Topic Editors

1. Geotechnical and Structural Engineering Research Center, Shandong University, Jinan 250061, China
2. Stake Key Laboratory for Geomechanics and Deep Underground Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology (Beijing), Beijing 100083, China
Stake Key Laboratory for Geomechanics and Deep Underground Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology (Beijing), Beijing 100083, China
Prof. Dr. Xuezhen Wu
College of Civil Engineering, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108, China
Dr. Hongke Gao
Stake Key Laboratory for Geomechanics and Deep Underground Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology (Beijing), Beijing 100083, China

Support Theory and Technology of Geotechnical Engineering

Abstract submission deadline
closed (20 April 2024)
Manuscript submission deadline
20 July 2024
Viewed by
36422

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

Support theory and technology of geotechnical engineering involve a wide range of fields, including transportation, roads and highways, railways and public transport systems, underground stations, water and wastewater transmission, power and energy, and underground storage facilities. They have the characteristics of difficult construction, long cycle, high cost and far-reaching social impact. At present, they have become an important research discipline. This topic focuses on the support theory and technology of underground space and covers a very wide scope of underground space and geotechnical engineering, including geo-investigation, geomechanics analysis, support design and modelling, construction, and monitoring; tunnels and large underground and earth-sheltered structure maintenance and rehabilitation; and underground space and underground space environment planning and development.

We invite papers on innovative technical developments, reviews, case studies, as well as analytical and assessment papers from different disciplines that are relevant to the topic of support theory and technology of geotechnical engineering.

Prof. Dr. Qi Wang
Dr. Bei Jiang
Dr. Xuezhen Wu
Dr. Hongke Gao
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • geotechnical engineering
  • support theory and technology
  • rock test and geomechanics analysis
  • energy and underground storage facilities
  • geo-investigation and analysis
  • underground environment

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Remote Sensing
remotesensing
5.0 7.9 2009 23 Days CHF 2700 Submit
Energies
energies
3.2 5.5 2008 16.1 Days CHF 2600 Submit
Minerals
minerals
2.5 3.9 2011 18.7 Days CHF 2400 Submit
Geosciences
geosciences
2.7 5.2 2011 23.6 Days CHF 1800 Submit
Geotechnics
geotechnics
- - 2021 15.6 Days CHF 1000 Submit

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Published Papers (18 papers)

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20 pages, 5070 KiB  
Article
Calculation Method for Traffic Load-Induced Permanent Deformation in Soils under Flexible Pavements
by Mate Janos Vamos and Janos Szendefy
Geotechnics 2023, 3(3), 955-974; https://doi.org/10.3390/geotechnics3030051 - 21 Sep 2023
Viewed by 828
Abstract
Rutting is one of the most common types of distress in flexible pavement structures. There are two fundamental methods of designing pavement structures: conventional empirical methods and analytical approaches. Many analytical and empirical design procedures assume that rutting is mostly of asphalt origin [...] Read more.
Rutting is one of the most common types of distress in flexible pavement structures. There are two fundamental methods of designing pavement structures: conventional empirical methods and analytical approaches. Many analytical and empirical design procedures assume that rutting is mostly of asphalt origin and can be reduced by limiting the vertical deformation or stress at the top of the subgrade, but they do not quantify the rutting depth itself. Mechanistic–empirical models to predict the permanent deformations of unbound pavement layers have been well investigated and are rather common in North America; however, they are not widely utilized in the rest of the world. To date, there is no generally accepted, widely recognized, and documented procedure for calculating permanent deformations and thus for determining the rutting depth in flexible pavement courses originating from the unbound granular layers. This paper presents a layered calculation method with which the deformation of soil layers (base, subbase, and subgrade courses) under flexible pavements due to repeated traffic load can be determined. In the first step, the cyclic strain amplitude is calculated using a nonlinear material model that is based on particle size distribution parameters (d50 and CU) and dependent on the mean normal stress, relative density, and actual strain level. In the second step, the HCA (High Cycle Accumulation) model is used to calculate the residual settlement of each sublayer as a function of the number of cycles. It is shown that the developed model is suitable for describing different types of subgrades and pavement cross-sections. It is also demonstrated with finite element calculations that the developed model describes both the elastic and plastic strains sufficiently accurately. The developed model can predict the settlement and rutting of pavement structures with sufficient accuracy based on easily available particle size distribution parameters without the need for complex laboratory and finite element tests. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Support Theory and Technology of Geotechnical Engineering)
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25 pages, 7340 KiB  
Article
Conceptual Model of Expansive Rock or Soil Swelling
by Boris Kavur, Nataša Štambuk Cvitanović, Jasmin Jug and Ivan Vrkljan
Geosciences 2023, 13(5), 141; https://doi.org/10.3390/geosciences13050141 - 11 May 2023
Viewed by 1314
Abstract
The paper presents a simple yet efficient way to track the void ratio, the water content, and the degree of saturation of a swelling material during saturation. The research aimed to quantitatively describe the drying and wetting processes of the swelling material, which [...] Read more.
