Topic Editors

Department of Chemical Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, 250 Kuo-Kuang Road, Taichung 402, Taiwan
Chemical Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830, USA

Polymer Electrolytes

Abstract submission deadline
closed (31 August 2022)
Manuscript submission deadline
closed (31 October 2022)
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12942

Topic Information

Dear Colleagues,

Triggered by the continuous upsurge in household and industrial power consumption, one goal of modern science is to provide up-to-date recipes for the efficient harvesting, transportation, and storing of electric energy. In this regard, several categories of structurally disordered materials, including acid solutions, ionic liquids, and superionic glassy conductors have been thoroughly investigated. However, several drawbacks, including moisture sensitivity, toxicity, and processing difficulty, preclude their exploitation on industrial scales. More suitable for small-size encapsulation, as required in, for example, electronic devices, are polymer electrolytes, which, nowadays, can be manufactured at relatively low costs in a large morphological diversity. They can host charge carriers as matrices with tunable mechanical properties, for example, as stretchable membranes, soft gels, or highly viscous melts. Despite the already widespread use of polymer electrolytes in current technologies, rationalizing the relationship between their microscopic behavior and their technologically exploited macroscopic properties remains one of the most challenging problems of applied polymer science. In pursuit of unraveling the physical mechanism underlying this connection, but also to broaden the applicability range of these materials, I am inviting you to submit a research paper to the topic “Polymer electrolytes”. This topic seeks original contributions focusing on the following (and related) subtopics:

  • Transport phenomena in polymer electrolytes;
  • Nonlinear conductivity and the viscoelasticity of polymer electrolytes;
  • Gel polymer electrolytes;
  • Single-ion-conducting polymers;
  • Polymer electrolyte membranes for gas separation;
  • Polymer electrolytes for water purification;
  • Polymers for energy conversion and energy storage technologies.

Prof. Dr. Rong-Ho Lee
Dr. Catalin Gainaru
Topic Editors

Keywords

  • electrolytes
  • polymers
  • conductivity
  • viscoelasticity
  • nonlinear spectroscopy
  • gel electrolytes
  • gas separation
  • energy storage

Participating Journals

Journal Name Impact Factor CiteScore Launched Year First Decision (median) APC
Batteries
batteries
4.0 5.4 2015 17.7 Days CHF 2700
Gels
gels
4.6 2.9 2015 11.1 Days CHF 2600
Membranes
membranes
4.2 4.4 2011 13.6 Days CHF 2700
Polymers
polymers
5.0 6.6 2009 13.7 Days CHF 2700
Energies
energies
3.2 5.5 2008 16.1 Days CHF 2600

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Published Papers (6 papers)

