23), 13312; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132313312 - 01 Dec 2021
Viewed by 2245
Abstract
Product longevity is a key to improving the sustainability of production and consumption patterns. However, at many companies, extending product longevity requires overcoming several complex barriers. Identifying how to begin this process can be difficult; moreover, the available solutions may seem too complex [...] Read more.
Product longevity is a key to improving the sustainability of production and consumption patterns. However, at many companies, extending product longevity requires overcoming several complex barriers. Identifying how to begin this process can be difficult; moreover, the available solutions may seem too complex or radical and, therefore, may be ignored as viable options. The purpose of this paper is to study the approaches and decision patterns that enable best-practice companies to produce high-longevity products. We aim to map approaches to implementing product longevity through a multiple-case study of 18 best-practice companies that systematically work to ensure product longevity. Through interviews with developers, CFOs and CEOs at companies that strive to design and produce long-lasting products, we identify three key types of approaches to implementing product longevity: performance-driven, behavioural change-driven and vision-driven approaches. This study reveals several types of approaches to implementing product longevity successfully. This contribution advances our understanding of how companies can engage with and foster product longevity at different stages of the development process. Full article
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17 pages, 4815 KiB  
Review
Legacy Systems Modernisation for Citizen-Centric Digital Government: A Conceptual Model
by Humairath Abu Bakar, Rozilawati Razali and Dian Indrayani Jambari
Sustainability 2021, 13(23), 13112; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132313112 - 26 Nov 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 2702
Abstract
Information technology and communication (ICT) plays an important role as a catalyst for organisational development and innovation. However, old information systems that are known as legacy systems often expose organisations to the risk of business failure. These systems are not only impeding the [...] Read more.
Information technology and communication (ICT) plays an important role as a catalyst for organisational development and innovation. However, old information systems that are known as legacy systems often expose organisations to the risk of business failure. These systems are not only impeding the advancement in technology strategy but also hindering the organisations’ business competitiveness. Nevertheless, legacy systems are essential in supporting critical functions in organisations including the public sector and could not be scrapped easily. These systems need to be given a new strength through modernisation to continue providing the best service in line with global trends. Modernisation is a complex task that involves several related aspects. In the context of the public sector, legacy systems involve a complicated information relationship, environment, and culture, while ensuring the citizens are of high priority. The implementation of a digital government represents the transformation of the public service delivery to the citizens that emphasises a citizen-centric design. This study, therefore, aims to address this concern by reviewing the factors involved and suggesting a guideline in the form of a conceptual model to assist in the modernisation of legacy systems for a citizen-centric digital government. Data from the theoretical study were analysed using content analysis. The results show that the legacy systems’ modernisation comprised four main aspects, namely human, process, product, and organisation aspects, with related factors and elements. This model contributes as a reference for the public sector and provides overall guidance in performing legacy systems modernisation. Full article
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25 pages, 5731 KiB  
Article
Strategic Alliance for Resilience in Supply Chain: A Bibliometric Analysis
by Maryam Philsoophian, Peyman Akhavan and Morteza Abbasi
Sustainability 2021, 13(22), 12715; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132212715 - 17 Nov 2021
Cited by 10 | Viewed by 5534
Abstract
Resilience is a particularly important quality for supply chains in this turbulent environment. Resilience in the supply chain is the ability to retain, resume, and recover operations after an intense destructive incident. One of the strategic solutions for managing supply chain disruptions is [...] Read more.
Resilience is a particularly important quality for supply chains in this turbulent environment. Resilience in the supply chain is the ability to retain, resume, and recover operations after an intense destructive incident. One of the strategic solutions for managing supply chain disruptions is to establish collaboration and strategic alliances in order to achieve competitive advantage. Therefore, given the increasing publication of articles in areas of strategic alliances and supply chain resilience, it is a good opportunity to review these articles, identify gaps in the current literature, demonstrate links between the two areas, and provide suggestions for future research. For these purposes, a bibliometric analysis has been performed on literature available on the Web of Science database. The distribution of articles based on year and country, influential journals, research areas, authors, affiliations, keywords, citations, and reference co-citation analysis are discussed. Results indicate that studies about strategic alliances, meant to increase resilience, are growing in areas such as “Management”, “Operations research”, “Management science”, and “Business”. Furthermore, the sources could be categorized into five clusters; namely “From knowledge concept to value creation”, “Internal and external relationships”, “Logistics and supply chain performance”, “Intellectual capital and strategic management”, and “Critical success factors and alliances”. This article can be useful for both practitioners and academics who explore the topic of strategic alliances and resilience in the supply chain, and also offers managers the opportunity to overcome supply chain disruptions and negative consequences of risks by becoming familiar with the key concepts of resilience. The persistence of businesses and supply chains is guaranteed through communicating with partners and even competitors in the light of alliance according to the findings of this research. Managers can pay attention to the integration of the supply chain to improve resilience and increase collaboration between suppliers and customers. Given the research results, strategic alliances can be noted in expanding organizational entrepreneurship and shaping strategic collaboration networks in light of strategic alliances. Full article
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21 pages, 281 KiB  
Article
Tactics for Xinjiang Tourism Industrial Belt Based on Performance Evaluation
by Xin Qian, Yuping Xu, Xuehui Mei and Xia Xie
Sustainability 2021, 13(22), 12473; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132212473 - 11 Nov 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1660
Abstract
In this paper, some tactics are considered in Xinjiang tourism industrial belt based on performance evaluation. First, we applied the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) to establish an evaluation system for Xinjiang tourism development in four dimensions: tourism performance, resource utilization, basic supporting capacity, and [...] Read more.