The paper presents a simple yet efficient way to track the void ratio, the water content, and the degree of saturation of a swelling material during saturation. The research aimed to quantitatively describe the drying and wetting processes of the swelling material, which should enable their better understanding and easier modelling. Two identical tall samples, named “twins”, were formed by consolidating the paste prepared from the swelling material in which montmorillonite is the dominant mineral. The twins were together exposed to one-dimensional drying. After drying, lasting for 40 days, one twin was dissected to determine its water content profile. The other twin was subjected to 1D wetting (ponded infiltration experiment) with a constant water column for a period of 21 days and then dissected to determine the moisture profile. The sample preparation reduces uncertainties about the initial state. The results show that during wetting, the material follows a path in the e-w plot which is parallel to the full saturation curve. After reaching some degree of saturation, the path becomes parallel to the residual (shrinking) line. The proposed model predicts the primary and secondary phases of swelling, and under appropriate conditions, it assumes the tertiary phase. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Support Theory and Technology of Geotechnical Engineering)
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14 pages, 2961 KiB  
Article
A New Approach for Analyzing Circular Tunnels in Nonlinear Strain-Softening Rock Masses Considering Seepage Force
by Hao Fan, Lei Wang and Shaobo Li
Minerals 2023, 13(2), 138; https://doi.org/10.3390/min13020138 - 17 Jan 2023
Viewed by 1174
Abstract
Accurate calculation of the stresses and deformations of tunnels is of great importance for practical engineering applications. In this study, a three-region model for tunnels considering seepage force was established. A new nonlinear strain-softening model is proposed. Then, a unified solution for the [...] Read more.
Accurate calculation of the stresses and deformations of tunnels is of great importance for practical engineering applications. In this study, a three-region model for tunnels considering seepage force was established. A new nonlinear strain-softening model is proposed. Then, a unified solution for the stresses and deformations of tunnels is deduced. Through a series of discussions, the effects of seepage force, softening modulus coefficient of cohesion, and initial support resistance on the stress distribution, radii of the post-peak zone, and surface displacement around the tunnel are discussed. Results show that the tangential stresses are always larger than the radial stresses. As the distance from the tunnel center increases, the radial stress continues to increase, while the tangential stress first increases and then decreases. With the increases in seepage force, the radii of the post-peak zone and surface displacement all increase. With the increases in softening modulus coefficient of cohesion, the radii of the post-peak zone increase while the surface displacement decreases. Tunnels with a higher initial support resistance experience lower radii of the post-peak zone and surface displacement. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Support Theory and Technology of Geotechnical Engineering)
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16 pages, 3495 KiB  
Article
Mechanical Behavior Analysis of Fully Grouted Ground Anchor in Soft-Hard Alternating Stratum
by Xiujun Liu and Zhanguo Ma
Minerals 2023, 13(1), 59; https://doi.org/10.3390/min13010059 - 29 Dec 2022
Viewed by 1184
Abstract
Assuming that the ground anchor is connected with the rock–soil of the sidewall by a tangential linear spring, the load transfer model of the fully grouted ground anchor is established by using the spring element method, and the analytical solutions of the displacement, [...] Read more.