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11 pages, 2549 KiB  
Article
SAXS Investigation of the Effect of Freeze/Thaw Cycles on the Nanostructure of Nafion® Membranes
by Ruslan M. Mensharapov, Nataliya A. Ivanova, Dmitry D. Spasov, Sergey A. Grigoriev and Vladimir N. Fateev
Polymers 2022, 14(20), 4395; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14204395 - 18 Oct 2022
Cited by 6 | Viewed by 1664
Abstract
In this study, we performed small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) to investigate the structure of Nafion® membranes. The effect of freeze/thaw (F/T) cycles (from ambient temperature down to −40 °C) on the membrane nanostructure was considered for the first time. The SAXS measurements [...] Read more.
In this study, we performed small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) to investigate the structure of Nafion® membranes. The effect of freeze/thaw (F/T) cycles (from ambient temperature down to −40 °C) on the membrane nanostructure was considered for the first time. The SAXS measurements were taken for different samples: a commercial Nafion® 212 membrane swollen in water and methanol solution, and a water-swollen silica-modified membrane. The membrane structure parameters were obtained from the measured SAXS profiles using a model-dependent approach. It is shown that the average radius of water channels (Rwc) decreases during F/T cycles due to changes in the membrane structure as a result of ice formation in the pore volume after freezing. The use of water-methanol solution (methanol content of 20 vol.%) for the membrane soaking prevents changes in the membrane structure during F/T cycles compared to the water-swollen membrane. Modification of the membrane surface with silica (SiO2 content of 20 wt.%) led to a redistribution of water in the membrane volume and resulted in a decrease in Rwc. However, Rwc for the modified membrane did not decrease with the increasing number of F/T cycles due to the involvement of SiO2 in the sorption of membrane water and, therefore, the prevention of ice formation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Polymer Electrolytes)
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18 pages, 3482 KiB  
Article
Effect of Al2O3 on Nanostructure and Ion Transport Properties of PVA/PEG/SSA Polymer Electrolyte Membrane
by Hamdy F. M. Mohamed, Esam E. Abdel-Hady, Mostafa M. Y. Abdel-Moneim, Mohamed A. M. Bakr, Mohamed A. M. Soliman, Mahmoud G. H. Shehata and Mahmoud A. T. Ismail
Polymers 2022, 14(19), 4029; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14194029 - 26 Sep 2022
Cited by 7 | Viewed by 2009
Abstract
Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells have the potential to reduce our energy consumption, pollutant emissions, and dependence on fossil fuels. To achieve a wide range of commercial PEMs, many efforts have been made to create novel polymer-based materials that can transport protons [...] Read more.
Polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells have the potential to reduce our energy consumption, pollutant emissions, and dependence on fossil fuels. To achieve a wide range of commercial PEMs, many efforts have been made to create novel polymer-based materials that can transport protons under anhydrous conditions. In this study, cross-linked poly(vinyl) alcohol (PVA)/poly(ethylene) glycol (PEG) membranes with varying alumina (Al2O3) content were synthesized using the solvent solution method. Wide-angle X-ray diffraction (XRD), water uptake, ion exchange capacity (IEC), and proton conductivity were then used to characterize the membranes. XRD results showed that the concentration of Al2O3 affected the degree of crystallinity of the membranes, with 0.7 wt.% Al2O3 providing the lowest crystallinity. Water uptake was discovered to be dependent not only on the Al2O3 group concentration (SSA content) but also on SSA, which influenced the hole volume size in the membranes. The ionic conductivity measurements provided that the samples were increased by SSA to a high value (0.13 S/m) at 0.7 wt.% Al2O3. Furthermore, the ionic conductivity of polymers devoid of SSA tended to increase as the Al2O3 concentration increased. The positron annihilation lifetimes revealed that as the Al2O3 concentration increased, the hole volume content of the polymer without SSA also increased. However, it was densified with SSA for the membrane. According to the findings of the study, PVA/PEG/SSA/0.7 wt.% Al2O3 might be employed as a PEM with high proton conductivity for fuel cell applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Polymer Electrolytes)
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15 pages, 4894 KiB  
Article