In this paper, some tactics are considered in Xinjiang tourism industrial belt based on performance evaluation. First, we applied the Balanced Scorecard (BSC) to establish an evaluation system for Xinjiang tourism development in four dimensions: tourism performance, resource utilization, basic supporting capacity, and market attention. Second, the performance of tourism development in 14 Prefectures was evaluated using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) in 2018. Third, because the Prefectures were divided into four tourism industrial belts, a discussion was conducted to identify and understand the difference among them and their corresponding influence on regional tourism development using the Theil index and Entropy method. The result shows that (1) In all dimensions, the differences within each industrial belt were greater than those between industrial belts. (2) The tourism industrial belts displayed a differentiation phenomenon, in the dimension of significant difference being distinct for different belts. Finally (3), it is found that the resource utilization of all belts is significantly different. Full article
17 pages, 1955 KiB  
Review
Can Fashion Be Circular? A Literature Review on Circular Economy Barriers, Drivers, and Practices in the Fashion Industry’s Productive Chain
by Andreza de Aguiar Hugo, Jeniffer de Nadae and Renato da Silva Lima
Sustainability 2021, 13(21), 12246; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132112246 - 05 Nov 2021
Cited by 36 | Viewed by 17384
Abstract
Circular economy (CE) principles have gained prominence in the fashion industry since it is a highly polluting industry and requires sustainable changes. Even though there are several CE initiatives already in place within the fashion production chain, changes towards CE are still slow. [...] Read more.
Circular economy (CE) principles have gained prominence in the fashion industry since it is a highly polluting industry and requires sustainable changes. Even though there are several CE initiatives already in place within the fashion production chain, changes towards CE are still slow. This study seeks to identify the drivers, barriers, and practices that influence implementing circular economy concepts in the fashion industry production chain using a systematic literature review. The results show that some more barriers and criteria keep consumers away from circular fashion concepts than drivers. These barriers include fast fashion consumer culture, even though more consumers are environmentally conscious. This is because awareness has not reached large-scale populations, despite the world being more aware of social and environmental issues. Consumers still do not see ethical and ecological problems associated with the fashion industry and continue to be targeted for large fast fashion retailers that sell a misguided version of consumerism. This study contributes to both academia and new fashion business models that seek to become more sustainable since it presents opportunities for investments and the obstacles that must be overcome for reaching CE within this sector. Full article
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14 pages, 442 KiB  
Article
Making Leaders’ and Followers’ Relationship Sustainable: The Impact of Leaders’ Behavioral Integrity on Employees’ Voice in the Banking Sector of Pakistan
by Mubasher Javed, Amna Niazi, Yasuo Hoshino, Hamid Hassan and Mujahid Hussain
Sustainability 2021, 13(21), 11733; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132111733 - 23 Oct 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2406
Abstract
The behavioural integrity of leaders is not only an individual trait that can earn them respect in their personal capacity, but it also may positively affect their followers and ultimately improve the organization’s effectiveness in a variety of ways. The relationship between behavioural [...] Read more.
The behavioural integrity of leaders is not only an individual trait that can earn them respect in their personal capacity, but it also may positively affect their followers and ultimately improve the organization’s effectiveness in a variety of ways. The relationship between behavioural integrity and employees using their voice has been studied by researchers through multiple aspects. This study brings a new perspective in this discussion by investigating the effect of leaders’ behavioural integrity on employees’ voice both directly and through the mediating roles of psychological safety and trust in the leader. The cross-sectional data of 384 employees collected from the banking sector in Pakistan is used to shed light on this new perspective in the relationship between the behavioural integrity of a leader and employees’ comportment in using their voice. The results of the empirical analyses support the direct effect of the behavioural integrity of leaders on employees’ voice. A significant mediating role of psychological safety and trust is also supported in the empirical analyses. The findings of the study bear important implications for leaders and business managers working in companies by providing insight on the importance of behavioural integrity of leaders in encouraging employees to have a voice in organizations. Full article
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21 pages, 3079 KiB  
Article
Evaluation Model and Empirical Research on the Green Innovation Capability of Manufacturing Enterprises from the Perspective of Ecological Niche
by Ying Sun and Jianzhong Xu
Sustainability 2021, 13(21), 11710; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132111710 - 23 Oct 2021
Cited by 12 | Viewed by 2428
Abstract
Green innovation is an important driving force in promoting the sustainable development of manufacturing enterprises and improving market competitiveness. This study selects indicators from the two aspects of ecostate and ecorole in order to reflect green research and development, cleaner production, and green [...] Read more.