Assuming that the ground anchor is connected with the rock–soil of the sidewall by a tangential linear spring, the load transfer model of the fully grouted ground anchor is established by using the spring element method, and the analytical solutions of the displacement, axial force, and shear stress distribution of the ground anchor in the upper and lower parallel strata foundation and sandwich foundation are given, respectively. Corresponding to the above two kinds of alternating strata, the mechanical behavior of the vertical fully grouted ground anchor in the soft–hard alternating stratum is analyzed using the four conditions in Case 1 and the six conditions in Case 2, respectively. Through the case analysis, it can be concluded that the mechanical behavior of the round anchor is greatly affected by the shear modulus of the shallow stratum, and is less affected by the shear modulus of the deep stratum. The depth of the stratum interface and the thickness of the interlayer have some influence on the mechanical behavior of the whole ground anchor but have little influence on the displacement and axial force distribution of the ground anchor. This paper has certain guidance and reference significance for the design of vertical fully grouted ground anchors in the alternating strata. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Support Theory and Technology of Geotechnical Engineering)
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15 pages, 2852 KiB  
Article
Mechanical Behavior Analysis of Fully Grouted Bolts under Axial Cyclic Load
by Xiujun Liu and Zhanguo Ma
Minerals 2022, 12(12), 1566; https://doi.org/10.3390/min12121566 - 5 Dec 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 1095
Abstract
Fully grouted bolts are widely used in engineering. In order to deeply understand the load-transfer mechanism of a fully grouted bolt, it is necessary to analyze and study its mechanical behavior under axial cyclic load. First of all, based on the idea of [...] Read more.
Fully grouted bolts are widely used in engineering. In order to deeply understand the load-transfer mechanism of a fully grouted bolt, it is necessary to analyze and study its mechanical behavior under axial cyclic load. First of all, based on the idea of discretization and the force balance analysis of each mass spring element, this study proposes a method for analyzing the force of the bolt—the spring element method. Second, the load-transfer model of the fully grouted bolt is established by using the spring element method, assuming that the bolt and the sidewall rock and soil are connected by tangential linear springs. The analytical solutions for the displacement, axial force, and shear-stress distribution of the bolt before and after the damage of the sidewall spring are given. It is found that the analysis results of the analytical model proposed in this paper have a great relationship with λ, which is the square root of the ratio of sidewall spring stiffness k′u to bolt stiffness ku. Further analysis found that this model is more suitable for the two working conditions of λ ≈ 0 and λ ≈ 1, and the relationship between sidewall spring stiffness k′u and pull-out stiffness K of the bolt was established under these two working conditions. Finally, the rationality and accuracy of the analytical model proposed in this study are verified by an analysis of two typical test cases under the two working conditions of λ ≈ 0 and λ ≈ 1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Support Theory and Technology of Geotechnical Engineering)
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25 pages, 75898 KiB  
Article
Geological Exploration, Landslide Characterization and Susceptibility Mapping at the Boundary between Two Crystalline Bodies in Jajarkot, Nepal
by Yubraj Bikram Shahi, Sushma Kadel, Harish Dangi, Ganesh Adhikari, Diwakar KC and Kabi Raj Paudyal
Geotechnics 2022, 2(4), 1059-1083; https://doi.org/10.3390/geotechnics2040050 - 1 Dec 2022
Cited by 4 | Viewed by 3931
Abstract
The geology of the Himalayas is intricated and intriguing. It features numerous tectonic bodies and structures too complex to interpret. Along with such mysteries it has too many common geohazards, such as landslides. In this study, a detailed geological investigation is carried out [...] Read more.
The geology of the Himalayas is intricated and intriguing. It features numerous tectonic bodies and structures too complex to interpret. Along with such mysteries it has too many common geohazards, such as landslides. In this study, a detailed geological investigation is carried out to overcome the discrepancies in structural interpretation, the nature of two crystalline bodies, and non-uniformity in geological mapping in the central Himalayan arc, in the Jajarkot district of Nepal. Along with the geological exploration and landslide characterization of the area, consequent landslide susceptibility mapping is performed considering 13 causative factors related to geology, topography, land use, hydrology, and the anthropogenic factor, using two bivariate statistical models. This study concludes that the two metamorphic crystalline bodies in the study area are most probably the klippen, due to the absence or erosion of the root zone. The field study revealed that haphazard road excavation without the consideration of geological and geotechnical features has caused shallow landslides. The results obtained from the susceptibility maps, with a varying range of susceptibility zones, are in good agreement with the spatial distribution of pre-historic landslides. The results of the susceptibility modeling are validated by calculating landslide density and plotting area under curves (AUC). The AUC value for the WOE, and the FR method, revealed an overall success rate of 79.42% and 77.62%, respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Support Theory and Technology of Geotechnical Engineering)
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37 pages, 47005 KiB  
Article
Stress–Strain–Time Description and Analysis of Frozen–Thawed Silty Clay under Low Stress Level
by Haigang Qu, Dianrui Mu, Zhenlu Ren, Ziyuan Huang, Yang Huang and Aiping Tang
Geotechnics 2022, 2(4), 871-907; https://doi.org/10.3390/geotechnics2040042 - 24 Oct 2022
Viewed by 1361
Abstract
The construction of high-speed railways in cold regions needs to consider the effects of freeze–thaw cycles (FTHs) on the long-term deformation of subgrades. However, at present, research on the creep characteristics of frozen–thawed rocks and soils is not extensive. In the limited studies [...] Read more.