Spiro-Twisted Benzoxazine Derivatives Bearing Nitrile Group for All-Solid-State Polymer Electrolytes in Lithium Batteries
by Jen-Yu Lee, Tsung-Yu Yu, Shih-Chieh Yeh, Nae-Lih Wu and Ru-Jong Jeng
Polymers 2022, 14(14), 2869; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14142869 - 14 Jul 2022
Cited by 1 | Viewed by 1723
Abstract
In this study, two nitrile-functionalized spiro-twisted benzoxazine monomers, namely 2,2′-((6,6,6′,6′-tetramethyl-6,6′,7,7′-tetrahydro-2H,2′H-8,8′-spirobi[indeno[5,6-e][1,3]oxazin]-3,3′(4H,4′H)-diyl)bis(4,1-phenylene))diacetonitrile (TSBZBC) and 4,4′-(6,6,6′,6′-tetramethyl-6,6′,7,7′-tetrahydro-2H,2′H-8,8′-spirobi[indeno[5,6-e][1,3]oxazin]-3,3′(4H,4′H)-diyl)dibenzonitrile (TSBZBN) were successfully developed as cross-linkable precursors. In addition, the incorporation of the nitrile group by covalent bonding onto the crosslinked spiro-twisted molecular chains improve the miscibility of SPE membranes [...] Read more.
In this study, two nitrile-functionalized spiro-twisted benzoxazine monomers, namely 2,2′-((6,6,6′,6′-tetramethyl-6,6′,7,7′-tetrahydro-2H,2′H-8,8′-spirobi[indeno[5,6-e][1,3]oxazin]-3,3′(4H,4′H)-diyl)bis(4,1-phenylene))diacetonitrile (TSBZBC) and 4,4′-(6,6,6′,6′-tetramethyl-6,6′,7,7′-tetrahydro-2H,2′H-8,8′-spirobi[indeno[5,6-e][1,3]oxazin]-3,3′(4H,4′H)-diyl)dibenzonitrile (TSBZBN) were successfully developed as cross-linkable precursors. In addition, the incorporation of the nitrile group by covalent bonding onto the crosslinked spiro-twisted molecular chains improve the miscibility of SPE membranes with lithium salts while maintaining good mechanical properties. Owing to the presence of a high fractional free volume of spiro-twisted matrix, the –CN groups would have more space for rotation and vibration to assist lithium migration, especially for the benzyl cyanide-containing SPE. When combined with poly (ethylene oxide) (PEO) electrolytes, a new type of CN-containing semi-interpenetrating polymer networks for solid polymer electrolytes (SPEs) were prepared. The PEO-TSBZBC and PEO-TSBZBN composite SPEs (with 20 wt% crosslinked structure in the polymer) are denoted as the BC20 and BN20, respectively. The BC20 sample exhibited an ionic conductivity (σ) of 3.23 × 10−4 S cm−1 at 80 °C and a Li+ ion transference number of 0.187. The LiFePO4 (LFP)|BC20|Li sample exhibited a satisfactory charge–discharge capacity of 163.6 mAh g−1 at 0.1 C (with approximately 100% coulombic efficiency). Furthermore, the Li|BC20|Li cell was more stable during the Li plating/stripping process than the Li|BN20|Li and Li|PEO|Li samples. The Li|BC20|Li symmetric cell could be cycled continuously for more than 2700 h without short-circuiting. In addition, the specific capacity of the LFP|BC20|Li cell retained 87% of the original value after 50 cycles. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Polymer Electrolytes)
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19 pages, 4750 KiB  
Article
Effect Evaluation and Action Mechanism Analysis of “Profile Control + Plugging Removal” after Chemical Flooding
by Jianchong Gao, Xiangguo Lu, Xin He, Jinxiang Liu, Kaiqi Zheng, Weijia Cao, Tianyu Cui and Huiru Sun
Gels 2022, 8(7), 396; https://doi.org/10.3390/gels8070396 - 22 Jun 2022
Cited by 3 | Viewed by 1349
Abstract
The existing plugging removal operation in JZ9-3 oilfield has the disadvantages of small amount of plugging remover, fast injection speed, and short construction time. Under the condition of injection well suction profile reversal, plugging remover is difficult to enter the low permeability part [...] Read more.
The existing plugging removal operation in JZ9-3 oilfield has the disadvantages of small amount of plugging remover, fast injection speed, and short construction time. Under the condition of injection well suction profile reversal, plugging remover is difficult to enter the low permeability part and play the role of deep plugging removal. In order to improve the plugging removal effect, this paper used the physical simulation method to carry out the experimental study and mechanism analysis on the effect of water flooding, chemical flooding, and plugging removal measures of the multi-layer system combination model. The results showed that the recovery of general plugging removal after chemical flooding increases by only 0.70%, while the recovery of ‘profile control + plugging removal’ increases by ‘9.34% + 2.59%’, and the amount of produced liquid decreases by more than 40%. It can be seen that the combined operation of profile control and plugging removal has dual effects of plugging and dredging and synergistic effect, which not only expands the swept volume, but also reduces the inefficient and ineffective cycles. On this basis, the optimization design and effect prediction of the target well W4-2 plugging removal scheme were carried out by using the numerical simulation method. Recommended scheme: inorganic gel profile control agent volume 13,243.6 m3, produced by the main agent (Na2O·nSiO2), isolation fluid (Water), and auxiliary agent (CaCl2) through multiple rounds of alternating injection into the reservoir. The plug removal agent (K2S2O8) injection volume is 100 m3, the concentration is 0.8%. The post-implementation ‘Output/Input’ ratio is expected to be 3.7. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Polymer Electrolytes)