Green innovation is an important driving force in promoting the sustainable development of manufacturing enterprises and improving market competitiveness. This study selects indicators from the two aspects of ecostate and ecorole in order to reflect green research and development, cleaner production, and green marketing based on niche theory. We construct an evaluation index system to objectively and accurately assess the green innovation capability of manufacturing enterprises. Subsequently, based on the principle of relative entropy, the analytic hierarchy process, entropy weight method, and coefficient of variation method are fused to determine the combined weight of the indicators, and a multi-level, comprehensive evaluation model is constructed using cloud model tools. Finally, through an empirical analysis of the evaluation of the green innovation capability of five manufacturing enterprises, the feasibility of the model and the stability of the evaluation results are verified through three dimensions: numerical experiment, sensitivity analysis, and method comparison. The results show that the evaluation system constructed in this study is superior. It provides the basis and decision-making reference for enterprises to carry out market positioning and formulate innovation and development strategies. Full article
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11 pages, 1229 KiB  
Article
The Influence of Threat Development on the Failure of the System’s Symmetry
by Ladislav Maris, Zuzana Zvakova, Katarina Kampova and Tomas Lovecek
Systems 2021, 9(4), 74; https://doi.org/10.3390/systems9040074 - 20 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2374
Abstract
The existence or non-existence of a threat to a system is essential for its existence or essential for the functionality of the system. Even more crucial is the potential of the threat and its development, which leads to the failure of the symmetry [...] Read more.
The existence or non-existence of a threat to a system is essential for its existence or essential for the functionality of the system. Even more crucial is the potential of the threat and its development, which leads to the failure of the symmetry of the system. What influences the development of such threats? What contexts influence the evolution of system threats? The development of threats is linked to the changing values of indicators that affect the state of the threat at a certain point in time. This development takes place in a constantly changing environment, therefore it is dynamically and causally linked. The system aims to maintain its order, however, the influence of the development of threats deflects it towards the entropy of the system. The paper is focused on the identification of the phases of the development of threats and their impact on the symmetry of a system. The paper presents a theoretical view of the impact of threat development on system symmetry failure. Full article
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15 pages, 897 KiB  
Article
Trade Credit with Barter in a Capital-Constrained Supply Chain
by Yangyang Huang, Zhenyang Pi and Weiguo Fang
Sustainability 2021, 13(20), 11361; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132011361 - 14 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1699
Abstract
Barter has emerged to alleviate capital pressure, maximize the circulation of goods, and facilitate the disposal of excess inventory. This study considers a two-level supply chain consisting of a manufacturer and a capital-constrained retailer with trade credit, in which the retailer exchanges unsold [...] Read more.
Barter has emerged to alleviate capital pressure, maximize the circulation of goods, and facilitate the disposal of excess inventory. This study considers a two-level supply chain consisting of a manufacturer and a capital-constrained retailer with trade credit, in which the retailer exchanges unsold products for needed subsidiary products on a barter platform. The retailer’s optimal order quantity and the manufacturer’s wholesale price are derived, and the influences of barter and other factors on the equilibrium strategy and performance of the supply chain are examined; these results are verified and supplemented by numerical simulation. We find that the retailer can increase profit by bartering when facing highly uncertain demand, that the retailer’s optimal order quantity increases with the supply rate and demand for subsidiary products, and that both manufacturer and retailer benefit from the high supply rate of subsidiary products. However, barter induces the manufacturer to raise the wholesale price to prevent its profit from being harmed. In addition, the manufacturer suffers from the retailer’s initial capital. Full article
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22 pages, 1561 KiB  
Review
Social Consideration in Product Life Cycle for Product Social Sustainability
by Somayeh Rezaei Kalvani, Amir Hamzah Sharaai and Ibrahim Kabir Abdullahi
Sustainability 2021, 13(20), 11292; https://doi.org/10.3390/su132011292 - 13 Oct 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 3648
Abstract
Social life cycle assessment (S-LCA) is an emerging and pivotal tool for sustainability evaluation of products throughout their life cycle. Understanding deeply published papers helps to modify methods and identify research gaps. The aim of this study is to discover the existing gap [...] Read more.
Social life cycle assessment (S-LCA) is an emerging and pivotal tool for sustainability evaluation of products throughout their life cycle. Understanding deeply published papers helps to modify methods and identify research gaps. The aim of this study is to discover the existing gap in the S-LCA of products and to find the weaknesses of the approach. The method of performing the review was a narrative review where published papers from 2006 to 2020 were included through the use of the Web of Science and Scopus databases. S-LCA is considered to be relevant to a majority of sectors and processes (agricultural, industrial, technology, energy, and tourism). However, there is not sufficient research on evaluation of S-LCA on cereal crops and livestock output. It is indicated that, in the present S-LCA studies, there has been a lack of attention paid to the society and value chain actors and final consumer stakeholders. The elements of sexual harassment and employment relationships are not considered in SLCA studies. Italy has the largest amount of cases of S-LCA studies. The major challenges of applying S-LCA (by using site specific data) is data collection, which is time-consuming. It is recommended to evaluate a comprehensive sustainability assessment by adding cost of social assessment to LCA since there has been a lack of attention on assessment of cost in S-LCA. Full article
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18 pages, 2924 KiB  
Case Report
Applying Importance–Satisfaction Model to Evaluate Customer Satisfaction: An Empirical Study of Foodpanda
by Yi-Yuan Liu, Shun-Hsing Chen and Jia-Xuan Zhang
Sustainability 2021, 13(19), 10985; https://doi.org/10.3390/su131910985 - 03 Oct 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 7923
Abstract
Because of improving mobile platforms and faster 4G speed, the annual growth of mobile devices has exceeded 50%, and many catering enterprises have integrated services to make ordering and delivery more convenient for smartphone users. Thus, user satisfaction with new online food-delivery platforms [...] Read more.