The construction of high-speed railways in cold regions needs to consider the effects of freeze–thaw cycles (FTHs) on the long-term deformation of subgrades. However, at present, research on the creep characteristics of frozen–thawed rocks and soils is not extensive. In the limited studies on frozen–thawed soil creep properties, current research focuses more on high stress–strain–time responses, but for the subgrades, the inner stress is usually low. This paper presents the results of triaxial compression creep tests on remolded, frozen–thawed silty clay sampled in the Yichun-Tieli area and describes its stress–strain–time relationship in an arctan function-based mathematical model. Each creep test condition is studied using three specimens. Frozen–thawed silty clay exhibits attenuation creep under low-level stress. In general, from 4 FTHs to 11 FTHs, the mean elasticity modulus decreases first, and then, increases. The exerted stress is higher than the yield stress; the more FTHs the specimens experience, the more time they need to be deformed stably under the same axial deviatoric stress (ADS). Under the same mean ADS, the mean stable strain of 7 FTHs exceeds the other two FTH conditions and, in general, the mean stable strain of 4 FTHs exceeds 11 FTHs. By dissecting the phenomena, it can be concluded that with FTHs increasing, moisture and voids reconstitute in the process; the elastic strain accounts for most of the total strain and significantly decides the extent of creep deformation; the arctan function-based model is basically able to describe, but not perfectly predict, the stress–strain–time relationship of frozen–thawed silty clay. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Support Theory and Technology of Geotechnical Engineering)
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13 pages, 2416 KiB  
Article
An Analytical Model for the Excavation Damage Zone in Tunnel Surrounding Rock
by Xiaoding Xu, Yuejin Zhou, Chun Zhu, Chunlin Zeng and Chong Guo
Minerals 2022, 12(10), 1321; https://doi.org/10.3390/min12101321 - 19 Oct 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1471
Abstract
An accurate theoretical model to predict the extent and mechanical behavior of the excavation damage zone (EDZ) in the surrounding rock of deep-buried tunnel is of great importance for the practical engineering applications. Using the elastic-plastic theory and combined with the analysis on [...] Read more.
An accurate theoretical model to predict the extent and mechanical behavior of the excavation damage zone (EDZ) in the surrounding rock of deep-buried tunnel is of great importance for the practical engineering applications. Using the elastic-plastic theory and combined with the analysis on the stress characteristics of the tunnel surrounding rock, this paper present a predict model for the EDZ formation and evolution. A three-zone composite mechanical model was established for the tunnel surround rock and the corresponding stress state and displacement field of three zones were derived. The effects of the strain softening and dilatancy during rock deformation was taken into account. The correctness of the proposed model was validated by the existing theoretical models. A sensitivity analysis for different influencing factors in this model was also performed. The results can benefit for the future numerical and experimental studies. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Support Theory and Technology of Geotechnical Engineering)
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16 pages, 2533 KiB  
Article
Conversion of Triaxial Compression Strain–Time Curves from Stepwise Loading to Respective Loading
by Haigang Qu, Dianrui Mu, Zhong Nie and Aiping Tang
Geotechnics 2022, 2(4), 855-870; https://doi.org/10.3390/geotechnics2040041 - 30 Sep 2022
Viewed by 1338
Abstract
Numerous researchers of soil creep behavior adopt stepwise loading (SL) rather than respective loading (RL) to perform the triaxial creep tests. However, a complete continuous strain–time curve of SL needs to be converted into assumed curve clusters supposing obtained under RL before the [...] Read more.