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13 pages, 4429 KiB  
Article
A Facile and Sustainable Enhancement of Anti-Oxidation Stability of Nafion Membrane
by Prem P. Sharma and Dukjoon Kim
Membranes 2022, 12(5), 521; https://doi.org/10.3390/membranes12050521 - 13 May 2022
Cited by 9 | Viewed by 2559
Abstract
OH radicals are the main cause of chemical degradation of Nafion membranes in fuel cell operation. Although the cerium ion (Ce3+/4+, Ce) is reported as an effective OH radical quencher, its membrane application has critical limitations associated with the [...] Read more.
OH radicals are the main cause of chemical degradation of Nafion membranes in fuel cell operation. Although the cerium ion (Ce3+/4+, Ce) is reported as an effective OH radical quencher, its membrane application has critical limitations associated with the reduction of membrane proton conductivity and its leaking. In this study, the Ce-grafted graphitic carbon nitrides (g-C3N4) (CNCe) nano-particles are synthesized and embedded in Nafion membranes to prolong the OH radical scavenging effect. The synthesis of CNCe nano-particles is evaluated by X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive X-ray analysis, and transmission electron microscopy. Compared with the pristine and Ce-blended Nafion membranes, the CNCe imbedded ones show tremendous improvement in long-term anti-oxidation stability. While the fluoride emission rates of Nafion are 0.0062 mg·cm−2·h−1 at the anode and 0.0034 mg·cm−2·h−1 at the cathode, those of Nafion/CNCe membranes are 0.0037 mg·cm−2·h−1 at the anode and 0.0023 mg·cm−2·h−1 at the cathode. The single cell test for Nafion/CNCe membranes at 80 °C and 50% relative humidity illustrates much better durability than those for Nafion and Nafion/Ce, indicating its superior scavenging effect on OH radicals. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Polymer Electrolytes)
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12 pages, 4078 KiB  
Article
DNA–Lysozyme Nanoarchitectonics: Quantitative Investigation on Charge Inversion and Compaction
by Rongyan Zhang, Yanwei Wang and Guangcan Yang
Polymers 2022, 14(7), 1377; https://doi.org/10.3390/polym14071377 - 28 Mar 2022
Cited by 8 | Viewed by 1781
Abstract
The interaction between DNA and proteins is fundamentally important not only for basic research in biology, but also for potential applications in nanotechnology. In the present study, the complexes formed by λ DNA and lysozyme in a dilute aqueous solution have been investigated [...] Read more.
The interaction between DNA and proteins is fundamentally important not only for basic research in biology, but also for potential applications in nanotechnology. In the present study, the complexes formed by λ DNA and lysozyme in a dilute aqueous solution have been investigated using magnetic tweezers (MT), dynamic light scattering (DLS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). We found that lysozyme induced DNA charge inversion by measuring its electrophoretic mobility by DLS. Lysozyme is very effective at neutralizing the positive charge of DNA, and its critical charge ration to induce charge inversion in solution is only 2.26. We infer that the high efficiency of charge neutralization is due to the highly positively charged (+8 e) and compact structure of lysozyme. When increasing the concentration of lysozymes from 6 ng·µL−1 to 70 ng·µL−1, DNA mobility (at fixed concentration of 2 ng·µL−1) increases from −2.8 to 1.5 (in unit of 10−4 cm2·V−1·S), implying that the effective charge of DNA switches its sign from negative to positive in the process. The corresponding condensing force increased from 0 pN to its maximal value of about 10.7 pN at concentrations of lysozyme at 25 ng·µL−1, then decreases gradually to 3.8 pN at 200 ng·µL−1. The maximal condensing force occurs at the complete DNA charge neutralization point. The corresponding morphology of DNA–lysozyme complex changes from loosely extensible chains to compact globule, and finally to less compact flower-like structure due to the change of attached lysozyme particles as observed by AFM. Full article
(This article belongs to the Topic Polymer Electrolytes)
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