Because of improving mobile platforms and faster 4G speed, the annual growth of mobile devices has exceeded 50%, and many catering enterprises have integrated services to make ordering and delivery more convenient for smartphone users. Thus, user satisfaction with new online food-delivery platforms and services needs to be explored and evaluated. Using an Importance–Satisfaction Model (I–S Model), this study applied 12 service elements obtained from previous studies and an in-depth discussion of experts and scholars to evaluate user satisfaction towards Foodpanda, the first online food delivery service provider in Taiwan. Questionnaires were distributed from June to July 2020 and 256 samples were collected. This study found that eight items fell within the “Excellent Area”, one within the “Improvement Area” and three within the “Careless Area”. Full article
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22 pages, 2548 KiB  
Article
A Concurrence Optimization Model for Low-Carbon Product Family Design and the Procurement Plan of Components under Uncertainty
by Qi Wang, Peipei Qi and Shipei Li
Sustainability 2021, 13(19), 10764; https://doi.org/10.3390/su131910764 - 28 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1708
Abstract
With the increase in pollution and people’s awareness of the environment, reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from products has attracted more and more attention. Companies and researchers are seeking appropriate methods to reduce the GHG emissions of products. Currently, product family design is [...] Read more.
With the increase in pollution and people’s awareness of the environment, reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from products has attracted more and more attention. Companies and researchers are seeking appropriate methods to reduce the GHG emissions of products. Currently, product family design is widely used for meeting the diverse needs of customers. In order to reduce the GHG emission of products, some methods for low-carbon product family design have been presented in recent years. However, in the existing research, the related GHG emission data of a product family are given as crisp values, which cannot assess GHG emissions accurately. In addition, the procurement planning of components has not been fully concerned, and the supplier selection has only been considered. To this end, in this study, a concurrence optimization model was developed for the low-carbon product family design and the procurement plan of components under uncertainty. In the model, the relevant GHG emissions were considered as the uncertain number rather than the crisp value, and the uncertain GHG emissions model of the product family was established. Meanwhile, the order allocation of the supplier was considered as the decision variable in the model. To solve the uncertain optimization problem, a genetic algorithm was developed. Finally, a case study was performed to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. The results showed that the proposed model can help decision-makers to simultaneously determine the configuration of product variants, the procurement strategy of components, and the price strategies of product variants based on the objective of maximizing profit and minimizing GHG emission under uncertainty. Moreover, the concurrent optimization of low-carbon product family design and order allocation can bring the company greater profit and lower GHG emissions than just considering supplier selection in low-carbon product family design. Full article
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14 pages, 1213 KiB  
Article
Psychological Well-Being Sustainable during Entrepreneurial Process—The Moderating Role of Entrepreneurial Creativity
by Chengchun Wang, Norbert Mundorf and Ann Salzarulo-McGuigan
Sustainability 2021, 13(19), 10732; https://doi.org/10.3390/su131910732 - 27 Sep 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2330
Abstract
Despite pitfalls during the entrepreneurial journey, entrepreneurship offers the opportunity to illuminate new ventures and preserve psychological well-being to sustain entrepreneurial development. From a dynamic perspective, this study discusses the early stage of the entrepreneurial process affecting student entrepreneurs’ psychological well-being and examines [...] Read more.
Despite pitfalls during the entrepreneurial journey, entrepreneurship offers the opportunity to illuminate new ventures and preserve psychological well-being to sustain entrepreneurial development. From a dynamic perspective, this study discusses the early stage of the entrepreneurial process affecting student entrepreneurs’ psychological well-being and examines the moderating role of entrepreneurial creativity. By building a framework with the data of 1873 student entrepreneurs across 36 university business incubators in China involved in entrepreneurship activity, we found that entrepreneurial passion, alertness and intention had a positive correlation with entrepreneurs’ psychological well-being, but entrepreneurial action had the opposite effect. Entrepreneurial creativity positively moderated relationships between entrepreneurial action and students’ psychological well-being. This finding contributes to a full understanding of students’ psychological well-being on their entrepreneurial journey in the context of COVID-19 and eases the pressure of entrepreneurship by strengthening entrepreneurial creativity education. Full article
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17 pages, 2613 KiB  
Article
Sustainability Strategies of Equipment Introduction and Overcapacity Risk Sharing in Mask Emergency Supply Chains during Pandemics
by Haibo Chen, Zongjun Wang and Xuesong Yu
Sustainability 2021, 13(18), 10355; https://doi.org/10.3390/su131810355 - 16 Sep 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 2102
Abstract
The sustainability of the mask emergency supply chain faces two problems during the current COVID-19 pandemic. First, mask manufacturers are mainly small and mid-size enterprises, resulting in a lack of funds and credit lines for the introduction of equipment. Second, the periodicity and [...] Read more.