Numerous researchers of soil creep behavior adopt stepwise loading (SL) rather than respective loading (RL) to perform the triaxial creep tests. However, a complete continuous strain–time curve of SL needs to be converted into assumed curve clusters supposing obtained under RL before the deformation data are used to develop creep constitutive models. Classical methods realize the conversion mainly by focusing on the creep deformation parts and classifying them into linear and nonlinear compositions. Mostly, the linear parts are simply superposed while the nonlinear parts are complex to consider and so are neglected. Moreover, classical methods are not sufficiently valid to eliminate the stress history effect on the conversion. Here, a new method is proposed to achieve the conversion without neglecting the stress history effect. The method rebuilds the triaxial creep test mathematically and physically, adhering to the revising of energy. The method treats the tested deformation in its entirety, instead of distinguishing it into elastic, visco-elastic, plastic and creep (linear and nonlinear) deformation to convert respectively. The comparison among actual measured SL and RL strain–time curves and the curves converted by the new method proves the stress history effect should not be neglected. The higher the vertical load level, the larger the discrepancy between the RL and SL strain–time curve, and the disparity becomes larger with time. The new method highlights the necessity of considering the stress history effect in analysis and design for higher accuracy. The comparisons illustrate the conversion method at least produces more satisfactory results for clayey soil. Primarily examined, at the later stages of loading, the disparity in strain between the converted RL and measured RL decreases by 52.5%~53.5% compared with strain between the measured SL and measured RL. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Support Theory and Technology of Geotechnical Engineering)
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17 pages, 5965 KiB  
Article
Macro-Microscopic Deterioration Behavior of Gypsum Rock after Wetting and Its Constitutive Model Based on Acoustic Emission
by Xiaoding Xu, Yuejin Zhou, Weiqiang Chen, Yubing Gao, Qiang Fu, Xue Liu and Chundi Feng
Minerals 2022, 12(9), 1168; https://doi.org/10.3390/min12091168 - 15 Sep 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 1749
Abstract
Gypsum rock is highly sensitive to a water environment due to its unique physical and chemical properties, such as high solubility. After wetting, the internal microstructure of gypsum rock is damaged, and the mechanical properties deteriorate accordingly, leading to serious engineering problems for [...] Read more.
Gypsum rock is highly sensitive to a water environment due to its unique physical and chemical properties, such as high solubility. After wetting, the internal microstructure of gypsum rock is damaged, and the mechanical properties deteriorate accordingly, leading to serious engineering problems for gypsum-bearing geotechnical structures. Therefore, it is particularly necessary to investigate the mechanical deterioration behavior of gypsum rock after wetting. In this paper, the mechanical behavior of gypsum rocks with different water contents were studied. The relationship between the rock water content and the water immersion time was established through the water content test. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) images of the gypsum rock after the water immersion showed that the internal microstructure of the gypsum rock became looser and more complex as the immersion time increased. The fractal dimensions of the SEM images were calculated to quantify the degree of damage to the gypsum rocks after wetting. These images showed that the degree of damage increased with the increasing immersion time, but the increase rate tended to be slow. The relationship between the rock water content and the mechanical responses of gypsum rock were established by triaxial compression tests, and the concomitant acoustic emission (AE) characteristics in the loading processes showed that the immersion time had a positive correlation with the AE frequency and a negative correlation with the AE cumulative count. Based on the AE characteristics, a damage constitutive model of gypsum rock as a function of immersion time was developed and this can reproduce the mechanical responses of gypsum rock after wetting. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Support Theory and Technology of Geotechnical Engineering)
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21 pages, 5205 KiB  
Article
Energy-Based Approach: Analysis of a Vertically Loaded Pile in Multi-Layered Non-Linear Soil Strata
by Prakash Ankitha Arvan and Madasamy Arockiasamy
Geotechnics 2022, 2(3), 549-569; https://doi.org/10.3390/geotechnics2030027 - 6 Jul 2022
Cited by 2 | Viewed by 2286
Abstract
Numerous studies have been reported in the published literature on analytical solutions for a vertically loaded pile installed in a homogeneous single soil layer. However, piles are rarely installed in an ideal homogeneous single soil layer. This study presents an analytical model based [...] Read more.
Numerous studies have been reported in the published literature on analytical solutions for a vertically loaded pile installed in a homogeneous single soil layer. However, piles are rarely installed in an ideal homogeneous single soil layer. This study presents an analytical model based on the energy-based approach to obtain displacements in an axially loaded pile embedded in multi-layered soil considering soil non-linearity. The developed analytical model incorporating Euler-Bernoulli beam theory proved to be an effective way in estimating the load-displacement responses of piles embedded in multi-layered non-linear elastic soil strata. The differential equations are solved analytically and numerically using the variational principle of mechanics. A parametric study investigated the effect of explicit incorporation of soil properties and layering in order to understand the importance of predicting appropriate pile displacement responses in linear elastic soil system. It is clear from the results that the analyses which consider the soil as a single homogeneous layer will not be able to produce an accurate estimation of the pile stiffnesses. Therefore, it is highly important to account for the effect of soil layering and the non-linear response. The pile displacement response is obtained using the software MATLAB R2019a and the results from the energy-based method are compared with those obtained from the field test data as well as the Finite Element Analysis (FEA) based on the software ANSYS 2019R3. The non-linear elastic constitutive relationship which described the variation of secant shear modulus with strain through a power law has shown reasonably accurate predictions when compared to the published field test data and the FEA. The developed mathematical framework is also more computationally efficient than the three-dimensional (3D) FEA. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Support Theory and Technology of Geotechnical Engineering)
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31 pages, 6494 KiB  
Article
Dynamic Response of Lining Structure in a Long Tunnel with Different Adverse Geological Structure Zone Subjected to Non-Uniform Seismic Load
by Yongqiang Zhou, Hongchao Wang, Dingfeng Song, Qian Sheng, Xiaodong Fu, Haifeng Ding, Shaobo Chai and Wei Yuan
Energies 2022, 15(13), 4599; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15134599 - 23 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1406
Abstract
The damage of a long tunnel is found in parts with an adverse geological structure zone under an earthquake. The phenomenon is normally the consequence of a non-uniform seismic load. Thus, to reveal the mechanism of the phenomenon, the dynamic response of the [...] Read more.
The damage of a long tunnel is found in parts with an adverse geological structure zone under an earthquake. The phenomenon is normally the consequence of a non-uniform seismic load. Thus, to reveal the mechanism of the phenomenon, the dynamic response of the lining structure in a long tunnel passing through an adverse geological structure zone subjected to a non-uniform seismic load is mainly studied in this paper. Firstly, based on the random ground motion synthesis theory, the non-uniform ground motion acceleration–time history curves that reflect local site effects, such as traveling wave effects and attenuation effects, are generated. Secondly, the behavior of the tunnel with a different adverse geological structure zone (including different inclinations, thicknesses, and lithologies) under non-uniform seismic input is studied. Then, the impact of the different adverse geological structure zone on the internal force and safety factor of the tunnel lining is analyzed. Finally, the failure characteristics of the lining structure in the tunnel crossing through the adverse geological structure zone subjected to a non-uniform seismic load are revealed. The results show that the seismic dynamic responses significantly increase under non-uniform seismic input compared with the results under uniform seismic input, and the dynamic responses distribution along the tunnel axial is distinctly different under non-uniform seismic input. The inclination and thickness of the adverse geological structure zone have a significant influence on the internal force and safety factor of the tunnel lining, while the lithology mainly acts around the adverse geological structure zone. When the inclination angle of the adverse geological structure zone is 45°, a large number of compression-bending cracks appear in the entrance and exit sections of the tunnel, and the tunnel is in the most dangerous state. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Support Theory and Technology of Geotechnical Engineering)
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21 pages, 8075 KiB  
Article
Design of a Biaxial Laminar Shear Box for 1g Shaking Table Tests
by Francesco Castelli, Salvatore Grasso, Valentina Lentini and Maria Stella Vanessa Sammito
Geotechnics 2022, 2(2), 467-487; https://doi.org/10.3390/geotechnics2020023 - 16 Jun 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 2169
Abstract
In this paper, the design of a new laminar shear box at the Laboratory of Earthquake Engineering and Dynamic Analysis (L.E.D.A.) of the University of Enna “Kore” (Sicily, Italy), is presented. The laminar box has been developed to investigate the liquefaction phenomenon and [...] Read more.
In this paper, the design of a new laminar shear box at the Laboratory of Earthquake Engineering and Dynamic Analysis (L.E.D.A.) of the University of Enna “Kore” (Sicily, Italy), is presented. The laminar box has been developed to investigate the liquefaction phenomenon and to validate advanced numerical models and/or the numerical approaches assessed to simulate and prevent related effects. The first part of the paper describes in detail the types of soil containers that have been used in the last three decades around the world. Particular attention is paid to laminar shear box and liquefaction studies. Moreover, the most important factors that affect the performance of a laminar shear box are reported. The last part of the paper describes components, properties, and design advantages of the new laminar shear box for 1g shaking table tests at L.E.D.A. The new laminar box has a rectangular cross section and consists of 16 layers. Each layer is composed of two frames: an inner frame and an outer frame. The inner frame has an internal dimension of 2570 mm by 2310 mm, while the outer frame has an internal dimension of 2700 mm by 2770 mm. Between the layers, there is a 20 mm gap, making the total height 1600 mm. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Support Theory and Technology of Geotechnical Engineering)
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23 pages, 3730 KiB  
Article
Analytical Approach Based on Full-Space Synergy Technology to Optimization Support Design of Deep Mining Roadway
by Shike Zhang and Shunde Yin
Minerals 2022, 12(6), 746; https://doi.org/10.3390/min12060746 - 12 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1647
Abstract
The stability of surrounding rock is the basic guarantee of underground space engineering safety. The large deformation of a roadway’s surrounding rock is a very common phenomenon during the underground excavation of coal mine roadways or coal mining, especially in deep soft rock [...] Read more.