The sustainability of the mask emergency supply chain faces two problems during the current COVID-19 pandemic. First, mask manufacturers are mainly small and mid-size enterprises, resulting in a lack of funds and credit lines for the introduction of equipment. Second, the periodicity and uncertainty of pandemics create overcapacity risk for the mask emergency supply chain. To solve these problems, this study incorporates financial leasing institutions and the government into the mask emergency supply chain. Based on a questionnaire survey of practitioners of financial leasing institutions, the relationship between mask manufacturers, financial leasing institutions, and the government in the mask supply chain is analyzed through a game model, and the behavior of mask manufacturers to reduce the scale of mask production after the occurrence of overcapacity is investigated using the cusp catastrophe theory. We find that in the case of masks’ overcapacity, mask manufacturers tend to continue production. Finally, we propose that financial leasing institutions should lease mask production equipment to mask manufacturers under the guarantee of the government and develop a mechanism for the three parties to jointly share the risk of mask overcapacity, aiming at ensuring the sustainable manufacturing of masks during the pandemic. Full article
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16 pages, 1293 KiB  
Article
Towards Micro-Level Green Growth: A Framework to Recognize Corporate Growth Status, Path and Adopt Eco-Innovations
by Wujie Zhang and Fu Gu
Sustainability 2021, 13(18), 10021; https://doi.org/10.3390/su131810021 - 07 Sep 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1944
Abstract
Despite the substantial attention paid to green growth in recent years, how to achieve green growth is still underexamined because it is usually advocated as a political motto or development scheme at the macro level. This study aims to scrutinize the meanings of [...] Read more.
Despite the substantial attention paid to green growth in recent years, how to achieve green growth is still underexamined because it is usually advocated as a political motto or development scheme at the macro level. This study aims to scrutinize the meanings of green growth, growth statuses, and growth paths at the corporate level. Meanwhile, eco-process, eco-product, and eco-system innovations were reviewed, and an adoption strategy that involves the concept of life cycle was put forward to support the choice of suitable eco-innovations and to realize micro-level green growth. Finally, 54 enterprises out of the top 500 enterprises in China were used for a multi-case study. The results demonstrate that the improvements in energy consumption were better than those of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in the sample enterprises. However, only five firms achieved continuous green growth. For the majority of the enterprises, their significant economic growth was not certainly related to evident drops in unit energy consumption and GHG emissions. In addition, four firms obtained continuous grey growth, and the enterprises in manufacturing sectors exhibited inferior eco-efficiency. Corporate growth statuses and paths should not only be determined by considering a single environmental or economic measure. Enterprises in manufacturing sectors must develop specific eco-innovations that can greatly enhance their environmental performance. This study adds to the literature by expounding micro-level green growth as well as its relation to eco-innovations. This study also offers a quantitative and integrated view to advance corporate eco-innovations and green development. Full article
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16 pages, 576 KiB  
Article
Determinants of Internationalization as Levers for Sustainability: A Study of the Portuguese Pharmaceutical Sector
by Jorge Vieira, Rui Frade, Raquel Ascenso, Filipa Martinho and Domingos Martinho
Sustainability 2021, 13(17), 9792; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13179792 - 31 Aug 2021
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2339
Abstract
The pharmaceutical industry is facing the pressure of a global economy, loss of value in local markets and the highly intense innovation that characterizes this sector. This has a heavy impact, particularly in smaller economies. With this investigation, we intend to identify the [...] Read more.
The pharmaceutical industry is facing the pressure of a global economy, loss of value in local markets and the highly intense innovation that characterizes this sector. This has a heavy impact, particularly in smaller economies. With this investigation, we intend to identify the determinants of internationalization as levers for sustainability in the pharmaceutical export sector of a small economy. Data was collected from a sample representing 63% of the total universe, Portuguese pharmaceutical organizations with exporting activity. A contextualization of the sector and a bibliographic review were previously carried out, which laid the groundwork for the empirical framework. This study revealed a deeply internationalized sector conditioned by a few shortcomings, namely a certain lack of sustainable competitive advantages, relatively low investment in research and development (R&D), insufficient innovation in internationalization strategies as well as scarce institutional support. Our findings may help pave the way for a more complete understanding of the dynamics of internationalization in highly competitive sectors. Full article
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12 pages, 973 KiB  
Article
Beer Industry in the Czech Republic: Reasons for Founding a Craft Brewery
by Monika Březinová
Sustainability 2021, 13(17), 9680; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13179680 - 28 Aug 2021
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 4394
Abstract
The goal of this article is to evaluate the evolution of the brewing industry in the Czech Republic with an emphasis on the phenomenon of craft-brewery development. It deals with the influence of globalization on the structure of the Czech beer market and [...] Read more.
The goal of this article is to evaluate the evolution of the brewing industry in the Czech Republic with an emphasis on the phenomenon of craft-brewery development. It deals with the influence of globalization on the structure of the Czech beer market and the rise of craft-breweries between 2000 and 2019. The main outputs come from research where a representative sample of 48 craft breweries was questioned from the Czech Republic. The result is the identification of the main factors influencing the increase of craft-breweries (legislation changes enabling entrepreneurship, increase of purchasing power of consumers, increase in demand for different beer styles, craft beers and specials, change of consumer behavior) but also the challenges that prevent their further expansion (lack of qualified brewers, complicated administration). The main motive for founding a craft brewery is an effort to improve beer culture in the Czech Republic and the ever-increasing demand for diversified beer (as opposed to the demand for the so-called euro-beers) and a good business opportunity stemming from this, which has been attracting more and more investors into this field. Full article
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22 pages, 3373 KiB  
Article
Enterprise Reciprocity and Risk Preferences and the Sustainable Cooperation of Innovation Activities in Industrial Parks
by Wenjian Li, Yang Zhang, Yuanyuan Wu, Xue Han, Benhai Guo and Gang Xie
Sustainability 2021, 13(17), 9639; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13179639 - 27 Aug 2021
Viewed by 1921
Abstract
The sustainable cooperation of innovation in industrial parks is of great significance to the sustainable development of enterprises and parks. Factors explaining enterprise innovation cooperation activities in industrial parks have attracted great attention in scholarly research. In this article, a preference-based snowdrift game [...] Read more.
The sustainable cooperation of innovation in industrial parks is of great significance to the sustainable development of enterprises and parks. Factors explaining enterprise innovation cooperation activities in industrial parks have attracted great attention in scholarly research. In this article, a preference-based snowdrift game model on complex networks is proposed, where different combinations of enterprise reciprocity and risk preferences are introduced into the game model. The impact of these preferences on the sustainability of cooperation in mature and less-mature parks, characterized by different network styles, is examined through simulations. The investigation reveals that reciprocity and risk preferences have an effect on the sustainable emergence of enterprise cooperation under the constraints of a loss-to-profit ratio of cooperation, network average degree, and network style. Reciprocity preferences of enterprises are shown to have a greater impact on the sustainable emergence of cooperation than risk preference in two types of parks. Additionally, this advantage is more significant in less-mature parks. The results show the positive relationships between combinations of risk aversion and reciprocity preferences and the emergence of cooperation from a long-term perspective. This study concludes with a discussion of management suggestions and policy implications. The findings shed light on the understanding of the sustainable emergence of innovation cooperation in industrial parks. Full article
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14 pages, 683 KiB  
Article
Exploring DAD and ADD Methods for Dealing with Urban Heat Island Effect
by Julia Kurek and Justyna Martyniuk-Pęczek
Sustainability 2021, 13(17), 9547; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13179547 - 25 Aug 2021
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2049
Abstract
The Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect in the context of climate change and temperature fluctuations is an increasing challenge for contemporary cities. Numerous activities focus on mitigation and adaptation to the UHI effect using both appropriately selected design strategies and technological solutions. However, [...] Read more.
The Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect in the context of climate change and temperature fluctuations is an increasing challenge for contemporary cities. Numerous activities focus on mitigation and adaptation to the UHI effect using both appropriately selected design strategies and technological solutions. However, not all of these technologies support the postulates of ecological and low-carbon cities. Their design, implementation, and operation process sometimes causes conflicts or misunderstandings among designers, industry engineers, and residents. The aim of the research was to examine the relationship between UHI effect mitigation, adaptation, and energy efficiency strategies. A further goal was to build a matrix of synergistic elements and conflicts for respective actors and stakeholders, and an analysis of the elitist DAD (Decide-Announce-Defend) method and participatory ADD (Announce-Discuss-Decide) or EDD (Engage-Deliberate-Decide) in dealing with the UHI effect. The literature review and case study analysis methods were applied. In the study, the strategies of five chosen European capitals (Berlin, London, Paris, Vienna, and Warsaw) experiencing a UHI problem were analyzed. As result, a matrix of the most common goal differences of respective stakeholders in dealing with the UHI effect was developed. One of the main conclusions is the necessity of undergoing synergic collaboration between actors that are not cooperating yet, combined with risk analysis and appropriate education at different levels for a successful and socially equal mitigation and adaptation to the UHI effect. Full article
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18 pages, 7766 KiB  
Article
The Study of Dust Removal Using Electrostatic Cleaning System for Solar Panels
by Murat Altıntaş and Serdal Arslan
Sustainability 2021, 13(16), 9454; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13169454 - 23 Aug 2021
Cited by 22 | Viewed by 6568
Abstract
This study explores the use of electrostatic cleaning to remove dust from the surface of photovoltaic solar panels. First of all, existing systems used for dust removal from solar panels were evaluated. Then, the effects of dust on the panel were investigated for [...] Read more.