The stability of surrounding rock is the basic guarantee of underground space engineering safety. The large deformation of a roadway’s surrounding rock is a very common phenomenon during the underground excavation of coal mine roadways or coal mining, especially in deep soft rock mining roadways. With the increase in mining depth and mining stress, it is very important to prevent disasters caused by surrounding rock deformation. This work aims to conduct an optimization design of roadway support for deep soft rock in coal mines using a full-space synergy control technology. FLAC3D-based orthogonal numerical experiments are adopted to study the influence of bolt parameters and plastic yield zone variation on the deformation of roadway surrounding rock, which provides a basis for optimizing the support design of coal mine roadways. According to the results of the numerical analysis, the optimal support parameters are determined as 20 mm, 2.2 m and 700–900 mm for diameter, length and interval of the bolt, respectively. Finally, the determined bolt-shotcrete net beam support scheme from the full-space synergy control idea is used in a study case. Results illustrate that this study can provide reliable guidance for the stability control of deep soft rock roadways in mining fields under high stress, and it can work well to keep the surrounding rock deformation within the safe limits. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Support Theory and Technology of Geotechnical Engineering)
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15 pages, 5741 KiB  
Article
Effect of the Particle Size Composition and Dry Density on the Water Retention Characteristics of Remolded Loess
by Xin-Qing Wang, Xiao-Chao Zhang, Xiang-Jun Pei and Guo-Feng Ren
Minerals 2022, 12(6), 698; https://doi.org/10.3390/min12060698 - 31 May 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 2349
Abstract
The experimental study on the water-holding characteristics of remolded loess was carried out, revealing the variation of water-holding characteristics with particle size composition and dry density. The results show that the air-entry value is positively correlated with the silt-sized content and negatively correlated [...] Read more.
The experimental study on the water-holding characteristics of remolded loess was carried out, revealing the variation of water-holding characteristics with particle size composition and dry density. The results show that the air-entry value is positively correlated with the silt-sized content and negatively correlated with the sand-sized content. During the dehumidification of the specimens at a fixed dry density, when the air-entry value is between 9 and 10 Kpa, it is strongly influenced by the silt-sized content; however, beyond 10 Kpa, the sand-sized content is an important influencing factor. Changes in particle size composition have less influence on the residual water content. There is a non-linear relationship between the particle size composition and the slope λ of the dehumidification curve in the transition zone. Air-entry values, residual water content, saturated volumetric water content, and λ correlate well with dry density. Simulation tests were carried out using two power function models, including three variables. It was found that the VG model is a better fit than the Gardner model. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Support Theory and Technology of Geotechnical Engineering)
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21 pages, 14252 KiB  
Article
Spatial Distribution Characteristics of Plastic Failure and Grouting Diffusion within Deep Roadway Surrounding Rock under Three-Dimensional Unequal Ground Stress and Its Application
by Yaoguang Huang, Wanxia Yang, Yangyang Li and Weibin Guo
Minerals 2022, 12(3), 296; https://doi.org/10.3390/min12030296 - 26 Feb 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 2058
Abstract
To explore the bolt-grouting method of the deep roadway under three-dimensional unequal ground stress, a unidirectional coupling model of surrounding rock plastic failure and grouting diffusion considering the influence of excavation disturbance stress was established. Spatial evolution characteristics of plastic failure and grouting [...] Read more.