This study explores the use of electrostatic cleaning to remove dust from the surface of photovoltaic solar panels. First of all, existing systems used for dust removal from solar panels were evaluated. Then, the effects of dust on the panel were investigated for Şanlıurfa province in Turkey. In addition, the elemental content of the powder was analyzed. A new device for electrostatic cleaning has been designed and implemented. The cleaning performance of this device has been tested considering the electrode designs. The electric field value was determined by analytical and numerical methods in the conventional model (parallel electrode) model. Electric field distribution was investigated using Ansys Maxwell simulation software. The printed circuit boards of the proposed model and the conventional model were produced. The traditional model with positive and negative waveform is widely used in electrostatic cleaner studies. Dust removal efficiencies and electrical losses for different frequency and voltage values were compared for both cards. It has been shown that the proposed model can perform cleaning with high efficiency despite similar loss variation. Full article
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25 pages, 3219 KiB  
Article
Innovation Performance Indicators for Architecture, Engineering and Construction Organization
by Jacqueline Tsz Yin Lo and Calvin Kam
Sustainability 2021, 13(16), 9038; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13169038 - 12 Aug 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 4152
Abstract
It is known that organizations can gain a competitive advantage only by managing effectively for today, while simultaneously creating innovation for tomorrow, and sustainability is one of the innovative strategies in major architecture, engineering, and construction (AEC) organizations. Innovation is vital to AEC [...] Read more.
It is known that organizations can gain a competitive advantage only by managing effectively for today, while simultaneously creating innovation for tomorrow, and sustainability is one of the innovative strategies in major architecture, engineering, and construction (AEC) organizations. Innovation is vital to AEC organizations’ growth, yet most do not have a comprehensive measurement of innovation performance. Similar to the balanced scorecard approach, key indicators should be identified for the measuring of innovation performance to facilitate management. This article presents a study by using a triangulation approach that integrates systematic literature reviews and two-step consultations with experienced senior professionals to compile a set of key indicators for innovation performance measures for the AEC Industry. Full article
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9 pages, 1962 KiB  
Article
Structure and Properties of New Antifriction Composites Based on Tool Steel Grinding Waste
by Tetiana Roik, Ahmad Rashedi, Taslima Khanam, Abhay Chaubey, Gurusami Balaganesan and Sadaqat Ali
Sustainability 2021, 13(16), 8823; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13168823 - 06 Aug 2021
Cited by 5 | Viewed by 1412
Abstract
This article investigates the impact of manufacturing technology on the structure, mechanical, and tribological properties of new antifriction composite materials based on R6M5 high-speed tool steel grinding waste. The characteristics of the new composite’s structure formation and its impact on properties after use [...] Read more.
This article investigates the impact of manufacturing technology on the structure, mechanical, and tribological properties of new antifriction composite materials based on R6M5 high-speed tool steel grinding waste. The characteristics of the new composite’s structure formation and its impact on properties after use of the established technological modes, including grinding waste regeneration, were illustrated. It was demonstrated that such technology is capable of ensuring microheterogeneous structure. The material’s structure consists of the metal matrix based on R6M5 high-speed tool steel waste and uniformly distributed CaF2 solid lubricant in the steel matrix. As compared to known iron-based composites, this structure promotes a high degree of mechanical and tribological properties. During tribological tests, anti-seize thin films of 15–20 μm are formed on the contacting surfaces. These constantly renewable films contribute to the high antifriction properties of the composite under the studied friction conditions and provide a self-lubricating effect. Such films fully cover both the material’s surface and the counterface. The formation of antifriction films results in the self-lubrication mode. The findings of the study open up the possibility of predicting the friction behavior of a composite at high temperatures by selecting the initial metal grinding waste to ensure the appropriate level of properties. The extensive use of various alloy steel-based industrial grinding waste in the re-production cycle would significantly contribute to resolving the global environmental problem of protecting the environment from pollution. Full article
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15 pages, 612 KiB  
Article
Expectations of Production Companies Operating in Poland towards Suppliers with Regards to Implementation of the Sustainability Concept
by Maciej Urbaniak, Blanka Tundys and Magdalena Ankiel
Sustainability 2021, 13(16), 8683; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13168683 - 04 Aug 2021
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 1938
Abstract
It can be observed that manufacturing companies (especially Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs)), by promoting the implementation of the sustainability concept among their suppliers, refer to the requirements included in international standards which constitute guidelines for the implementation of quality, environmental and safety management [...] Read more.
It can be observed that manufacturing companies (especially Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs)), by promoting the implementation of the sustainability concept among their suppliers, refer to the requirements included in international standards which constitute guidelines for the implementation of quality, environmental and safety management systems. The effective implementation of these guidelines of the standards are often subject to initial and periodic evaluation as well as self-evaluation by suppliers. It can be seen that OEMs not only require effective implementation of quality, environmental and security management systems, but also offer a supplier a development program to improve their processes and products. The aim of the article was to try to define the expectations of production companies towards their suppliers regarding the implementation of the sustainability concept. The study presents the results of empirical research conducted with the computer-assisted telephone interviewing (CATI) technique in medium and large manufacturing companies operating in Poland. The results of these studies indicate the important role of the requirements included in international management standards as the expectations of manufacturing companies towards suppliers. The surveyed manufacturing companies focus in particular on reducing the risk of noncompliance and limiting the negative environmental impact by suppliers on the processes and products. Full article
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19 pages, 3611 KiB  
Article
Statistical Analysis on the Effect of the Utilization of Mineral Resources on the Environmental Impact in China
by Wenqi Zhu, Kangkang Zhang, Deyi Xu, Ziyuan Liu and Jingke Gao
Sustainability 2021, 13(15), 8462; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13158462 - 29 Jul 2021
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1956
Abstract
Based on the spatial econometric model, this paper mainly studies the impact of the utilization of mineral resources on environmental pollution and the impact of environmental regulation on the utilization of mineral resources in 30 provincial regions from 2003 to 2016, and analyzes [...] Read more.
Based on the spatial econometric model, this paper mainly studies the impact of the utilization of mineral resources on environmental pollution and the impact of environmental regulation on the utilization of mineral resources in 30 provincial regions from 2003 to 2016, and analyzes the impact mechanism of heterogeneity and synergy. The results show that the utilization of mineral resources intensifies the degree of environmental pollution and the degree of economic spatial agglomeration, while environmental regulation can effectively restrain the utilization of mineral resources in the region and the near adjacent areas. Through the analysis results of synergistic mechanism, it can be seen that the improvement of industrial structure alleviates the impact of the utilization of mineral resources on environmental pollution and the restraining effect of environmental regulation on it. The improvement of technological progress has improved the environmental pollution caused by the utilization of mineral resources in this area, but intensified the environmental pollution degree of the utilization of mineral resources in neighboring areas. In the current technological level, the neighboring areas will consume more mineral resources to meet a certain demand, thus aggravating the environmental pollution of the utilization of mineral resources in the neighboring areas. The enhanced intensity of government management significantly improves the pollution control efficiency of environmental regulation on the utilization of mineral resources. Full article
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21 pages, 1916 KiB  
Article
Implementing Strategic Sustainable Supply Chain Management
by Cecilia Bratt, Robert Sroufe and Göran Broman
Sustainability 2021, 13(15), 8132; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13158132 - 21 Jul 2021
Cited by 17 | Viewed by 7556
Abstract
Despite increasing business interest in sustainability in general and in sustainable supply chain management (SSCM), the ability to increase suppliers’ ecological and social performance is generally insufficient for many companies. In this study, we outline an implementation process model for sustainable supply chain [...] Read more.
Despite increasing business interest in sustainability in general and in sustainable supply chain management (SSCM), the ability to increase suppliers’ ecological and social performance is generally insufficient for many companies. In this study, we outline an implementation process model for sustainable supply chain management. We do so by synthesizing insights from a review of the sustainable supply chain management and organizational learning literature and a case study with a company aspiring to become a global leader in sustainable lighting. By combining these insights, we find that successful implementation of sustainable supply chain management requires sustainability to be anchored in a company’s vision and integrated into all functions. We also argue that organizational learning, especially learning with external stakeholders such as suppliers, an operational definition of socioecological sustainability among stakeholders, and procedural support for the cocreation of strategic plans for change are vital for achieving a truly sustainable supply chain. This definition and cocreation allow for attention to be directed toward strategic ecological and social practices, along with the joint handling of tradeoffs and economic considerations among stakeholders. As we build a foundation for an SSCM implementation process model, we use a science-based framework for strategic sustainable development. We call for more action-based research to uncover the complex nature of sustainable supply chain management, as there are unique challenges and dynamic relationships in every supply chain. Full article
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13 pages, 291 KiB  
Review
Determining Food Stability to Achieve Food Security
by Juan García-Díez, Carla Gonçalves, Luca Grispoldi, Beniamino Cenci-Goga and Cristina Saraiva
Sustainability 2021, 13(13), 7222; https://doi.org/10.3390/su13137222 - 28 Jun 2021
Cited by 14 | Viewed by 7697
Abstract
Food security, as part as public health protection, constitutes one of the main objectives for countries aiming to ensure the health of all their citizens. However, food security is compromised worldwide by conflict, political instability, or economic crises, both in developed and developing [...] Read more.
Food security, as part as public health protection, constitutes one of the main objectives for countries aiming to ensure the health of all their citizens. However, food security is compromised worldwide by conflict, political instability, or economic crises, both in developed and developing countries. Conversely, because of the importance of agriculture to the economies of rural areas both in developed and developing countries, this sector can contribute to improving food stability, as well as to furthering food security. Thus, livestock and traditional meat products represent a key factor in ensuring food availability. Overall, biosecurity measures improve animal welfare by decreasing the occurrence of diseases that compromise the stability by causing fluctuations in the availability of meat and animal-derived food products such as milk, eggs, or traditional fermented products. As a consequence, an absence of biosecurity measures affects food security (in its quantitative definition, as described above) as well as the productive, sanitary, and environmental sustainability of the rural environment. Products of animal origin support local trade and the regional economy, while contributing to the availability of foods without great external dependence. The manufacture of foods of animal origin aims to create products that are durable and that maintain food availability for long periods of time, even during seasons with scarce resources. Thus, dry-cured or fermented meat products play an important role in food availability. Food security also refers to food access under healthy economic conditions; therefore, knowledge of the main tools that guarantee the safety of these kinds of food products is essential to achieving food stability and further food security. Full article
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