To explore the bolt-grouting method of the deep roadway under three-dimensional unequal ground stress, a unidirectional coupling model of surrounding rock plastic failure and grouting diffusion considering the influence of excavation disturbance stress was established. Spatial evolution characteristics of plastic failure and grouting diffusion, and the impact of the spacing and row spacing of grouting bolts/cables on grout diffusion, were simulated by using the numerical method. The results revealed that the horizontal ground stress perpendicular to the axial direction of the roadway was the main factor inducing roadway damage. Moreover, the more significant the difference of the ground stress in three directions, the larger the plastic zone of the roof corner and floor corner of the roadway. Under different lateral pressure coefficients, the grout diffused can be approximate ellipsoid and cylinders. Furthermore, the larger the ratio of lateral pressure coefficients perpendicular to and parallel to the axial direction of roadway, the larger the diffusion length of grout in each spatial direction in the surrounding rock. In bolt-grouting support, the length of the grouting bolts/cables should be greater than the plastic zone of the surrounding rock, and the optimal relationship between their spacing and row spacing and diffusion length of grout is determined. The research results were applied in the bolt-grouting engineering for the three-level main roadway in the Haizi Coal Mine, and a good support effect was achieved. This can provide technical guidance and a method of reference for the design and parameter optimization of bolt-grouting support for roadways under deep high ground stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Support Theory and Technology of Geotechnical Engineering)
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20 pages, 12799 KiB  
Article
A New Load-Transfer Factor to the Slipping Analytical Formulation in Axially Loaded Piles
by Kelvin Lo, Erwin Oh, Darren Newell and Choo Yong
Geotechnics 2022, 2(1), 171-190; https://doi.org/10.3390/geotechnics2010008 - 17 Feb 2022
Viewed by 2227
Abstract
The load-transfer factor (ζ) in the concentric cylinder approach is often used in analytical formulation in axially loaded piles. The factor is a constant value (in a given pile slenderness ratio and soil condition) devised under the elastic and ‘pre-failure’ perfect [...] Read more.
The load-transfer factor (ζ) in the concentric cylinder approach is often used in analytical formulation in axially loaded piles. The factor is a constant value (in a given pile slenderness ratio and soil condition) devised under the elastic and ‘pre-failure’ perfect pile–soil bonding conditions (a non-slip analytical model). Given most numerical methods have already considered the pile–soil slipping in the ‘pre-failure’ stage, the limitations of non-slip analytical models have recently been discussed, and slipping analytical models have been recommended. Therefore, this research aims to investigate the load-transfer factor in slipping analytical models. This paper reviews that the factor in slipping analytical models is only constant in linear elastic and some Gibson soil conditions. Beyond these conditions, the factor varies as the pile-head load increases in some cohesionless soils. Adopting the existing constant factor in slipping analytical models will deviate the load–displacement results, as supported by numerical results. Therefore, a new equation is proposed to the load-transfer factor, and a new analytical method is proposed by varying the load-transfer factor during loading for improvement. Results presented in this paper demonstrate improved load–displacement results. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Support Theory and Technology of Geotechnical Engineering)
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10 pages, 2718 KiB  
Article
A Simulation Experimental Study on the Advance Support Mechanism of a Roadway Used with the Longwall Coal Mining Method
by Hui Liu, Zhenhua Jiang, Wansheng Chen, Fei Chen, Fenglin Ma, Donghao Li, Zhaoyang Liu and Hongke Gao
Energies 2022, 15(4), 1366; https://doi.org/10.3390/en15041366 - 14 Feb 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1352
Abstract
Aiming to advance a support problem for roadways used with the longwall coal mining method, the S1202 working face of the Ningtiaota Coal Mine is taken as the engineering background. The monitoring and analysis of bolt force, anchor cable force and surrounding rock [...] Read more.
Aiming to advance a support problem for roadways used with the longwall coal mining method, the S1202 working face of the Ningtiaota Coal Mine is taken as the engineering background. The monitoring and analysis of bolt force, anchor cable force and surrounding rock deformation of two types of roadways within the whole advance pressure influence range are carried out in the present paper. Based on this, a numerical calculation model consistent with the field is established, and numerical comparison tests under different influencing factors are carried out. The rationality of the numerical test results is verified by using the field monitoring data. At the same time, quantitative evaluation indexes, such as characterization deformation, are established, and the deformation law of roadways surrounding rocks under different advance passive support forces is analyzed. The advance support mechanism of the roadway used with the longwall coal mining method is clarified. The test shows that under the condition of no advance passive support, the maximum characteristic deformation of surrounding rock in the haulage roadway and ventilation roadway is 7.1 cm and 10.1 cm, respectively. The above surrounding rock deformation still meets the requirements of on-site safety production. The research results can provide experimental support for the advance support parameters of the roadway used with the longwall coal mining method. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Support Theory and Technology of Geotechnical Engineering)
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